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What we today term Extra-Curricular Activities repre- 
sent, after all, only an orderly organization and redirection 
and extension of those pupil activities characteristic of 
adolescent youth which have always been more or less 
present among young people in their teens. The Friday 
afternoon literary exercises and plays and spelling matches 
represent such activities as the older schools knew them, 
while parties, dances, ball games, the swimming hole, 
gangs, and various back-lot and back-alley activities have 
always characterized the leisure-time occupations of youth. 
Until quite recently, however, these activities were less 
prominent than now, and were largely ignored by the 
school, and few teachers of the older generation manifested 
any interest in what took place outside the classroom, or 
possessed any ab’ ^y 1 o organize and redirect these activi- 
ties into more orderly and more useful channels. 

Largely within the past decade, and wholly within the 
past two, an entirely new interest in the extra-curricular 
activities of youth has been taken by the school. In part 
this change in attitude has been caused by the new dis- 
ciplinary problems brought to the school through the 
recent great popularization of secondary education, in 
part by the marked increase in leisure time accruing to 
youth as a result of our increase in wealth and the applica- 
tion of recently enacted child-labor laws, in part by the 
many new temptations to which young people in the pres- 
ent age are subjected, and in part by the general speed- 
ing-up that ali evolutionary social changes have experi- 
enced as a result of the World War. The War revealed 



anew the great importance of education in a democratic 
society, and the attention of the world was directed anew 
to youth as the hope of civilization if the hard-earned ad- 
vances in democratic government are to be preserved. 

The school, according!}', has recently come to realize the 
important distinction between the mastering of school 
tasks and the learning that takes place outside the school, 
and the wise schoolmaster has come to see that both he and 
his teachers are not fulfilling their true function as the in- 
structors, guides, and counselors of youth unless they also 
help to organize and direct the many leisure-time activities 
of their pupils. The result of this new vision has been that 
the function of the teacher is both changed in direction and 
greatly enlarged in scope, and that a new conception as to 
the possibilities of the school has come to characterize the 
teaching profession. The responsibilities of the teacher 
naturally have been broadened, the morale of the school 
has been greatly improved, and a far closer intimacy be- 
tween teacher and pupil is the natural result. It has been 
a foi tunate change in attitude for all. 

Fundamentally, the movement is the result of a better 
understanding of the psychology of adolescence and of the 
proper means for training youth for citizenship. As a re- 
sult of many psychological studies, made during the past 
third of a century, a wider recognition of the vast and far- 
reaching physical, psychological, and social changes which 
take place with the onset of adolescence has become the 
common property of the teaching profession. The period 
of adolescence, we now realize, is a period of the utmost 
significance for the school New tendencies to action arise, 
new emotions begin to sway youth, new ideals as to life 
begin to be formulated and tend to become fixed, serious 
thought is given to conduct, aspirations and visions of pos- 
sible usefulness begin to take firm hold, qualities of leader- 


ship emerge, social attitudes and tendencies of importance 
in after life incline to become fixed, and from impulses to 
action character is evolved. The rule of the group tends 
to become the rule for the adolescent. To stimulate and 
repress and to guide and direct these adolescent tendencies 
is both the opportunity and the mission of the teacher. 
The so-called extra-curricular activities, the proper organi- 
zation and direction of which is the concern of this volume, 
offer the school the most useful tools for that adaptive, 
directive, and corrective training of youth which it is now 
conceived to be the function of the school to provide. 

Since the World War new attention has been directed to 
problems connected with citizenship training, and the ex- 
tra-curricular activities have been seen to offer special 
opportunities along these lines. The citizenship problem 
of the school thus has become that of so organizing and so 
directing the group activities of the school and of its clien- 
tele that the practices which train youth for good citizen- 
ship shall be carried out under conditions that tend to 
produce satisfying ’'esiilts, and thus to train the pupils in 
intelligent self-direction. Accordingly the back-lot and 
the private-residence activities have been largely taken 
into the school, organized into good form, supplied with 
proper citizenship procedures, and redirected along better 
lines, and in so doing a favorable opportunity has been 
provided, both for teachers and pupils, to practice many 
qualities of good citizenship under conditions that tend to 
fix the practices thus learned. 

Probably no one in this country has done more to bring 
to the attention of school men the vast extent and the 
fundamental importance of this rich field than the author 
of the present volume. He has been preeminently the 
leader of the mci\ ement, and most of those who have so far 
supplied us with our manuals for the conduct of the work 



have been his students. In conseciuence, a large amount 
of important literature on the subject owes its inspiration 
to his teaching. It is indeed fortunate that he has at last 
been persuaded to formulate, in written form, a textbook 
on the subject for the use of others, and this the publishers 
now offer to the public with the confidence that it will 
prove a very useful tool in the training of students in 
methods of organizing and directing these important un- 
dertakings in any school with which they may be con- 
nected. iMubodying much concrete material concerning 
the proper organization of these activities, and written in a 
manner that conveys the same charm of exjiression and 
the same sound educational philosophy that has for so 
long characterized his lectures in the classroom, the vol- 
ume should meet with a ready welcome from the many 
teachers who have waited long for the master to express 
himself in textbook form. 

Elwood P. Cubberley 


It has seemed to me that the secondary school should plan 
consciously its whole life. The state, the community, the 
parents, the teachers, and the pupils themselves make up 
the school. All of these five groups to the full extent of 
their several abilities should share in the planning. This 
sharing in the planning should exist in order to develop the 
best school possible; a school in which there is a favorable 
opportunity for the educative experience for all those in- 
volved in this conscious, cooperativ^e, intelligent planning 
for the common good. 

There is a tendency in a nation, a state, a community, 
or a school, for one or a few individuals, elected or self- 
appointed, to work out a scheme of operation and to say, 
“We have a plan.” Such a procedure, if the plan can be 
enforced, may make for a kind of immediate efficiency. 
This method of • 'rating, based on force or on persistent 
propaganda, neglects the educative thinking, feeling, and 
acting necessary on the part of the individual and groups 
of individuals to become intelligently and increasingly 

At present as I see it the most unplanned phase of the 
school’s life exists in those activities in which pupils and 
teachers participate outside of the more or less traditional 
taught and tested courses of study. Historically, the 
state, the community, the parents, and the teachers, with 
various happy exceptions, have tolerated or attempted to 
suppress these “outside” activities. The pupils, however, 
frequently without guidance, have been busy acting. 
There has been an almost bewildering variety of pupil 
activity — sometimes foolish, at other times intelligently 



planned. The school, again with brilliant exceptions, has 
failed to develop a constructive plan for the whole life of 
the school. In many cases the school has not even at- 
tempted to provide a favorable opportunity for teachers 
and pupils to work together cooperatively in planning 
what are sometimes called the extra-curricular activities 
of the school. 

If there is to be understanding, growth, progress in this 
planning for the extra-curricular activities of the school, 
there must be cooperati\e effort. If this undertaking of 
mine can aid in focusing attention on the possibilities for 
educative experience in the extra-curricular activities of 
the school, it may make for progress. If my fellow work- 
ers disagree with my analyses and my present conclusions, 
these disagreements may make for a better understanding. 

This present volume has grown out of the work of several 
hundred schools. Since 1919, in winter, spring, and sum- 
mer sessions here at Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity, I ha\e been teaching among other courses one 
entitled “The Organization and Administration of Extra- 
Curricular Activities in Secondary Schools.” Likewise, 
my students have been teaching me. Together as a co- 
operative group, we have studied actual problems rather 
than talked about them. We have attempted to develop 
the underlying, guiding philosophy in working with the 
problems rather than to force the problems to fit in with 
a preconceived philosophy. 

These mature greiduate men and women who are living, 
or have lived, day by day in the midst of teacher-pupil 
activities have brought in their actual problems. There 
has been constant, insistent urge to action. Principals and 
teachers studying in the Summer Session, for example, 
have to utilize or neglect the educational opportunities in 
the extra-curricular field and they have to do it now. 



As a result, these students working with their fellow 
students and their instructors in small groups and in the 
whole class have studied the entire field of extra-curricular 
activities and have tried to solve their own immediate 
problems. The plan of what to do and how to do it as 
worked out by a principal or a teacher has later been tried 
out in the school. Reports of what happened have come 
back with delightful frequency. While trying to express 
the idea that the material of this volume has grown out of 
real problems, may I confess the pride I have, not only in 
the actual work done in the schools, but also in the number 
and quality of the publications of these fellow workers of 
mine? I owe more to these students of mine than I can pay. 

During a dozen years, as a teacher or as a principal in 
schools public and private and in some fifteen years of 
college teaching, I have come to have an abiding faith in 
the ability of administrators, teachers, and pupils working 
cooperatively in recognizing and solving their own imme- 
diate problems and in their planning for the progressive 
reconstruction of ^iie school. At the same time I recognize 
that it is desirable for the state and cooperating groups 
of schools to furnish a leadership in ideas, information, 
materials, and if necessary in minimum requirements. 

I have hesitated to write: the problem is so big, the 
opportunities so great, the vision so surpasses the grasp. 
To do is so much more difficult than to know what were 
good to be done. To propose constructive measures and 
how to put them into effect is much more difficult and to 
some minds less exhilarating than pointing out that there 
is “something rotten in the state of Denmark.” Working 
with pupils, teachers, and administrators in a particular 
school has seemed much more worth while than writing 
about it. 

The end is not yet. There are no final authorities in this 



field. This social organization of the school in and out of 
regular cla.«s is j'et in its infancy. Ripened by some age, 
mellowed by considerable experience, some definite plans, 
cooperatively worked out, are here presented. The prob- 
lem of enabling our pupils to live in a democracy and to 
make democracy a fit place in which to live is an insistent 
necessity, a delight, and a test of our ideas, of our tech- 
nique, and of our faith. 

Elbert K. Fretwell 

Teachers College 
Columbia University 


Chapter I. A Sense of Direction, Some Observa- 
tions AND Conclusions, and Seven Sign-Posts i 
A Sense of Direction: Two theses — What are the quali- 
ties of the good citizen — Positive rather than negative — 
Relation of curricular and extra-curricular activities. 

Some Observations and Conclusions: Definition — Names 
— Two schools on the same campus — New frontiers — ■ 

New techniques — Teacher guidance — Exploration — 
Happiness — Why the increasing interest in extra-cur- 
ricular acti\ ities. Seven Sign-Posts: i : A constructive 
program — 2: This constructive plan of extra-curricular 
acti\ ities shall grow out of the life of the school — 3 : This 
constructi\'e plan shall recognize that the pupil is a citi- 
zen of the school — 4: Teachers shall accept, whole- 
heartedly, the responsibility of developing the school’s 
extra-curricular activities — 5: Extra-curricular activi- 
ties shall be supervised — 6: Intelligent public opinion 
shall be developed — 7: The principal is responsible — 
Growing activities — Questions. 

Chapter II. The Home-Room 20 

The home-room in its earlier form was a routine, adminis- 
trative unit of the school — Administrati\ e work may be 
educative — The home-room is a home room — The 
home-room gives the teacher a real opportunity to know 
the pupils — The home-room can S( 1 ve as u means of uni- 
fying the school — The home-room has an important 
part to play in the whole matter of pupil guidance: 
personal, educational, social, moral, vocational — The 
basis of pupil participation in government is the home- 
room — The home-room can furnish a favorable oppor- 
tunity for developing ideals — Summary of the purposes 
of the home-ro« in — The time allotment in the schedule 
will be determined by the purposes of the home-room 
period — W hat shall be the pupil composition of the 



home-room — The home-room sponsor — The organiza- 
tion within the home-room — Home-room activities as a 
means of realizing the purposes of the home-room — 
Suggestions for home-room activities — To what extent 
shall the content of the home-room program be pre- 
scribed — Common elements — The core-content of 
home-room programs — The home-room bulletin — 
What is the spirit of the home-room — Qtiestions. 

Chapter III. Class Organization . . . . 

Class organization furnishes a favorable opportunity for 
large group cooperation — What classes should organize 
— The organization should be suited to the ability of the 
pupil and of the teacher adviser — The form of class or- 
ganization will depend on the home-room organization — 
The freshman class at Lincoln, Nebraska — How shall a 
class be prepared to enter a new school — School hand- 
books can serve as one means of orienting freshmen — 
The freshman himself may have ideas — How a class can 
work — Class fights — Class Days — Trends in Class 
Activities — Questions. 

Chapter IV. Pupil Participation in Government 

— Purposes 

The idea is not new — Pupil participation has been con- 
fused with self-government — Government in industry 
— Changing conception of government in some English 
schools — A stereotyped phrase — Relation of the pu- 
pils, the council, and the principal — The student council 
and the real life of the school — Whatever powers the 
council has are delegated powers — The purposes of 
student councils as stated in their constitutions — What 
claims are made for pupil participation in government 
— Seven of the purposes of pupil participation in gov- 
ernment — What is the place of pupil participation in 
government in education and training in citizenship — 
Does the school know how to call the active virtues into 
play — W'hat is the place of guidance in practice — A 
definition, positive and negative, of pupil participation 
in government — Some ideas to keep in mind — Ques- 



Chapter V. Types of Councils in Junior High 

Schools ii8 

The junior high school and extra-curricular activities — 
Progress is many sided — The work of the council is 
fundamentally educative — What are the types of coun- 
cils in the junior high school — Home-room representa- 
tives in a single house — Home-room representatives in 
single house with an executive committee — Home-room 
represen tath es in a series of councils with no elected cen- 
tral council — Home-room representatives in a series of 
councils, the presidents of which, with class representa- 
tives, constitute the school council — Home-room repre- 
sentatives in grade congresses and a school cabinet — A 
council modeled after an outside political organization — 
Grade congresses, house of representatives, city plan — 

The council must grow out of the life of the school — 
Councils in junior high schools — Questions. 

Chapter VI. How One Junior High School Grew 

A Student Council 134 

Guiding theses — The director and the boys — The first 
step — leaders — The second step — athletic associa- 
tion — The thi. "^ step — leaders* club — The trial of a 
‘ ‘ dictator ’ * — Setting the pattern — Expressing the 
spirit — The greatest earthly ambition and a check-up 
system — Visible recognition of success in living — The 
drive inside the boy — The council arrives — Evalua- 
tion — Questions. 

Chapter VII. Analysis of Senior High School 

Councils 159 

Student councils in senior high schools in comparison 
with junior high schools — How can councils be classi- 
fied — A pre-view of council organization — The single- 
house type of council: the type and the variations in four 
schools examined — The two-house type of council ; the 
type and the variations in twenty-one schools analyzed 
— The prefect plan — What do pupils think of the home- 
room representative student council plan — A real need 
— Questions. 



Chapter VIII. The Student Council at Work . 190 
How does a student council work? — The council repre- 
sents the whole school — How does a council begin its 
work? — The council shoiud be formally installed — 

The council should have a constitution — What kinds of 
activities are carried on by student councils — Classi- 
fication of activities by function performed- — ^What 
should the council do — What is the real purpose of a 
student council — Progressive reconstruction — Ques- 

Chapter IX. The Assembly 208 

The assembly and pupil participation in government — 
What can the assembly do? — Adverse criticisms of the 
aSvSembly — Reasons for adverse criticisms — Not ap- 
plicable to all schools; the Cook County Normal — Cur- 
rent practice — Relation of theory and practice — Some 
claims of the assembly considered: (i) The assembly as a 
means of forming intelligent public opinion; (2) as a 
means of exploring \arious phases of school life; (3) as a 
means of integration; (4) as a means of widening or deep- 
ening interests; (5) as a means of developing apprecia- 
tions; (6) as a celebration of special days — The assem- 
bly can .lid in the administration of the school — Out- 
side speakers — Music — Planning assembly programs 
— Questions. 

Chapter X. Clubs 253 

Three questions — What kinds of clubs exist in high 
schools — Clubs listed in high-vSehool handbooks — 
Non-cithletic pupil activities — Activities in relation to 
broadening and finding courses in the junior high school 
— Clubs in one junior high school: departmental spon- 
soring — The extra-curricular in one school become cur- 
ricular in another — What activities may become cur- 
ricular — Clubs and literary societies — Too much or- 
ganization is possible — Clubs and the weekly schedule 
— How are clubs included in the daily schedule — 
Summary of current tendencies — Clubs: Section 2: 

Some theory — Why do clubs exist — The school needs 



a constructive policy — No constructive policy: What 
happens — Many pupils and teachers have hobbies — 

The pupil’s point of view in developing a club program 
must be kept in mind — Are clubs just harmless — In 
club activity there can be a favorable opportunity for 
pupils: (i) to learn how to work together; (2) to explore; 

(3) to explore themselves; (4) to interpret — The club 
and curiosity — The club and the sponsor — Sponsors — 

The club and the curriculum — Clubs: Section 3: Devel- 
oping a club program — Professional teachers’ meetings 
— The activities period — Pupil interests — Sponsor 
interests — The right pupil in the right club — Re- 
studying the club program — How does a club begin to 
work — A stepping-up program — Club names — Su- 
pervision — Ten tests for a school club — Questions. 

Chapter XL The High-School Newspaper . . 296 

Present trends — Need for a constructive policy — 
There are many insistent questions — Why the interest 
in school publications — What favorable educational op- 
portunities are furnished by the school paper — Favor- 
able educational o[)portunities for the school: construc- 
tive activities; interpreting the school to itself; interpret- 
ing the school t > 'he public — Favorable educational op- 
portunities for the pupil: the pupil learns to write; the 
pupil acts as an intelligent citizen; the pupil learns how 
to read newspapers — Work on high-school newspapers 
is not vocational — What shall the school newspaper 
publish — The humor column — How shall copy be 
prepared — Finding a name — What organization 
should exist for producing the paper — The board of 
publications — The Cleveland plan — The Canons of 
Journalism — The kind of paper — The adviser and the 
school paper — How is the paper produced — How is 
the staff (Organized — Adv ertising in the school paper — 
Courses in newspaper writing — The future of school 
publications — Questions. 

Chapter XII. The Pupil's Handbook . . .330 

The why and how of the handbook — What do high- 
school handbooks contain — Producing the handbook 


can be an educative experience for the pupils — Study 
other handbooks — What does a pupil need to know — 
Pooling information — A handbook assembly — Edit- 
ing — Naming the child — The spirit of the handbook 
— Using the handbook — Questions. 

Chapter XIII. The Higii-School Magazine . . 340 

The magazine and the school — Early school magazines 
— Later magazines — Recent magazines — The maga- 
zine as a planned structure — The pupil and the maga- 
zine — Form and material — Guidance, not toleration 
— Questions. 

Chapter XIV. The Annual 351 

Why do schools have annuals — Early college annuals 
— Early school annuals — What do school annuals 
contain — Variety in annuals — Monotony in annu- 
als — Wherein lies the fault — The problem of the an- 
nual: the stair, finances, professional assistance, the busi- 
ness manager, the editor, the schedule, art work, print- 
ing — What the school should do — Three possible ways 
— I'he annual and the contest — Advertising in the an- 
nual — Special edition of the school paper — Questions. 

Chapter XV. Commencement 367 

Present status — Interest — Commencement as a re- 
porter sees it — The traditional program — Modifica- 
tions of the traditional plan: first example, as it was in 
the beginning; second example, speakers to know more 
about their subjects than does the audience; e.xample 
three, single-theme programs; example four, the single 
theme and the curriculum; example fi\'e, the single theme 
and the school; example six, single theme explaining the 
school; example se\en, a junior high school breaks with 
tradition — A break with tradition: first examj^le, an al- 
legory; second example, a socialized commencement; 
example three, the demonstration type; exami)le four, a 
masque with an evaluation — Supplementary graduating 
activities: class day; senior dinner, senior play, senior 
gift; class sermon; commencement dress — Choosing the 
speakers — Guiding purposes; commencement should 



grow out of the life of the school; commencement should 
be a joyous occasion; commencements should be educa- 
tional for the graduates, for the lower classes, for the 
parents and for the whole community; commencement 
should be inspiring, intellectually and emotionally; 
commencement should be democratic in its sincerity, 
simplicity, worth, and dignity; commencement should 
be beautiful; commencement should integrate the school 
and unify the school and the community; commence- 
ment should be emotionally satisfying — How a leader 
works — Questions. 

Chapter XVI. Athletics 405 

Play and respectability — The individual and athletic 
sports — The school and sports — The school and the 
athletic association — The aims of athletics — The 
chief issue — The school’s and the pupils’ aims — Ath- 
letics and education — Intra-mural athletics — Hin- 
drances — Needs — (Grouping — Intra-mural sports and 
gymnasium classes — Interscholastic athletics — School 
guidance and control — Capable leaders — Tests and 
examinations — Eligibility — Schedules and break- 
downs — Championships — Finances and budgeting — 
Commercializalj'n — Loyalty — The play and the 
players — Tendencies in school athletics — Forty-nine 
questions — Questions. 

Chapter XVII. Extra-Curricular Finances . . 444 

An educational opportunity — Sources of grief — Crime 
— Signs of progress — Starr’s study of 243 high schools 
— Belting’s study — Volume of business — Financial re- 
sources --- The activity ticket — Gate rcci pts — Extra- 
curricular finances and business education — Board 
of finance — Budget — The treasurer — The purchase 
order plan — Checking methods — Treasurer’s reports 
— Auditing — Questions. 

Bibliography 477 

Index 541 


Chapter I 



The pioneers who have extended our educational borders 
have set some sign-posts. The directions on these sign- 
posts, so far as the extra-curricular territory is concerned, 
are as yet not very definite. The surveyor who will run the 
range and section hnes and establish the corner posts has 
not yet arrived. The territory is valuable, but just how 
valuable is not quite known. Neither do these pioneers 
know just where the most fertile land or hidden wealth lies. 
However, they do recognize that to get anywhere they have 
to know where they are, where they want to go, and some- 
thing of how they are going to get there. The territory ex- 
plored has been so attractive that practically none of these 
hardy pioneers has ever returned and settled down on the 
old home place. Rather, having “entered” their land, 
they are busy attempting to “ prove up” on their “ claims.” 
From them and from one’s own attempts at pioneering, it 
is possible to have at least a sense of direction and to have 
some understanding of the varying and sometimes conflict- 
ing sign-posts that have been set up. 

Two theses. As one means of indicating the direction of 



the present expedition, two statements are submitted: 
First, it is the business of the school to organize the whole 
situation so that there is a favorable opportunity for every 
one, teachers as well as pupils, to practice the qualities of 
the good citizen here and now with results satisfying to the 
one doing the practicing. Second, wherever possible ex- 
tra-curricular activities should grow out of curricular activ- 
ities and return to them to enrich them. 

The first statement submitted recognizes that practice 
with satisfying results tends to make perfect, and that if 
the results of practice are not satisfying to the one doing 
the practicing, that one will cease practicing as soon as 
possible. Is the teaching of English literature really suc- 
cessful? The real test is: What do the pupils read, after 
studying their English literature, when they no longer are 
directed by the teacher? Is a teacher a good disciplina- 
rian? How do the pupils behave when the teacher is not 
with them? That is the test. The rjeal purpose of edu- 
cation is to enable the individual to be increasingly, in- 
telligently self-directive. 

Pupils are citizens of the school here and now witli rights, 
duties, privileges, and obligations. The practice of good 
citizenship, to be successful, will always have to take into 
consideration the future, but the practice must be carried 
on where the pupil is, Aere, and in the only time at his 
command, now. 

What are the qualities of the good citizen? The answer 
varies from the Spartan boy who was to steal his food with- 
out being detected to the philosophic characterization of 
the individual who shapes both himself and society toward 
ever nobler ends. The Ephebic Oath taken by the Athe- 
nian boy has been cited by nearly every one as an ideal : 

I will fight for the ideals and sacred things of the city, both alone 
and with many, and will never desert my suffering comrades in the 



ranks. I will revere and obey the laws and strive to incite a like re- 
spect in those above me who are prone to annul or set them at 
naught. I will strive unceasingly to quicken the public sense of 
civic duty. Thus, in all these ways, we shall transmit this city, not 
only not less, but greater and more beautiful, than it was trans- 
mitted to us. 

The ideal of the knights of old as expressed by Tennyson 
was simple and direct: The knights were to reverence the 
king as if he were their conscience and their conscience as 
the king; to break the heathen and uphold the Christ; to 
ride abroad redressing human wrongs; to speak no siander, 
and not even to listen to it; to love one maiden only and 
worship her by years of noble deeds until they won her. 

A Boy Scout of the present day in describing a good 
citizen probably would repeat the Scout Oath : 

On my honor I will do my best to do my duty to God and Coun- 
try; to help other people at all times; to keep myself physically 
strong, mentally awake, and morally straight. 

To this he would probably add the Scout Law: 

A Scout is trustWL-thy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, 
obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, reverent. 

The point here is not to determine what are the qualities 
of the good school citizen. Every school must of necessity 
formulate these qualities. Every citizen of the school can 
aid in this formulation. This necessity is fortunate; the 
formulation of ideals and of ways of living as a good citizen 
of the school, in which formulation pupils actively partici- 
pate, is in itself an educative experience. The idea here is 
that the school shall arrange the situation so that there is a 
favorable chance for pupils to practice the qualities it ac- 
cepts as characteristic of the good citizen and that the 
pupils and the teachers enjoy the practice. 

The whole school situation is to be included. For a 
time the whole school was the classroom. Now such activ- 


ities as the assembly, the clubs, the student-teacher coun- 
cil, the sports, are recognized as a part of the whole school 
situation. One of the particular values of the extra-curricu- 
lar field lies in the fact that it furnishes such a favorable 
opportunity for the setting forth and the satisfying prac- 
tice of the qualities of the good citizen. 

Positive rather than negative. As every one knows, 
boys and girls are interested in the active rather than the 
passive; do has greater appeal than don't. The Athenian 
Oath and the Boy Scout Oath and Law are all positive, 
not negative. A real delight of the school is the oppor- 
tunity it offers for practicing now with joy and zest the de- 
sirable qualities of the good citizen. 

Relation of curricular and extra-curricular activities. 
The second thesis requires that wherever possible the extra- 
curricular activities grow out of the curricular activities 
and return to them to enrich them. In accordance with 
this idea, the school newspaper would be all or a part of 
a course in English; intra-mural and inter-scholastic ath- 
letics would grow out of and be a part of a real program of 
health and physical education ; assemblies and commence- 
ments, rather than being specially contrived for the occa- 
sion, would grow out of the real life of the school. 

Manifestly, this thesis requires that the school be really 
alive. Intra-mural and inter-scholastic athletics cannot 
grow out of a situation wherein there is no real program of 
health and physical education or out of the older type of 
formal drill. The assembly cannot grow out of lifeless 
classrooms or dull activities. A real, live Latin Club can- 
not grow out of a class that is all syntax and translation 
of misunderstood Latin into English, wherein Caesar sees- 
him-self-to-be-about-to-be-surrounded-by-the-enemy. The 
place to grow real extra-curricular activities is first of all in 
actual, living classroom teaching. From such teaching 


definite interests may be discovered that some pupils may 
want to follow beyond the bounds of even an elastic cur- 
riculum, hence a club. For example, in a course in Ameri- 
can literature, there is the desire and the necessity of get- 
ting an idea of the whole field in a given length of time. As 
a part of such a course there is a study of the short story. 
Some pupils are fascinated by the possibilities of The Lady 
or the 'Ti^er, or by the characterization of Tennessee's 
Partner, to the extent that they desire more stories by 
Stockton and Bret Harte. Here is the basis for a short- 
story club. This situation includes part of what Professor 
Briggs calls teaching people to perform better those desir- 
able activities that they will do anyway. Wherever thif 
idea of growing the extra-curricular out of the curricular is 
really accepted, its back-fire can start a real conflagration 
in the classroom. 


In national and st-'te educational meetings, in sectional 
and in local conferences, in college and university classes, 
and in book and magazine publications, there has been, and 
there is continuing to be, discussion of the theories and 
plans of extra-curricular activities. Fortunately, there is 
still a spirit of pioneering. Likewise, there is still much 
healthy disagreement. 

Possibly representative discussion has been carried on in 
the present writer’s courses in the Oiganization and Ad- 
ministration of Extra-Curricular Activities of Junior and 
Senior High Schools, held at Teachers College, Columbia 
University, each semester, including Summer Sessions, 
since 1919. Out of the conflict of ideas, agreements and 
disagreements of these pioneers, some conclusions, more or 
less tentative, have been reached and in a few cases of high 
daring some sign-posts have been set up. These “con- 


elusions” are not the result of any outburst of original 
thinking; rather, they have developed as a result of ex- 
perimentation in many hundred high schools. In some 
cases, at least, this experimenting has been more or less in 
accordance with the theory fonnulated in the two theses 
cited earlier in this chapter. These two theses, it should be 
added, were two of the cases of rather general agreement. 

Definition. Extra-curricular activities may be defined 
as those legitimate activities of the school not otherwise 
provided for. It is recognized that an activity may be 
curricular in one school and extra-curricular in another, 
and the reverse. There are many examples, such as de- 
bating, dramatics, school publications. Likewise, within 
a single growing school there are changes from year to 
year in respect to what is and what is not curricular. 

Names. In addition to the name “extra-curricular 
activities,” many other names have been used, such as: 
“extra-curriculum” (with a merry war between noun and 
adjective), “ co-curricular,” “extra-class,” “ socializing- 
integrating,” “collateral student activities,” and so on. 
The name does not seem to affect practice. Unsatisfactory 
as it is, the expression “extra-curricular activities” is most 
often used. 

It has been urged that all activities of the school that are 
educative should be included in the curriculum. As now 
organized, each subject taught in the school has its course 
of study made, or being made, or remade. Related sub- 
jects with their courses of study are grouped into a curric- 
ulum and the various curricula constitute the program of 
studies. Some activities, .such as the student council, class 
organizations, home-room organizations, school courts, 
honor societies, are not of such a nature as to develop into 
courses of study. All of the activities primarily in the field 
of pupil participation in government come in the non- 


course-of-study group. However, in the modern high 
school, in comparison with the older and more formal 
type of school, the line of demarcation between curricular 
and extra-curricular is fortunately becoming less sharply 

Two schools on the same campus. In the older second- 
ary school, as well as in the college and university, there 
tended to be two schools on the same campus. One school 
was made up of courses “offered,” “given” by teachers, 
“professors,” which if taken successfully in a certain se- 
quence and in sufficient number, led to graduation. The 
other school was composed of athletics, dramatics, glee 
clubs, parties, “Junior proms,” senior banquets, clubs, fra- 
ternities, and so on. This school, regardless of how it de- 
lighted or worried the faculty, and even if the faculty knew 
nothing and cared less about it, was vitally alive in the 
thinking and especially in the feeling of the pupils. The 
idea in the present study is not to worry at all about the 
name, but to try to help the school arrange, not a fraction 
of the school’s opp’ *• tuiiities, but the whole school situa- 
tion, so that there shall be a favorable opportunity for 
pupils, and teachers, too, to become increasingly, intelli- 
gently self-directive. If these activities, in which' there is 
such an investment of pupils’ time and energy, have edu- 
cational possibilities, they should be so guided that they 
pay educational dividends. If these activities are not of 
such a nature or cannot be so guided as to pay dividends 
comparable, at least, to corresponding investment in other 
fields, they should be so far as possible eliminated. 

New frontiers. If all pupil activities were made curric- 
ular and closely directed by teachers as most curricular ac- 
tivities are now taught and tested, youth would probably 
move out to a new frontier. There would be openly or 
secretly new groupings in clubs, societies, fraternities. 


Fortunately, such is the nature of youth. Youth, for ex- 
ample, is going to share in the government of himself and 
his fellows; if age will not admit the fact, then age will have 
to submit. 

New techniques. There must be more emphasis on the 
newer techniques of the classroom, whereby the pupil 
shares in the planning, assigning, teaching, and testing. 
However great this need may be in the classroom, it is even 
greater in the extra-curricular field. Teachers, sponsors, 
advisers, coaches, must learn how to advise enough, but 
not too much. Types of poor teaching that have been 
outlawed in the classroom sometimes run wild in the extra- 
curricular field. Team captains too often must look in 
critical moments of play to the coach to find out what to 
do. Some principals still appoint the presidents of impor- 
tant extra-curricular activities. Coaches yet exist who in- 
sist on appointing athletic captains; school orchestras, even 
in contests with other orchestras, are frequently led by 
adult professionals. Contests are held between pupil pub- 
lications; the “annual” is an example, wherein material 
may be included which is the work of teachers or outside 
professionals. Many dramatic clubs are completely dom- 
inated by the teacher-coach. Honor societies exist and 
helpfully, yet pupils are often denied the educative ex- 
perience of thinking through and evaluating the compara- 
tive merit of various pupils in leadership and service to the 
school. It took a long struggle in debating to eliminate the 
“canned” speech prepared by the coach. In some clubs 
teacher-sponsors do most of the planning and all of the 

Teacher guidance. There is a need for teacher giddance 
— not domination, but guidance. To make activities go 
well, especially from the adult point of view, to make a 
good showing, to arrive quickly, there is a natural tendency 


for a type of classroom teacher, when working in the extra- 
curricular field, to do all the planning and do it directly. 
Such a procedure robs the pupils of an opportunity for an 
educative experience. It is the sponsor’s business to ar- 
range the situation so that there is a favorable opportunity 
for pupils to plan and act intelligently. Some teachers re- 
ply; “When I try such a plan, nothing worth while hap- 
pens.” The answer is, learn how to arrange the situation. 
“The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in our- 
selves.” There is here, as in the classroom, a necessity of 
learning how to advise — what, when, whom, how, and in 
what amount. Likewivse, there is a necessity of expecting, 
looking for, even demanding, achievement, not on an adult, 
but on a pupil, level. 

Exploration. As has been pointed out, many extra- 
curricular activities can grow out of interests discovered in 
the curricular field. At the same time there is a real oppor- 
tunity for exploration in the extra-curricular field. Obvi- 
ously, there is an opportunity to explore fields of knowl- 
edge, to experiment with new and promising materials and 
procedures. The discoveries may result in new curricular 
courses. Much that now exists as curricular started as 
extra-curricular. There are so many cases that it seems 
unnecessary to cite examples. 

This exploration does not end, probably it does not even 
begin, with possible curricular materials. There is the ex- 
ploration of the pupil himself, his interest, his curiosities, 
his abilities. Pupils, in varying degrees, have initiative. 
In spite of almost no techniques in the beginning, they 
have the capacity for cooperative effort. Some have the 
ability to lead, but they need to learn how. Others can 
learn how to lead in some degree and they can learn how to 
follow, not blindly, but with eyes that see and minds that 
evaluate. Emotional control is necessary. Pupils in a re- 



latively free field — guided enough, but not too much — 
have some real techniques for teaching their fellows how to 
behave when they get, or do not get, what they want. 
There is no freedom without law. There is a necessity 
for a consideration of the rights of others. There can be 
real exploration in intelligent obedience to authority. In 
the extra-curricular field there is not only a real oppor- 
tunity for exploration and experimentation with possible 
curricular materials, but in the fine art of living with one’s 
fellows happily and successfully. 

Happiness. Pupils are required by law, they are com- 
pelled, to attend school. To require a pupil to associate 
intimately with an adult who does not like what he is do- 
ing, who is sour and physically^ or emotionally dyspeptic, 
makes the work of the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals look primitive. If teachers do not like 
their jobs, they ought to get out; children suffer enough as 
it is. This business of thinking clearly, of being happy, of 
believing it can be done, of being creative, is absolutely 
necessary in the extra-curricular activities. There must 
be joy, zest, active, positive, creative activity, and a faith 
that right is mighty and that it will prevail. 

Why the increasing interest in extra-curricular activi- 
ties? This interest is explained in part by the claims made 
for these activities. In analyzing forty writings on this 
subject, Koos* found the values as presented in the ac- 
companying table mentioned three or more times. 

In considering these claims, Koos points out the strik- 
ing degree of their coincidence with any comprehensive 
formulation of the aims and functions of secondary edu- 
cation.” The main point is that there is an increasing in- 
terest in utilizing the whole school situation to attain the 







1. Trainine: in Bome civic-^cial- 
moral relationship. 

2. Socialization. 

8. Traininir for social cooperation. 

4 . Actual experience in group life. 

6. Training for ethical living. 

6. Training for citizenship in 
a democracy. 

7. Training for leadership. 

8. Worth -whi'e friendships. 

9. Training for worthy home 

10. Training in parliamentary usage. 

11. Improved discipline and 
school spirit. 

12. Training for recreational and 
esthetic participation. 

13. Health. 

14. Vocational Training. 

16. Training in business methods. 

16. Intellectual development. 

17. Retention in school. 

18. Recognition of interest, 
and ambitions. 

19. Exploration. 

20. Improved Scholarship. 

21. Constructive influence on 

22. Recognition of adolescent nature. 

23. Training in fundamental 

24. Relation of school & community. 

26. Discharge of superabundant 

0 10 20 30 40 

Number of Writers Recognizing Each Value in Extra- 
Curricular Activities 



“aims and functions of secondary education.” Likewise, 
there is the recognition that through pupil-interests and 
through satisfying practice in ^he extra-curricular field, 
some of these desired ends may be more completely at- 
tained for a greater number than through the curricular 
field alone. 


I. A constructive program. The school shall develop a 
constructive program of extra-curricular activities. In 
both curricular and extra-curricular activities there has 
been too much of a laissez-faire policy. This go-as-you- 
please policy often prevailed in the extra-curricular field 
until some kind of trouble arose and the school had to act. 
In such cases the school sometimes moved in a negative 
rather than in a positi\'e, constructive direction. A con- 
structive policy developed by the whole school will include 
a plan of unification and central guidance and control. All 
activities, for example, should be chartered by the student 
council. The council itself, as will be pointed out in a 
later chapter, should be chartered. All activities will have 
a place in the daily or weekly program of activities. This 
plan will provide for the meeting of activities at the school 
and eliminate nearly all evening meetings. The school’s 
constructive program will provide for the whole educa- 
tional activity of the school and will become a planned 
structure rather than existing partly planned, but mostly 

The constructive program shall be developed by the 
school. No two schools are alike. A plan that is working 
splendidly in one school may fail in another. As Mark 
Twain is said to have remarked on his seventieth birthday, 
” What’s good for me might kill you.” Each school differs 
in some respects in the past, present, and probable future of 



its pupils, in training and experience of the principal and 
teachers, and in the state of development of its curriculai 
and extra-curricular activities. The constructive plan can- 
not be bodily transplanted from one school to another. No 
matter how skillful the forester, this tree is too sensitive 
and too large to be transplanted. In subsequent chapters 
examples of mistakes on this point are cited. 

The development of the constructive plan must be grad- 
ual. A plan of pupil participation in government, for ex- 
ample, should start in the home room, be developed there 
and in class organizations and in clubs, and finally grow 
into a student council. A club program should start with 
specific groups centered around definite interests and de- 
velop, grow, spread. In the end probably all pupils will 
belong to .some club and practically every teacher will be 
the sponsor of some club. Teachers and pupils have to 
learn how to develop and carry on in such a program. 
There is no more reason for thinking that a school can 
start pupil participation in government with a student 
council than there is for thinking that the school can start 
pupils in Latin by beg..ining with the Odes of Horace. 

2. This constructive plan of extra-curricular activities 
shall grow out of the life of the school. This idea requires 
that the school be alert, alive, gi owing, creative, responsive 
to pupils’ needs, either felt or as yet not recognized. It 
does not mean, for example, that a single curricular class in 
the Social Studies should presume in and of itself to set up 
a student council. Such a council is a v;hole school affair. 
The curricular life of the school should be the abundant 
source from which streams of extra-curricular activities 
burst forth. 

3. This constructive plan shall recognize that the pupil 
is a citizen of the school. As a citizen the pupil has rights, 
duties, privileges, and obligations. Privilege and responsi- 



bility do not exist separately. As Dewey puts it: “There 
can be no stable and balanced development of mind and 
character apart from the assumption of responsibility.” 
Membership in activities must be open to all on a basis as 
objective as is possible. There should be freedom of choice 
as to pupil participation. This requires that there be a 
wide variety of activities. At the same time, it is recog- 
nized that there is need, through a point system or other- 
wise, for stimulating, guiding, and, if necessary, limiting, 
the extent of participation of any one pupil at a given time. 
No matter what the value of extra-curricular activities, 
these values are not realized if pupils do not participate, or 
if their participation is not wisely balanced, or if they en- 
gage in too many activities. An overdose of extra-curric- 
ular activities is not good for the individual pupil or for the 
school as a whole. Wide participation of pupils in extra- 
curricular activities requires that expenses of various ac- 
tivities be kept moderate. These activities are a part of a 
free system of public schools. Since the school is responsi- 
ble for these activities, all of the members must be citizens 
of the school. Pupils only are members. 

4. Teachers shall accept, whole-heartedly, the respon- 
sibility of developing the school’s extra-curricular activi- 
ties. Teachers should be selected and promoted, in part, 
for their ability to work in the extra-curricular field. 
Teachers should have an appreciation of the worth of extra- 
curricular activities, and the ability to value them justly. 
Every teacher should have, or develop, expert ability in 
some one or more phases of these fields. It follows that 
adjustment must be made in teachers’ schedules so that 
the work of the school is adequately distributed and greatei 
success and satisfaction assured. 

5. Extra-curricular activities shall be supervised. There 
is need for guidance and cooperative, constructive leader- 



ship rather than for a multiplicity of negations or of com- 
plete direction. During and near the end of each semester 
there should be a serious attempt on the part of all teach- 
ers and all pupils to evaluate the activities in which they 
have had a part. There must be a feeling present or 
developing of a partnership in the privileges and responsi- 
bilities of the school. The principal, or some one delegated 
by him, should think in terms of all these activities and of 
the ways in which the school is meeting and can meet its 
responsibilities and privileges in respect to them. An in- 
creasing number of schools have a director of extra-curric- 
ular activities. 

6. Intelligent public opinion shall be developed. Ex- 
ploration of the school's activities will be a definite part of 
the orientation of incoming pupils. In the larger schools, 
especially, definite steps must be taken to insure that the 
pupils, and teachers as well, know and reasonably under- 
stand the activities of the whole school. Exploration and 
integration can result from knowing and understanding the 
problems of the whole «=^^hool and sharing in their solution. 
How can a pupil or teacner-citizen of the school believe in 
that of which he has not heard? Hearing, however, is not 
enough; there must be a favorable opportunity for the in- 
dividuals, the various groups within the school, and the 
school as a whole, to do something to meet the needs of the 
school. Naturally, there is a necessity that parents of 
pupils and that all members of the community shall have 
a real opportunity to understand the work of the school and 
an especially favorable opportunity to understand those 
activities that are new or different from those of their own 
school days. 

7- The principal is responsible. The community is re- 
sponsible to itself and to the state for its schools. This 
community, directly or indirectly, selects representatives 


who constitute a board of education. This board is a 
policy-forming organization and delegates to an expert, 
c:illed a superintendent, the execution of policies. 
The superintendent, without s irrendering responsibility, 
delegates to the high school principal the responsibility of 
carrying on the work of the high school. The principal 
delegates responsibilities to administrativ^e and supervisory 
assistants and to teachers. The principal and the staff of 
the school may delegate various responsibilities to pupils 
as individuals or as groups. The principal, however, re- 
mains responsible to the superintendent and through him 
to the board of education. This board is responsible to the 
community. Therefore, all activities of the school shall be 
chartered by the principal directly or indirectly through 
the student council. Since the principal is responsible, he 
has the power to veto the activities of any organization in 
the school. His ability to lead, to guide, to develop demo- 
cratic living in a modern high s('hool will be indicated, in 
part at least, by the number and character of his vetoes. 
This veto power, while important in theory, is of little im- 
portance in practice, for it is so seldom needed or used. 

The real point of this idea of the principal’s responsibility 
is that as the leader of the school he shall lead With the 
help of his teachers and pupils, he shall develop a con- 
structive policy for growing the school’s extra-curricular 
activities. The principal is responsible for the sign-posts 
of his school. 

Growing activities. In the successive chapters of this 
f)ook, it is repeatedly pointed out that activities must be 
gradually developed in a school. Likewise, the idea back 
of the activity must be gradually developed through suc- 
cessful practice. For example, if the real need of develop- 
ing the pupil’s ability to participate in the government of 
the school is recognized, the whole school situation must be 



so arranged that there is a favorable opportunity for the 
development of this ability. This whole school situation 
involves the home-room, the classroom, the class organiza- 
tion, the school council, the assembly, the clubs, the school 
publications, the athletics, the management of the extra- 
curricular finances, commencement exercises — in short, 
all the school’s activities whether inside or outside of the 
accepted curriculum. 

Since this volume is concerned, in part, with the develop- 
ment in the pupil of the ability to participate in the gov- 
ernment of the school, there will be successive chapters 
dealing with school situations which can be sc arranged as 
to be favorable to the development of this ability. So far 
as the extra-curricular field is concerned, the most favor- 
able place to begin the development of the pupil’s partici- 
pation in the government of the school is in the small, re- 
latively homogeneous group in the home-room. After be- 
ginning successfully in the home-room in learning what to 
do and how to get at it, the members of a home-room can 
join with members of other home-rooms of the same class 
in working out a class ^ ganization that concerns itself pri- 
marily with the responsibilities of the class for its own 
immediate affairs. When the pupils of the home-rooms of 
a class and the class as a whole have developed sufficient 
ability in being reasonably self-directive, a third step may 
be taken. Representatives of all home-rooms may join 
with representatives of other home-rooms and with one or 
more teacher-guides in developing a school council. This 
council concerns itself with finding and attempting to solve 
whole school problems within the range of its abilities. In 
a chapter on the council some five or six score of these prob- 
lems which councils have attempted to solve will be cited. 
The chapters of this book, therefore, after this opening 
chapter, begin with home-rooms, class organizations, coun^ 



cils, and go on to deal with a variety of pupil activities 
which can be arranged so as to favor the development of 
opportunities for the pupil to practice the qualities of the 
good citizen here and now witl^ results satisfying to him- 

The theory and the practice of this book are vitally 
concerned with the unity of the educative experiences of 
the pupil and of the whole school. Historically, curricular 
and extra-curricular activities have developed along some- 
what different lines; the former emphasized by teachers, 
the latter by pupils. The modern school, however, aims to 
utilize all educative experiences for the growth of the pupil. 
It is a constant thesis of this volume that wherever possible 
extra-curricular activities should grow out of curricular 
activities and return to them to enrich them. Thus, in 
such chapters as those on clubs, assemblies, commence- 
ment, school publications, athletics, and extra-curricular 
finances, the ways in which these activities can grow out of 
curricular activities are constantly kept in mind. 

The theses and the theory stated in this chapter are 
really a part of every chapter in the book. In spite of the 
writer’s belief that he has combined theory and practice in 
attempting to work out, in the extra-curricular field, some 
phases of what to do and how to do it, the reader in study- 
ing the chapters that follow can help himself very definitely 
by keeping in mind the main ideas of this first chapter. 

It is the privilege of the pupil, the teacher, the super- 
visor, and the administrator to share eagerly and happily 
in the whole growing, creative life of the school. 


I. Why is it necessary, or not necessary, that in a field changing 
as rapidly as that of the school’s extra-curricular activities, 
educators should have sensitive minds capable of alert re- 


3. To what extent do you agree, or disagree, with the “sense of 
direction” expressed in this chapter? 

3. In what respects do you accept or reject the two theses sub- 
mitted? On what basis do you make your acceptance or re- 

4. Should a school formulate standards of good citizenship? If 
so, how? Is it important that such standards as you have in 
mind should respect the privileges and responsibilities of the 
individual? Why? 

5. In what respects, if any, do curricular and extra-curricular 
activities differ? 

6. In what sense can the curriculum include, or not include, all of 
the school’s educational activities? 

7. In addition to the term “extra-curricular,” list all the names of 
these activities that you can find. Just what is the justifica- 
tion of each one? 

8. So far as your own school is concerned, are there “two schools 
on the same campus?” \^’hy, or why not? 

9. Is it true that “types of poor teaching that have been out- 
lawed in the classroom sometimes run wild in the extra-cur- 
ricular field”? How do you account for your answer? 

10. How do you account for the increasing interest in the extra- 
curricular field? 

11. What “Observations and Conclusions” in this chapter, if any, 
do you consider educu .onally sound? — unsound? On what 

12. Kor the school you know best, which, if any, of the “Seven 
Sign-Posts” set up in this chapter are of special value, little 
value, no value? Make a list of such “sign-posts” as are 
necessary for your school. 

13. If you were writing the remaining chapters of this book, which 
ideas in this present chapter would you keep in mind in writing 
each chapter? 

Chapter II 

The home-room in its earlier form was a routine, adminis* 
trative unit of the school. The home-room used to be 
known frequently as the Session, or Record, or Book Room, 
and as such was usually composed of one teacher and 
twenty-five to forty cr fifty pupils. As high schools in- 
creased rapidly in size, it w'as in this Record Room, in 
many cases, at least, that practically all of the school’s ad- 
ministrative routine was carried on. It was here that 
attendance was recorded, schedules were made, details of 
enrollment taken care of, report cards distributed, and 
most problems of discipline solved. With the increasing 
size and with the development of the idea of pupil guid- 
ance, and the fixing of responsibility for this guidance, the 
Session, Record, or Book Room took on various advisory 
functions and as such has come to be known as the Home- 

Administrative work may be educative. The aim is not 

simply to have the administrative routine business of the 
school more economically and efficiently performed in the 
home-room, but to have both teachers and pupils share in 
the administrative work as one means of educating them- 
selves. To share in the administration can enable both 
teachers and pupils to understand and possibly to impro\ e 
administrative methods and, in this striving, to develop 
knowledge of necessary procedures, intelligent attitudes, 
and helpful habits of doing team work. There are yet some 
home-rooms where teachers try to do everything them- 
selves, while there are other home-rooms where the pupils, 



intelligently guided, have a large share in carrying on the 
administrative work. In rooms of the latter type, pupils, 
elected by their fellows, guided by their teacher, take the 
attendance, read the announcements from the principal’s 
office, lead in the morning devotional exercises, aid in solv- 
ing disciplinary problems and in carrying on the adminis- 
trative routine work peculiar to the room itself. Unfortu- 
nately, to a few teachers this routine work is a grind, to 
many others it is a favorable opportunity for enabling 
pupils to share in real problems, to do effective, team work, 
and to practice some of the qualities of the good citizen 
with immediate satisfaction. Successful teachers handle 
routine, administrative work quickly. Many hands and 
heads, intelligently guided, make light work. 

The home-room is a home room. To many pupils, en- 
tering a new school is a trying situation. Old friends 
and familiar ways seem far away. The teacher may be 
friendly, but everything seems so new. As schools be- 
come larger, there is an increasing tendency fur the indi- 
vidual pupil to get lost and often to feel more lost than he 
is. One teacher of a home-room of girls helped in over- 
coming this lost feeling by enabling her pupils to mimeo- 
graph the roll of their home-room, Room Three, showing 
the name, the seat location of each girl, the school from 
which she came, and her present studies. 

Since “ Room Three” was a home room, of course, each 
girl must know every one in the room. The introductions 
must be made, not only under favorable circumstances, 
but with a dignity and a simplicity that made even the 
shyest little girl feel that she “ belonged.” In the hands of 
the right teacher, there is almost magic in the morale- 
building qualities of getting acquainted, in receiving and 
being received as a real somebody by one’s peers. It is 
a fine thing for the teacher to be friendly and courte- 



ous, but while it is more difficult, it is still finer for this 
friendly teacher to arrange the situation so that there is a 
favorable opportunity for every member of the home-room 
to practice with satisfaction the most courteous behavior 
of which he or she is capable. Pupils like such practice, 
and they never are more anxious to do their best than 
when first they are sizing up and being sized up by their 
fellows. Many teachers seize the moment of the pupils’ 
first meeting to set the behavior pattern, and then try to 
enable them not only to live up to it, but to surpass it. 

The feeling of being at Jiome in the school, however, is not 
primarily a matter of talking, but of deciding on and doing 
some piece of group work. Pride in the home comes from 
doing something recognized as being worth while to im- 
prove the home. One wise, experienced home-room 
teacher loved beautiful pictures, and had some really fine 
reproductions of good pictures on the walls of her home- 
room. The story is told that one time she had these pic- 
tures taken down just before she was to have a new home- 
room group. Shortly after the new group arrived, she had 
her group, by easy strategy, studying the pictures and how 
and where to hang them. Soon the pupils were working 
together to improve their school home, with the result that 
they got acquainted by working together with freedom, 
and had an increased feeling of being at home and of pride 
in their home because they had helped make it. The 
ceacher could have hung the pictures. She might have 
been able to get the janitor to do it, but the story says that 
she started with forty individuals and ended with a unity 
of spirit as the result of a happy, shared experience. Pos- 
sibly hanging the pictures helped. 

The home-room gives the teacher a real opportunity to 
know the pupils. The alert, home-room teacher has prob- 
ably a hundred and fifty, or more, different pupils in his 



classes during the week. He must know them all. Prob- 
ably he does, but if he can have the members of his own 
home-room in class, there is a double chance to know his 
own group. Whatever happens, he must know his home- 
room group. Much can be learned by a study of their in- 
telligence quotients, from a study of all the grades they 
have previously made, by knowing their participation in 
extra-curricular activities, by an interest in their out-of- 
school activities, and by knowing the parents, either 
through visits to the pupils* homes or by visits of the par- 
ents to class work, or their attendance at home-room activ- 
ities. Every teacher knows that a boy frequently shows 
only a fragment of himself in demonstrating a problem in 
geometry, and still less in reading a lyric poem. Working 
day after day with pupils who are solving problems affect- 
ing the immediate life of the school, of the home-room, and 
of themselves, the home-room teacher can come really to 
know the pupil. Any high-school pupil must be known 
and understood by at least one teacher in the school. This 
is the business of the ime-room teacher. 

The home-room can serve as a means of unifying the 
school. The home-room can enable all its members to 
know the history and development of the school and either 
to know, or know about, the people who have made its 
history. This process of integration may be carried 
farther by common knowledge of the program of studies, 
of the curricula, of the courses of study, of the extra-curric- 
ular activities, of the traditions, and of the spirit of the 
school as expressed in the school motto or creed. Intellec- 
tual integration is not enough; there must be opportunity 
for emotional integration as well. The school songs and 
cheers are important. The incoming pupil probably hates 
above all things to appear “green” in the eyes of his fel- 
lows. The home-room is the place to learn, in so far as 


possible, what to do and how to do it in all phases of the 
school life — curricular and extra-curricular. 

Knowledge about the school and its ways cannot really 
integrate the school unless there is provision for action. 
Just as loyalty to the home-rooni is built up through the 
shared experience of the individual members of the home- 
room, so larger loyalties can be developed by the cociper- 
ati\ e effort of all the home-rooms of one class and by home- 
rooms of all classes, in service to the school and the com- 
munit\ . In everyday life there is loyalty to the family, to 
community, to slate, and to nation, but the loyalty begins 
in the smaller, more closely knit groups and this loyalty 
gnnvs by action. Intelligent public opinion is formed in 
small groups, and these smaller groups become integrated 
as they unite in action for the common good. If pupils are 
to practice the qualities of the good citizen here and now, 
with results that are satisfying to themselves and that 
make for the good of the whole group, it is necessary for 
them to merge their interests in those of the group, and for 
the group to merge its interests in those of larger and 
larger groups. The home-room furnishes the basis for 
such action. 

The home-room has an important part to play in the 
whole matter of the pupil guidance. Inhere is a favorable 
opportunity in the home-room for guidance — personal, 
educational, social, moral, and vocational guidance. Prob- 
ably there is no time in life when personal Riddance is 
more needed than in the high-school period. Pupils with 
so much that is new to them, both within and outside of 
themselves, are eager for guidance. To inspire the con- 
fidence, to have the knowledge, and to know how to give 
it, and when and in what amount to give it, is an art. The 
home-room teacher who is equal to the opportunity that 
exists, or, in most cases, can be created, is all too rare, but 



such teachers do exist. Probably most mistakes in the 
matter of personal guidance are made by postponing the 
needed help until the pupil is in trouble. Thus many 
teachers and parents never meet until the pupil is in trou- 
ble. At such a time embarrassment may be mutual. The 
first meeting should be at a time when everybody is happy, 
and, if possible, it should be in celebration of some success 
of the pupil. Under such circumstances, guidance may be 
received as well as given. Probably teacher and pupil con- 
tacts can best be made when together they are developing 
a constructive guidance program. The teacher who waits 
for a breakdown before attempting real, personal guidance 
simply makes himself a “trouble-shooter’’ and wastes 
most of his time and energy. 

The home-room teacher who attempts to do all of the 
personal guidance himself is courting comparative failure. 
There are common problems for the whole room to face. 
The pupils frecjuently know the problems of their fellows 
much better than the teacher knows them, and, curiously 
enough, sometimes they can find the solution when the 
teacher fails. At least in one case the pupils of the Speyer 
Junior High School succeeded where all adults had failed. 
Marco, a member of Miss Porritt’s home-room, was one of 
the brightest, finest boys in the whole school, but some- 
thing happened. He quit work; he would not play. He 
talked to no one — silent, morose, alone in spirit. Marco 
lived at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. The able, kindly 
head of this institution, the home-room teacher, and the 
principal of the school studied the case together, and tried 
to talk with Marco. No result! A little boy with torment 
in his mind was fighting alone. Two of Marco’s friends, 
Ira and Tommy, were at work. Day after day, they tried 
to help, but, like Saul, possessed by some evil spirit, Marco 
was alone in his black tent. Finally, one morning, before 



other pupils arrived, three happy boys came to Miss For- 
ritt, their understanding, home-room teacher. There they 
stood before her desk — Ira, Marco, and Tommy! The 
glory of the day was in their faces. All three were trying 
to be polite, but Tommy and La, making a duet of their 
talk, told how day after day they had walked with Marco, 
how they had tried to help, how they had failed, and how, 
finally, on the afternoon before as they walked, all three of 
them got to crying and Marco talked. Now everything 
was all right. “ Is that right, Marco, is everything all 
right. The teacher really did not need to inquire, for 
Marco smiled; the light had come back to his eyes. These 
three first-class fighting men were again brothers in arms, 
ready to attack the citadel of their ov/n ignorance and also 
ready for all healthy adventures. Later, these three boys 
told the teacher what was the torment in Marco’s mind. 
Since she was a wise teacher, she had asked few questions, 
but understood and waited. It is this altruistic spirit of 
youth that can be the spirit of the home-room and can en- 
able these youthful citizens to bear one another’s burdens. 

The home-room can aid directly in educational guidance. 
The school itself, by its offerings and by its administration, 
should enable pupils to explore both their own interests and 
abilities and what the school has to offer in both curricular 
and extra-curricular activities. Parents sometimes want 
their children to take courses for which they are not fitted, 
or, if they are able to take the course, it may be one that 
gives little promise of either an immediate or a deferred 
value for this particular pupil. “ Broadening and Finding 
Courses,” as worked out by Dr. H. B. Bruner and pre- 
sented in his Junior High School at Work, have much to 
commend them. However, no matter how effective these 
courses are, there must be the human contact. The class- 
room teachers of the various courses can be of great help, 



but the pupil is not divisible and the results of all explora- 
tions can come together most helpfully for the pupil in one 
adviser. There can be an educational counselor to give 
expert advice, but such a counselor, with a thousand or 
more pupils to advise, cannot do all the work that ought to 
be done. Such a counselor must do much of the advisory 
work through the teachers, and especially through the 
teacher who knows the pupil in relation to his home, his 
community, his in-school and his out-of-school studies and 
activities, and his probable future. As departmentalized 
high schools are now organized, this person is the home- 
room teacher. 

The home-room can aid in social guidance. Pupils often 
do not know how to work or play happily or effectively 
with their fellows. They have the capacity for coopera- 
tion, but have not yet acquired the ability to do effective 
team work. The school carrying on its activities, espe- 
cially in the leadership of its extra-curricular activities, is a 
selective agent. It selects as its leaders those who are 
learning how to do cooperative work. Leaders, to be sure, 
are born — otherwise they would not exist; but leadership, 
as well as intelligent followship, can be developed in actual 
situations. There seems to be an instinctive tendency on 
the part of some pupils to want to lead, and if they cannot 
lead, some of them will not play. In small boys’ baseball 
games often they all want to pitch, catch, bat, or play first 
base, and no one of them is willing to take his turn in right 
field. Such qualities are probably not peculiar to youth of 
high-school age. Possibly one can observe that there are 
some adults, even some adult leaders, who, in the march of 
life, can keep step only when they beat the drum. Pupils 
faced with the necessity of picking the right leader, if they 
are to be successful in their enterprise, can be taught to 
look for, expect, and demand certain qualities in the leaders 



they choose. They can be taught that leadership is not 
the peculiar privilege of a few. For example, a survey of 
home-room 104, composed of thirty-four pupils, grade 9A, 
a medium group, in the Byers Junior High School of Den- 
ver, spring term, i<)25, disclosed die following distribution 
of leadership as represented by being elected to office by 
one’s fellows: 

1. Nuinher holding offices, 12. 

2. \ umber ot offices held by 12, 22. 

3. Number holding more th«in one office: 6 hold two otilices; 2 
hold three ollu'e^. 

4. Number ol jiupils who have held offices, 25. (Number of 
pujiils who entered this \ear, 4.) 

5. Per cent of puiiils (iiresent before this year) who ha\e held 
('ffi('i*. S3 3 jier cent. 

6. PupiN who do not hold and ha\ e not held office, 4. 

7. Pu[nls who hold office now', but only entered this >ear, 3. 

S. Pujiils who do not hold ofliiv now' but ()nl> entered this 
\ ear, i . 

9. NumbiT of offices held before this term, 92. 

10. Pupils who ha\'e firexiously held one office, H; twf) offices, i; 
three offices, 4; four offices, 3; live offices, 2; six offices, 2; 
se\en offices, 4; eight offices, i. 

It seems reasonable to conclude that it is only by wise 
guidance that such a distribution could exist. According 
to Kipling, the Master in The Brushwood Boy, by arrang- 
ing the situation, by half-hint, and by suggestion, taught 
Georgie ("ottar how to be a leader of boys and in turn a 
leader of men. 

In the present stage of civilization, teachers cannot do 
much to determine the qualities which a pupil inherits, but 
they can do a great deal to provide favorable circumstances 
under which these (|ualities develop. The home-room is 
the school’s first opportunity to determine the pupil’s en- 
\ ironment. The ideal is not to develop a few leaders who 
may make a great showing for the school, but rather to 



provide the opportunity for all pupils to develop their 
initiative, their ability to cooperate, to lead, and to be in- 
telligently obedient to authority. The place to develop 
these abilities for the junior citizen in school, as for the 
adult citizen in the state, is, first of all, in his own com- 
paratively small community with his own fellows — in a 
large high school this small community means his own 
home-room, his recitation groups - then in his class — 
freshmen, sophomore, junior, senior — and finally, in the 
organization of the whole school. 

Not all of social guidance is found in what is written, or 
what is usually read, by schoolmasters. Social guidance, 
if it is effective, should extend beyond the home-room, be- 
yond the boundaries of the whole school. The worth of 
this guidance is determined by what pupils do out of school 
as well as by what they do in school. Probably some 
teachers may get a l)roader view of social conditions by 
reading Mrs. Kleanor Rowland \A"embridge’s seventeen 
stories of Other People's Daughters. Certainly teachers 
who aspire to adv ise girls can understand some girls better 
if they get an insigh^ into these “drifting girls of the big 
cities who pass by day from one temporary job to another, 
by night from movie to dance hall, seeking joy and the ful- 
fillment of their youth. “ Some .school adviser may get a 
new light on boy.^^ if he will ponder the case of two 
snobs, J. Henley Smolett, Jr., and Izzy Smolensky, in 
Joseph Golloinb’s That Year at Lincoln High, or read 
Howard liurdge’s study of 245,000 sixteen , seventeen-, 
and eighteen-year-old employed boys iii the State of New 
York. Even those who would advise in community, 
.social, and religious affairs might get a new point of view in 
Richard’s Fear God in Your Chvn Village, as he tells 
the “ true story of an attempt to put the fear of God into an 
American rural comniunity; that is, to bring order out of 


the chaos of its social and civic affairs, to put pride and 
cooperation into the place of suspicion and individualism, 
to make narrow prejudice and plain cussed ness give way to 
sympathy and unselfish service.” It is entirely possible 
for the schoolmaster to get too mcch of a kind of so-called 
pedagogy and too little life in his study of young people of 
high-school age. 

The home-room can aid in arranging the educational 
situation so that there is a favorable opportunity for moral 
guidance. The selection of subject-matter and the meth- 
ods of teaching have a great place in the development of 
ethical character. Something can be done by direct 
moral instruction. Extra-curricular activities in their 
freedom, shared responsibilities, necessity for choices, in- 
tellectual and emotional satisfactions, furnish a real oppor- 
tunity for moral guidance and moral growth. The home- 
room can be the garden plot for starting right actions that 
will bloom through all the life of the school. The interest 
in those things which make for social order and social pro- 
gress, and the desire and increasing ability on the part of 
pupils to put these principles into practice, are of them- 
selves means of developing character. To help right ideals 
become “working forces in behavior” is a part of the op- 
portunity of the home-room. 

The home-room can aid in vocational, or, at least, in pre- 
vocational guidance. Edgerton,* in a study of 143 city 
departments, or bureaus, found that 96 arranged to assist 
all pupils by means of vocational counseling; 74 attempted 
to provide all pupils with educational guidance and voca- 
tional preparation; 134 provided systematic employment 
or placement systems; 11 provided systematic employ- 
ment supervision or follow-up work. In the program for 
vocational counseling which Professor Edgerton helped de- 

• Edgerton, A. II Vocational Counseling and Preparation of School Counselors. 



velop in Detroit, the Board of Education made available 
in the form of a series of bulletins on vocational informa- 
tion, Opportunities and Requirements in Local Occupations, 
Plainly such a work requires the services of the vocational 
expert. However, when it comes to placing emphasis on 
the pupil’s “selecting a suitable life occupation and pre- 
paring for it,” the home-room teacher, because of the close, 
personal relations, has a unique opportunity in encouraging 
the pupil to get the information necessary to making an in- 
telligent selection. As one who has a direct part in making 
out the pupil’s schedule, the home-room teacher, right or 
wrong, must have something to do with the courses taken 
in securing preparation for the life occupation that has 
been, or is to be, selected. Again the home-room, through 
its own programs, can aid in presenting vocational infor- 
mation. The information, wholly or in part, may come 
from the vocational counselor, but both the attitude of the 
pupils and the final form of the program will depend largely 
on the home-room teacher. There is need for personal, 
educational, social, moral, and vocational guidance. Im- 
portant as vocational .^uidnnee is, teachers need to recog- 
nize that it is only one phase of pupil guidance. 

The basis of pupil participation in government is the 
home-room. The whole idea of pupil participation in 
government must grow. It cannot be transplanted nor 
can it be imposed from above. Pupils or teachers who do 
not participate intelligently in directing their own home- 
room alTairs are not yet ready to participate .ntelligently 
in the affairs of a student council. In any form of real 
democracy, the small units that compose it must be ac- 
tively participating. It is a very real question as to how 
long any form of democratic government among adults, no 
matter how wisely planned, can endure if half of the people 
accept their responsi!)ility so lightly that they do not even 



cast their votes. It seems to have taken a freedom-loving 
stock of coloni.^ts a century and a half to develop to the 
point where they could unite ‘‘to form a more perfect 
union.” Pu[)ils may study all the constitutions of pupil- 
teacher councils that have ever been written, but they 
have to work out and to live in such a scheme in compara- 
tively small groups before they have the ability to partici- 
pate intelligently in larger groups. Knowledge alone does 
not ensure satisfactory performance. The school that 
elects its student council at large from the whole school can 
expect a quick growth and a quicker failure. 'Fhe life of 
the whole is determined first of all by the soundness of its 
parts. The home-room organization is ilu' core of the idea 
of pupil partieijMtion in government. It is here, so far as 
the school is effective, that the ability to be self-directive, 
in whatever degree it is attained, is first developed. This 
development in self-direction in the home-room can come 
as a result of managing its own affairs and in sending re- 
presentatives, from this small group to the larger group, or 
groups, and these representatives bringing back for dis- 
cussion and decision the recommendations of the larger 
groups. There ha\c been, and probably always will be, 
emergencies when the representati\cs of the small groups 
have to make immediate decisions, but in s<'h(Kds, at least, 
if there is to be any permanency of the scheme, suc'h action 
must be a real exception rather than the rule. Decisions 
handed down from a few ])upil leaders may be absolutely 
right decisions, but unless the 1)111)11:. as a whole have had 
a real part in making these decisions, they have h^id no real 
chance to educate themselves to the point where they can 
live by them. Is a scheme of pupil participation in school 
government sound? Will it live? In order to find out, 
look first of all at the condition in the home-room. Do the 
ideas rise from the bottom — the home-room — or do they 



come from the top — the student council — or, perhaps, 
from a more or less invisible principal? 

Must the principal have no ideas of his own? Certainly 
he must have a constructive program. Perhaps he has the 
plans for a real scheme of pupil participation all worked out 
in his mind. Without such a plan he has little chance of 
real success. It probably took him some years to get to the 
point where he could work out such a scheme. However, 
the fact that he has it is no reason for thinking he can trans- 
fer it bodily to either teachers or pupils. If he is wise he 
can begin organizing home-rooms, and guide teachers and 
pupils so that their education in the difficult art of demo- 
cratic control will progress much more rapidly than it 
would without his guidance. The basis for enabling 
pupils — and teachers as well — to develop the ability to 
participate intelligently in directing their own extra-curric- 
ular affairs is in the life and organization of the home- 
room. Principals and teachers recognize, or are coming 
to recognize, that pupil participation is a means for training 
in democratic thinking, fecUufi, and acting, rather than just 
a way of getting worth '^hile things done. 

The home-room can furnish a favorable opportunity for 
developing ideals. The writer recalls a high-school senior 
who got an idea in the home-room period. He was the 
husky captain of the school’s ‘‘Varsity” football team, 
and, at the time, proljably the best tackle on any second- 
ary-school team in Greater New York City. When he 
stood up to talk in the home-room, every one felt and knew 
that “Big Jake” was clean, rough, direct, honest, but this 
particular morning, as the result of some “horse-play” 
that grew out of his awkward sense of humor, he was “in 
bad” with the whole senior class and most of all with his 
own home-room. It was a tough job for the home-room to 
“discipline” him. I'he situation was tense. The doors 



were shut; it was a home-room, a ^‘family,” meeting. 
“ Big Jake” stood up. His speech was memorable. “Fel- 
lows,” he said, “ I never got it into my head until yesterday 
morning in the home-room, when you fellows were 
ing manners, that manners were just another form of good 
sportsmanship. I’m sorry. If 3^ou are willing, I’ll dis- 
cipline myself.” A shout went up! These boys knew he 
would do what he said. The home-room president re- 
lieved the situation and restored order when he said, “Jake, 
we are all for you. If you don’t look out, you will grow up 
to he a man yet.” Ideals are formed, in part, by what the 
group demands and accepts. 

As every one knows who has been a home-room teacher 
or a principal, outstanding cases of succesvses and failures 
marshal themselves in memory. For teachers of experi- 
ence, probably illustrations are unnecessary, for their own 
minds are full of so many cases that go to show, in spite of a 
fascinating variety of foolish performances, that the heart 
and the mind of youth are fundamentally sound. If ex- 
perience w'ith youth is lacking, all that most people have to 
do is to look within and remember themselves. 

A summary of the purposes of the home-room. In the 
classes of graduate students in extra-curricular activities 
that the writer has had, there have always been groups of 
student.-^ who have been especially interested in home- 
rooms.. These groups in making their reports to the class 
have stated that, among other things, the purposes of the 
home-room are: 

To develop individual and group initiative, right habits and 

To inspire to greater or higher effort along desirable lines. 

To develop that discriminating loyalty which is enduring. 

To develop such social principles and regard for others as loyalty, 
friendship, fair play, honesty, sympathy, respect, sincerity, social 
interdependence, unselfish service. 



To discuss proper attitudes toward, and habits of, good citizen- 

To provide opportunity for the development of intelligent obe- 
dience to authority. 

To develop the cultural, the social, the loyalty side of school life, 
thereby fostering a high type of idealism. 

To develop social and civic interests in the entire school and 

To develop a consciousness of ultimate goals underlying imme- 
diate goals. 

To develop graceful and gracious ways of getting along with 

To develop efficient execution of duties. 

To develop clean living in mind, body, and surroundings. 

To develop an attitude and a regard for beauty — the apprecia- 
tion of music, or art, and of literature, and of attractive surround- 
ings, cultivated voices, tasteful attire; not only knowledge and at- 
titudes, but skill in these. 

To help pupils have a healthy emotional life. 

To help pupils know and feel that the way to have the qualities 
they want to have is to practice these qualities. 

To furnish a favorable opportunity for every member of the 
home-room to practice the qualities of the good citizen with satis- 

To create and maintain high class standards in classroom work. 

To capitalize by approval, successful achievement of e\'ery 
member of the home-room. 

Probably no one of these class groups that, after dis- 
cussion among themselves, has set down the purposes 
quoted, believes the home-room can accomplish all of these 
purposes, or any one of them in its entirety, yet these ex- 
perienced men and women do believe that it is necessary 
for the home-room, the family group of the school, to de- 
velop along such lines as they set forth. 

The time allotted in the schedule will be determined by 
the purposes of the home-room period. If any, or all, of 
the purposes of the home-room that have been presented so 
far in this discussion are to be realized, there must be a 



definite allotment of time. In a study of some 200 schools, 
65 per cent had 10 to 20 minutes daily, and one period 40 
to 60 minutes in length once a week; 14 per cent had 45 to 
60 minutes, one to three times a week: 12 per cent had 5 
minutes daily; and 9 per cent had 30 minutes daily. In 
studying current practice, it is necessary also to consider at 
what time in the day the home-room period shall be. In 
the study to which reference has just been made, 56 per 
cent of the schools had the home-room period at the be- 
ginning of the morning period ; 14 per cent at the end of the 
second period ; 1 1 per cent at the beginning of the aftcrnot)n 
session; ii per cent at the close of the afternoon session; 
and 8 per cent at other times during the day. 

The Manual for High Schools of Pennsylvania presents 
“A Suggested Outline for a School-Activities Period,” 
with the home-room period the first day of the week, cobp- 
erativ’e pupil government the second day, school assembly 
the third day, club meetings the fourth day, and faculty 
activities the fifth day. The plan just presented is recom- 
mended by the Pennsylvania Manual for schools of twenty 
or more teachers. For medium-size schools — six or eight 
to twenty teachers — three instead of five periods are re- 
commended, and for small schools — four to eight teachers 
— two periods per week arc considered desirable. 

Specific examples might be cited almost indefinitely, but 
sound practice seems to indicate that there is a necessity 
for more time for home-room activity in the junior than in 
the senior high school, but that, in any case, as a minimum, 
there should be a daily period of not less than ten minutes 
and one full period of the same length as the recitation 
period, once a week. Principals, or groups of teachers, 
must justify the home-room period on the same basis that 
they must justify the use of any period for any purpose — 
by the worth, both immediate and deferred, of the activity 
that goes on during the period. 



What shall be the pupil composition of the home-room? 

Shall the pupil composition of the home-room be deter- 
mined by classes — freshman, sophomore, etc. ^ Shall it be 
determined by intellij^ence quotient? By intelligence quo- 
tient within the class? By accomplishment quotient? 
By class and by sex within the class? By grouping pupils 
of all years of the school alphabetically? By sex? Shall 
the pupils be grouped by elementary or junior high schools 
from which they come? By the curriculum pursued? By 
extra-curricular interests? By age? By age and sex? 
Arguments for and against each of these plans may not be 
of equal weight, but they exist. Probably some of these 
plans should be examined further before any recommenda- 
tion is made. 

1. By classes, and alphabetic ivithin the class. This plan 
makes possible intelligent, exploratory work for any class, 
for the entering class, for example, or for the .seniors. It is 
an administrative, as well as an advi.sory, workable plan. 
It provides a typirally divcisified group, held together by a 
community of interests. It allows for easy expansion from 
increased attendance v hout overturning the adminis- 
trative machiner>’. Any other plan frequently breaks 
down in the senior year. This plan permits grouping by 
sex without giving up any of the claims already made. 

2. By representatives of all classes within the school, (In 
the 8-4 plan this would mean four years in the high school, 
and in the 6-3-3 pkm, three years in the junior and three 
years in the senior high school.) The home-room is a home 
room; it is the “family” within the school. Children in a 
family are of different ages; the ^^oiinger learn from the 
older, and the older really develop themselves in aiding the 
youngei'. This plan may eliminate class “scraps.” It is 
true that some scho(ds give it up in the senior year, but it 
remains an effective plan to prevent undue class rivalry. 


It is true that this grouping may be difficult to administer 
so far as records and reports are concerned, but the present 
search is for the best, not for the easiest, plan. This plan 
enables the same teacher, if he remains in the same school, 
to have only a comparatively few new pupils each year and 
fewer new homes and parents to know. The upper-class- 
men have more opportunity to hold office and the incom- 
ing pupils can learn how to lead by watching the older ones 
and, if necessary, “fagging” for them. 

3. By sex. Advocates of this plan claim that either sex, 
in dealing with personal problems, works better if the other 
is out of the way; that especially during the adolescent 
period segregation wherever possible is best; that there are 
fewer disciplinary problems; that there is more freedom of 
expression, especially if there is a man home-room teacher 
for the boys and a woman for the girls; that if some ques- 
tions are to be discussed there would have to be separate 
meetings if boys and girls are in the same home-room; and 
that by this plan these questions can be discussed in a 
natural setting in the home-room. 

4. By intelligence quotients or ability ratings ^vithin 
classes. In many large senior and junior high schools, 
pupils are classified according to ability to do class work, 
and some educators claim that the same reasons that jus- 
tify such grouping for class work apply with equal force to 
the home-room. In organizing the Speyer Junior High 
School in 1916, with 200 seventh-grade boys, the pupils 
that ranked i to 25 in intelligence were placed in one home- 
room as well as class group; pupils who ranked 26 to 50 
made up another group, and so on until the 200 boys were 
in eight groups.* This plan was studied critically during 
the first three years of this school, and none of the terrible 

■ Frctwell. Elbert K. A Study in Educational Prognosis. Bureau of Publication' 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 



things, that are said to be undemocratic, developed 
Leadership on various levels existed. A greater number 
had a chance to succeed rather than to become discouraged 
by repeated, comparative failures in home-room activities 
and programs. In fact, as intelligence testing is carried 
on, some of the real leaders of the school will possibly not 
be in the groups of the highest I.Q. 

5. By elementary or hy junior high schools. To group the 
incoming pupils by the schools from which they come is to 
bridge the gap from one school to another. As C. F. 
Allen, when he was principal of the West Side Junior High 
School of Little Rock, said: “The home-room group is the 
‘family* that ‘moved’ to a new location, there to grow up 
together and go on to senior high school together.” At 
least this plan has much to commend it for the first term of 
the new school. Speyer Junior High School boys, when 
they went to DeWitt Clinton Senior High School, asked to 
be kept together. The request was granted by Dr. Paul, 
the principal, and the results were wholesome. No unde- 
sirable “clicks” were in evidence, and old loyalties were 
not broken down, but m«. ged naturally into new loyalties. 

6. By first-period recitation groups. This plan makes for 
flexibility; the home-room or the recitation period can be 
lengthened or shortened according to the demands of the 
particular day. One principal says, “We formerly had a 
fifteen-minute period — just long enough really to do little 
and too long to waste, so we combined with the first period, 
making the first period fifteen minutes longer than other 
periods and all home-room groups have their first recitation 
in their home-rooms.” 

7. By curriculum pursued^ or by extra-curricular activity. 
This plan is said to make for a natural grouping of kindred 
minds in an association that is mentally stimulating. 
However, it is recognized that, psychologically, the atten- 


tion-span is relatively short, that interests shift, that such 
a plan may be narrowing instead of broadening, and that 
lack of exploration may also lead to a lack of integration. 

8. Random selection within a cUis^ or within the school. 
This plan gets away from the monotony of ha\ ing possibly 
all names within the home-room begin with the same letter 
of the alphabet, and thus in the beginning setting up an 
artificial relation. However, such a grouping makes for 
certain administrative difticulties. 

The criteria for judging which plan or combination of 
plans is best will be based, probably, on the answers to 
such questions as these: Is the plan simple.'^- workable? 
— adaptable? — democratic? Does it fit in with the 
organization of the school? Does it foster participation in 
citizenship activities? In short, does it come nearest to 
realizing the purposes which the school desires to realize in 
the home-room period? The waiter is inclined to favor 
grouping by classes and homogeneousl>’, and where there 
are a sufficient number of men teachers, by sex, w ithin the 
classes. In making any decision, many conditions within 
the particular school must be taken into consideration, 
such as: How are pupils grouped for recitation purposes, 
and to what extent is the club program de\ eloped ^ What 
is the nature of home-room programs, and how effective 
are the teachers in personal pupil contacts? W hat is the 
proportion of men to women teachers? W hat is the per- 
manency of the teaching staff? How long docs the same 
home-room teacher remain with the same group. and 
many other questions. Any particular school needs to 
consider all possible groupings and, in view of the condi- 
tions in the school and the conditions the school desires to 
create, decide what to do. 

The home-room sponsor. The sponsor’s skill in guiding 
pupils finally determines the success of home-room acti\i- 



ties. The purposes of the home-room may be philosophi- 
cally accepted, sufficient time may be provided in the 
schedule, the principal may have done what he should do, 
the pupils may be eaj?er, but in any specific room the suc- 
cess of the work is determined finally by the sponsor. In 
the work of the sponsor at this point three questions need 
consideration: (i) How long shall an individual teacher re- 
main with one group of pupils? (2) How shall a group of 
sponsors organize themselves for effective work? (3) How 
shall a sponsor, or group of sponsors, share in planning 
home-room activities? 

The length of time a sponsor remains with one group will 
be determined by the whole school plan. Evidently a 
principal may appoint a teacher as sponsor for a particular 
group of pupils for one semester, for a year, or for the 
length of time this group of pupils remains in school. 
I'herc are certain advantages and disadvantages in each 
plan. If a certain group of teachers have pupils of the 
same level year after year, they have a favorable oppor- 
tunity to learn the nee of such groups. For exam- 
ple, if a teacher has a freshman home-room year after 
year, this teacher can develop the material and tech- 
nicpie for introducing pupils into the work and life of 
the school quickly and successfully. If a certain group 
of teachers always have senior home-rooms, they can 
become expert in guiding seniors in such phases of the 
work as checking up on graduation requl»*ements, meet- 
ing business or college-entrance requirements, planning 
commencement activities, guiding seniors in their im- 
portant positions as pupil leaders of the whole school. 
Opposed to this plan the home-room sponsor may begin 
with a freshman group, and advance, in so far as it is ad- 
ministratively possible, with the same group until it grad- 
uates. By this plan one teacher knows a particular pupil 



in his whole life in the school. This teacher can know the 
pupil, his home, his developing interests in a cumulative 
way. There is no loss of necessary’ information, no lost 
motion from semester to semester. By such a plan there 
can be greater unity and continuity of effort in such a 
three- or four-year home-room. Since all teachers are not 
equally well suited to the work of being a home-room spon- 
sor, it should be noted that if a pupil has the misfortune to 
be in the home-room of an ineffective sponsor, it seems a 
double misfortune for him to have to remain in his home- 
room during his whole life in the school. 

Any group of home-room sponsors who are responsible 
for the pupils of a particular class, freshman, for example, 
have many common problems. In the high school at 
Wilmington, Delaware, Principal M. Channing Wagner and 
his teachers arrange that the home-room sponsors of any 
one class shall meet for the discussion of problems peculiar 
to their class. This same group elects one of its number as 
chairman of the group, and this chairman, as the result of 
this election, becomes adviser for this particular class as a 
whole. In some large schools, as is shown in the chapter 
on Class Organization, there is for each class a class adviser 
who does little or no teaching. This teacher, both through 
the home-room and directly, acts as adviser to all the pupils 
of the class and to their home-room teachers. The effec- 
tiveness of such a class adviser is usually determined by 
the adviser’s ability to work with teachers and pupils in the 
comparatively small home-room units. 

With the active leadership of the principal, the teachers 
should share in working out the plan of home-room organi- 
zation. This is one way for the teachers to educate them- 
selves so that they can work intelligently in the plan after 
it is started. It is easier for the principal to dictate the 
plan and set up the machinery of its operation than it is to 



arrive at possibly the same plan by having the teachers 
share in the educative responsibility of working it out. 
There is a chance at least that the method of the principal 
with the teachers will be reflected in the work of the teach- 
ers with their pupils. The solving of worth-while and 
immediate problems in interesting social situations is, in 
itself, the soundest kind of education. The responsibility 
rests with the principal, but this does not prevent his hav- 
ing the teachers, in a very real sense, share in the oppor- 
tunities provided in meeting this responsibility. 

There can be a real joy in being a home-room sponsor. 
There are endless problems to solve. These problems 
touch practically every phase of the life of youth, in and 
out of school. Working on these problems may puzzle the 
brain, bankrupt the emotions, and make endless demands 
on a sense of humor, but there can be a real satisfaction and 
an appreciation that pays compound interest. It may 
have been suspected that the writer enjoyed being a home- 
room teacher. He did. He enjoyed his group, his “fam- 
ily” of boys. He enjoyH fighting with them, for them, 
and even, in some rare cases, against them. He knows 
that his boys, as boys have a habit of doing, became in- 
creasingly able to direct themselves, and he believes such 
increasing self-direction is a fundamental part of education. 
As early as 1917, Hieronimous thought it was necessary “to 
require as definite attention to this phase of their [the 
teachers’] work as to any other, and to consider their quali- 
fications and success here equally with teaching ability 
when employing or re-employing them.” ^ That which 
C. E, Brown, the Senior Science Master at Christ’s Hos- 
pital, says of the teacher, applies admirably to the home- 
room sponsor. He says: “The teacher must be the guide, 

» Hieronimous. N. C. "The i’eacher-Adviser in the Junior High School,” Educa^ 
tional Administration and Supervision, 3:93. 



philosopher and friend who helps the tyro to think out 
connections and unostentatiously suggests, in collabora- 
tion with the pupil, the most usefu’ line of attack on a prob- 
lem. On him lies the responsibility of fostering good 
habits, encouraging the inquirer and helping him to adoi)t 
all unconsciously, the scientific method in every stage of 
his work.” * 

The organization within the home-room. The organi- 
zation within the home-room will be determined largely by 
two factors: the program of activities to be carried on 
within the room, and the relation to activities outside the 
home-room, including the school ofilce, the class organiza- 
tion, and the student council. There is usually a president 
who takes charge in the teacher’s absence and whose main 
duty is, on the one hand, constructive pkuining, and, on 
the other, as chief executive, to see that responsibilities 
assumed by an individual, or group, arc met and met on 
time. The vice-president is often a real officer with duties 
of his own as business manager and general director of all 
campaigns that involve money or material. A secretary 
usually handles all records and announcements within the 
room and in relation to the office. There is often a home- 
room treasurer, and this same officer sometimes serves as a 
thrift treasurer. Some schools have an officer who greets 
all visitors and guides his class in observance of traffic 
regulations. Junior high schools often have a “deputy” 
or sergeant-at-arms, whose chief business it is to see that 
regulations, once made, are enforced. There are, natu- 
rally, a variety of committees such as: a welfare committee 
that looks after the health of the pupils — physical and 
mental; a help-study committee that keeps absent pupils in 
touch with class work, helps returned absentees catch up; 

* Brown, C. E. "The Heuristic Methcid”; chapter lo, page 150, in Education' 
Movements and Methods, edited by John Adams. 



a bulletin board committee that assists all committees in see- 
ing that the home-room bulletin board tells the achieve 
ments of the pupils of the home-room, of other home 
rooms, and of the school as a whole. Where devotional ex 
ercises are conducted in the home-room, there is often a 
committee that selects with care what to read, as well as a 
leader for each devotional exercise. The committees in 
probably no two home-rooms will be the same, but, as will 
be shown later in the discussion of home-room programs, 
there may be many other committees for long, or, more 
often, for short, periods. 

The officers within the room may be the representatives 
of the room in outside activities. Thus, in the Washing- 
ton Junior High School, Rochester, there was a federation 
of home-room units. The principal of the school acted as 
advivser of home-room presidents, and this group worked 
together with special attention to all matters involving 
.school morale. The group of secretary- treasurers in this 
school had, as their adviser, the school treasurer, who 
guided them in all financial affairs. The ushers, who re- 
ceived all visitors, had tx*v,ir group adviser. This group 
could plan traffic and initiate campaigns of courtesy. In 
an increa.sing number of high schools, junior and senior, 
the home-room representatives to class organizations, or to 
student councils, are elected from the home-room. 

The selection of leaders in the home-room furnishes the 
members, including the sponsor, a real educational situa- 
tion. Here is an opportunity for the pupiKs to make an in- 
telligent choice. Unfortunately, there are some teachers 
who rob pupils of this educative opportunity by making 
the choice for them. According to original nature, people 
probably select as a leader one who has a fine physical ap- 
pearance, a ''glad hand,'' a smooth tongue, and who makes 
lairy-like promises. This type of politician has not yet 


vanished entirely from ward politics, county chairman- 
ships, or legislative halls. How arc pupils going to learn 
how to select leaders? The answer is: In the same way 
they learn almost every other taing — by doing it. The 
home- room sponsor has, however, a real chance to render 
first-aid. The sponsor can arrange the situation so that 
pupils will discuss the qualities they desire in their leaders. 
In actual practice, in such a discussion, pupils present their 
ideal qualities of a leader. This preliminary discussion 
usually results in defining the duties of leaders, and the 
subsequent elections, as a rule, result in intelligent choices 
by the pupils. These choices often come as a surprise to 
the sponsor, for the pupils sometimes know their fellows 
much better than the sponsor knows them. Many pupils 
who are ringleaders in mischief are real leaders, and re- 
sponsibility, established by the free choice of their peers, 
frequently has a healthy, sobering effect. 

Home-room activities are a means of realizing the pur- 
poses of the home-room. The simple machinery of the 
home-room that has been discussed exists as a means of 
accomplishing definite purposes that can be foreseen and, 
also, as a means of accomplishing other purposes as they 
arise. The organization is necessary, and some types of 
organization furnish a more favorable opportunity than do 
others for worth-while constructive, creativT activity on 
the part of both the teacher and the pupils. However, the 
means is not to be confused with the ends. Among these 
ends to be attained, wholly or in part by the pupils and the 
teacher in the home-room activities, are: 

An intelligent understanding of the school en\ ironnient. 

An opportunity for a friendly, happy, bynip«ilh(‘tic living with 
their fellows here and now. 

An opportunity to work for and with a small grouj), and, as a 
member of this organized group, to work for the good of the school 



and, in this service, to merge one’s self, probably unconsciously, 
in a cause bigger than any individual, or any single group of in- 

An opportunity for intimate, intelligent, sympathetic guidance 
- - personal, educational, social, vocational, and a vocational. 

An opportunity “ to belong,” to be somebody, and not to be lost 
in the ‘‘big business” of the school. 

An opportunity to be a member of a group where indiv idual and 
group successes are celebrated, and where there is some one to 
whom one can talk and be understood. 

An opi)ort unity on the part of the pupil to have some one teacher 
who sees and studies him whole, rather than in his departmental- 
ized parts. 

Suggestions for home-room activities. The following 
activities are presented with the hope that they may serve 
as a means to help adniinLstrators, teachers, and pupils 
think through their own problems. It should be kept in 
mind that the work of the home-room is not standardized, 
and there arc many successful home-room teachers who 
hope and believe it never will be. 

During the Summer Sesvsion, 1925, a Home-Room Com- 
mittee ^ of the writer’s t. adents presented to a class in 
Extra-Curricular Activities the following detailed plans for 
home-room organization and work; 


I. Purpose 

a. fiiiidance, ethical, educational, and vocational. 

b. Opportunity for practicing self-directiv'e, democratic 

c. Enrichment of classroom activity. 

d. Means for the formation of desirable public opinion. 

e. .vdministrati\ e uin't for routine matters. 

• This conuiiittee had as its members: Lulu B Beckington, Mary H. Blair, Guy 
B Blakey, Fli)rencc Burger, Kath('-;ne Burton, Harry D. Emerich, Mrs. Berta M. 
Hill, Joseph B Lacey, Eniersoi. il Landis, William VV. Lauver, Esther Lee MeVay, 
Librador K Meol.t, Bertha A Merrill, Norman P. Nelson, Lillian Niebes, Minnie 
May Sweets, Litta Tumbleson, Florence Winslow, Harriet M. Ziegler. 


II. Organization uithin the home-room 

a. Officers: President, Representatives t^ Student Council, 

Secretary, Attendance Officer, Traffic Officer. (The above 

officers to be elected by popular ballot and to hold office for 

one semester.) 

b. Special committees 

1. Scholarship: To de\ise ways and means of raising 
scholarship standards. 

2. Good housekeeping: To maintain neatness and order 
about the room. 

3. Discipline: To impro\e and strengthen the disciplin^^ 
of room. 

4. Thrift; To encourage systematic sa\ing on the part 
of p)upils. 

5. W'elfare; To visit absent members, assist them in 
making up work, etc. 

6 . Public it> :To write up the room news for the school paper. 

7. Roosters: To stimulate school si)irit and home-room 

8. Manners and conduct: To set the pnittern to obser\c 
and to correct, if necessary, breaches of manners or 
conduct on the part of home-room membiTs. 

9. Health scpiad: To stimulate interest in the simple rules 
and observances requisite for gfjod health. 

10. Debating: To arrange for inter- and intra-room and 
class debates. 

11. Excursions: To arrange for trips to hjcal factories, etc. 

12. r)ramatic: To assist in selecting and presenting plays 
on the room program; to insi)ire interest in worth- 
while local plays and good mo\ing pictures. 

13. Literary: To gi\c brief reviews of worth-while books; 
to arrange for literary talks by representatives from 
English classes. 

14* Current events: To keep the room informed of im- 
portant c\ents taking place in the world daily. 

15. Charity: To plan and carry through some definite 
charity work in such a way that each may contribute 
in time and effort. 

16. Athletics: To encourage participation by every home- 
room student in some ffirm of athletics, organize room 
teams, arrange for contests with other home-rooms. 



17. Social: To plan room parties, receptions to parents, etc. 

1 8. Citizenship: To demonstrate the relationship which 
exists between the home-room activities within the 
school and citizenship within the community; to 
furnish information on parliamentary procedure. 

IQ. Art: To ad\'ertise the weekly program on the black- 
board, prepare posters for room contests, etc. 

20. Special programs: To arrange for outside speakers 
when necessary. 

III. Outline for a program based on the seven cardinal principles of 
secondary education 
A. Health 

1. Aims 

a. Correct health habits; personal cleanliness, hygienic 
dress, sane division of work, play, and rest. 
h. Health interests of home, school, and community, 
c. Interri'Iation of physical and mental \igor. 

2. Devices: Illustrated talks, i)antomimes and tableaux, 
health contests, reports of nurse’s in\’estigations. 

3. Committees in charge: Health Squad, (jood Housekeep- 
ing, Art, Excursion, Athletic, Social, Dramatic. 

R. Command of the fundamental processes 

1. Aims; Cai)italizatio’. of persomil achievement in class 

2. Devices: Plays, talks, story-telling. 

3. Committees in charge: Scholarship, Publicity, Boosters. 

C. Worthy home membership 

1. Aims: Respect for authority in home-room; attitude of 
individual toward his associates; group responsibility; 
altruism, ser\ ice, courtesy and hospitality; thrift habits 
in time and money. 

2. Devices: Attendance and punctuality drives, study of 
handbook, orientation talks by upper-classmen, room 
creed, slogan, yell, song; thrift drives, dramatization 
and parties. 

3. Committees in charge: Manners and Conduct, Thrift, 
Welfare, Discipline, Art. 

D. Vocations 

I. Aims 

a. Right attitude toward work. 

b. Investigation of vocations: Survey of the whole field; 


study of special vocations with regard to qiialitiep 
necessary for success, preparation requirements, and 
present and probably future in x ocation. 
c. Tentatn e personal vocational choice. 

2 . Devices: Contests for investigating the most vocations 
by indi\ iduals and home-rooms; talks by home- room 
members on \ ()cations; reports on interviews with other 
employers, employees, and professional men; outside 
speakers; \ isits to local plants and institutions; job 
analysis; selt -analysis contests with reference to jobs, 
and (iLiestionnaire on vocational choices to be tilled out 
at the end of the semester. 

3. Committees in charge: Special Program Committee, 
Home- Room Officers and Home- Room Teacher, Kx- 

E. Citizenship 

1. Aims: Privileges of citizenship, duties of ciiizen, re- 
sponsibility of citizen, intelligent obedience to consti- 
tuted authority; knowledge of and practice in parlia- 
mentary procedure; ap[)reciati\ e understanding of 
community, state, and national problems; efticiency in 
leadership; intelligent sup[)ort of effected leaders. 

2. Devices: Parliamentary drill, elections and cami)aigns, 
current events reports and discussions, inter- and intra- 
room debates on pertinent school and civic questions, 
reports on school and city ordinances, reports of student 
council representatives on council decisions, discussions 
of Who’s Who in school and community, visits to city 
council, courts, chamber (jf commerce, and so forth, by 
home representatives. 

3. Committees in charge: Welfare, ('itizenshii), ICxcursion, 

F. Worthy use of leisure 

1. Aims: Appreciatum music, drama, art, etc.; skill in 
sports, art of entertaining and being entertained, 

2. Devices: Book reviews, dramatic readings, literary con- 
tests, musical and art programs, talks on hobbies by 
pupils, reports on pleasure trips, hikes, discussion of 
plays and motion fnclures worth seeing, education and 
participation in athletics. 



3. Committees in charge: Social, Athletic, Dramatic, 
Literary, Current Events, Special Programs. 

G. Ethical character 

1. Aims: Characteristics of a gentleman or gentlewoman, 
altruistic acts. 

2. Devices: Musical, art, or dramatic programs; debates 
and discussions on ethical questions relating to school 
and life; gifts to the needy. Thanksgiving and Christ- 
mas baskets. 

3. Committees in charge: Manners and Conduct, Dra- 
matic, Art, Welfare, Charity. 

The foregoing are only suggestive. Conditions will vary in 
flilTerent j)laces. Keeping the school environment in mind, the 
thoughtful teacher may guide his pupils into lines of wholesome 
thinking and acting appropriate to their needs. The form of pro- 
gram should be \aried. Fhe idea suggested by the title may often 
heU be taught by some form of exercise in which the name of the topic is 
not mentioned and there is no moralizing. Dramatization has ad- 
vantages that should not be overlooked. Direct and indirect in- 
struction have a part, but the real development of the good citizen 
lies in right and satisfying action. In this sense the whole plan of 
home-room activities aims through practice to develop good citizens. 

To what extent shall rt-.e content of the home-room pro- 
grams be prescribed? It is conceivable that the principaPs 
office, directly and indirectly, can leave the home-room 
activities entirely to the teacher with neither suggestion, 
prescription, or supervision. At the other extreme, it is 
possible to think of the work of the home-room being en- 
tirely prescribed and, in a way, become just another class. 

The primary business of principals and teachers is to 
plan the situation so that there is a favorable opportunity 
for pupils to plan, select, discard, create, and, through 
many experiences, guided just enough, but not too much, 
learn how to live, work, play together, and to find satis- 
faction and real joy in cooperative group life. The right 
guidance at the right time may help. The building-up of 
certain knowledge, certain attitudes, certain habits, in ad' 


vance, may enable the individual to meet a crisis or have a 
more worth-while experience, but this knowledge, or these 
tendencies to react in certain ways, arc not built up in a 
vacuum. There is no reason for expecting the pupil to 
beha\'e intelligently away from home and scIkkjI unless 
real life situations exist in the home and in the school, 
whereby the pupil, by living with helpful guidance, learns 
how to direct himself. If in home, or in school, the adults 
do all the thinking and prescribe all the ac'tions for the 
child, or the pupil, it is unfair to expect a mirac'le to take 
place when he closes the apartment door, or goes out of the 
front gate, or down the high-school s\‘p^. ('hildren are 
what they are as a result of two factor^: i ilicritance and 
environment, and they have iK^hing to c! > with one, and 
exceedingly little to do with the other. If such ideas as 
these are accepted, it must be evident that the members of 
the home-room must not have everything done for them, 
but that they must have a favorable chance to work out 
many phases of personal and community life for themselves. 

In this comparatively free situation presented by the 
home-room, how shall the program of activities be worked 
out? If the teacher has in the home-room the same group 
of pupils for the whole period of their life in the school, and 
if this group, teacher and pupils, are sufficiently creative in 
their thinking, they can possibly work out a satisfactory 
program for themselves. 'Fhis group, however, is one of 
many groups; therefore, there must be some plan of coop- 
eration with other groups of the same class and of the 
whole school. In order to secure this necessary and help- 
ful team work, there must be some central group to guide 
home-room activities, and especially those phases that 
have to do with administrative work. 

Common elements. In addition to the administrative 
detail which teachers and pupils can handle quickly, there 



are in the same school certain common elements in all 
home-rooms, and a still greater number of these elements 
in the home-rooms of a particular class. These common 
elements can take up a part of the home-room period, and 
leave the remainder for the problems peculiar to the room 
and its individual members. Perhaps an example will 
make this point clear and serve, at the same time, to sug- 
gest certain worth-while activities. 

In the Tulsa High School, Tulsa, Oklahoma, there is a 
daily home-room period of twenty-five minutes for every 
pupil. Merle Prunty when he was principal, reported ^ that 
the “Common Elements in the Home-Room Programs*' 

1. Applied appropriate parliamentary procedure. 

2. Study and i^ractice of the principles of thrift. 

3. Discussions of desirable student citizenship qualities and the 
formulation of suggestions affecting student policies both 
within the school and in the community. 

4. W eekly reiiorts from the house of home-room represen tati\’es. 

5. Supj)ort l)y subscription, purchase of tickets, and the making of 
contril)utions to tlie variui* 3 school or community actix ities. 

6. Sympathetic personal counseling, directive conferences, and 
educatioiicd guidance. All registration details are cared for in 
home-rooms, so that we are able to run a full day of school the 
opening day of each semester. 

7. Election of school officers, including the discussion and ex al na- 
tion of desirable officer traits, the selection of nominating dele- 
gates, and biilloting on nominees in the final election. 

8. Promoiion of school art league through a pcmiy-a-week con- 
tribution and study of the school’s art exhibits. 

9. Daily reports from the fellowship committee regarding stu- 
dents absent from school on account of personal illness or for 
other reasons. 

10. Study of Hu tchins’s Ideals of the Good American, Collier’s Moral 
Code for Youth, learning of the American’s Creed, Preamble to 



the Constitution, national anthems, pledge of allegiance to the 
flag, and study of flag etiquette. 

II Learning the school’s creed, student’s prayer, school songs, 
school yells, and an understanding the school seal and the 
coat of arms. 

12. The preparation of individual home-room programs for class 

The core-content of the home-room program. As 

worked out by Prunty and his associates, there is a core- 
content for each year of the high school. For th^freshrneyi 
the program is: 

First, a systematic study of the high-schml manual of adminis- 
tration; and second, a study of appropriate manners for boys and 
girls in their various school contacts. 

The sophomore core-activity is a surv’cy and study of the various 
vocations open to trained men and women in Tulsa; second, a 
study of manners in the home relations of boys and girls; third, 
personal efficiency analysis in study and habits of behavior in the 
school, in the home, in church, and in neighborhood relations; and 
fourth, a consideration of personal traits making for success in their 
temporary chosen vocation, as derived from personal interviews 
with community leaders in those vocations. 

T\\^ junior home-room groups study, first, the world’s great con- 
structive inventions and discoveries which ha\e freed man from 
arduous labor and discomforts, which have liberated his mind for 
constructive work, and which have contributed to his success and 
happiness. Second, they study appropriate dress and beha\ ior for 
social functions. 

The senior home-room study, first, the makers of I he world’s 
great ideals in the various channels of our complex society; and 
second, the ethics of business and professional life and appropriate 
personal behavior in business and professional relations. 

The home-room bulletin. In the professional teachers’ 
meeting, the principal and his associates can discuss the 
purposes and resulting activities of all home-rooms. In the 
larger high school, at least, there can be an adviser, or class 
sponsor, or director, who is chairman of all the home- 



rooms of a particular class. These class sponsors, the 
assistant principals, or the adviser of boys and the adviser 
of girls, and the principal can, cooperatively, get out a 
daily, or weekly bulletin to all home-rooms. If the school 
is sufficiently large, the sponsor of each class, working in 
cooperation with the principal and other class sponsors, 
can get out a home-room bulletin for all the home-rooms 
of his class. An increasing number of schools, especially 
junior high schools, are coming to have a director of extra- 
curricular activities, who, under the supervision of the 
principal, prepares the weekly bulletin for all home-rooms. 
In some schools the secretaries of all home-rooms forward 
the minutes of the home-room meetings for each week to 
the principal, assistant principal, or director of activities. 
At the end of each month, or at least at the end of each 
semester, the home-room teachers can make a report evalu- 
ating the aims, activities, and achievements of their home- 

Behind whatever machinery there may be for adminis- 
tering the home-room activities, there must be a kind, and 
it is a very difficult kind, of “curriculum ’’-making. The 
detailed work of tlie advisory or home-room period in the 
Ben Blewett Junior High School, St. Louis, is admirably 
presented by Cox in his Creative School Controls Many high- 
school handbooks, especially the one published by the Win- 
field, Kansas, High School, give material that has been 
worked out by the various schools in developing the “cur- 
riculum ’’ of the home-room. It is fairly easy to make the 
work of the home-room just another course of study; it is 
difficult to develop the combination of necessary adminis- 
trative details and the kind of suggestions and raw material 
tha.f will ensure freedom and actual achievement on the 


part of teacher and pupils. It is the principal’s profes- 
sional duty to furnish, directly or indirectly, some pre- 
scribed activities, a wealth of stimulating suggestions, and 
finally constructive supervision. 

What is the spirit of the home-room? With all that has 
been said about the pupil composition of the home-room, 
the internal organization, the sponsor, the time schedule, 
and the program of activities, one who remembers that the 
letter killeth, but that the spirit maketh alive, may rightly 
inquire, what is the spirit of the home-room? The spirit is 
all-important but it is hard to express. No matter how 
good, theoretically, the machinery and the activities are, 
if the spirit of the adventure is not there, practically all is 
lost. No amount of analysis can quite reveal the spirit.^ 
Diagrams, pictures, or isolated stories do not tell it. Each 
member of a home-room that has it may say, “ It is not in 
me,” and all of it is not in any indi\i(Iual for it is in the 
spirit of the whole group. Probably, however, it is well 
to note a few of the elements that make for the growth of 
this indefinable spirit. Pupils want to have a share in 
directing themselves. Spirit grows by activity. Roys at 
least are interested in fun, fighting, and feeding. All, or 
nearly all, pupils are curious, acquisitive, and interested in 
leading or following a leader of their own choice. They 
believe in the positive rather than the negative, in the 
active as o{)poscd to the pUvSsive. They want the out-of- 
doors and are full of a love of adventure, curious as their 
ideas of adventure sometimes are. They arc gregarious, 
altruistic, and keenly sensitive to approval and disapproval 
of their peers. At one and the same time, they are both 
“joiners” and migratory. 

The pupil, as a rule, desires; 
to be self-directive; 

‘ See Chapter VI, "How One Junior High School Grew a Student Council.’' 



to have an outlet of emotions in activity ; 
to take part in purposeful activity; 
to proceed at his own speed; 
to be a part of a small group of friends; 
to be a part of a big, going concern ; 
to render definite service; 

to have a place and an organization of his own ; 
to have his own hobbies and interests and yet to be a 
part of the group; 

to be recognized as able to perform a particular ac- 

to have a hero; 

to have an cjrganization to which of his own accord he 
gives his whole-hearted allegiance. 

The home-room group, the class, the scout troop, the 
club, or whatever the group, it is sure to develop real spirit 
if the situation is so organized that .such qualities of youth 
as have been mentioned are guided into doing that which 
youth conceives to be worth while. Such activity may not 
make for perfect “order “ as thought of by some with 
nerves perhaps too sensitive. This spirit is both a cause 
and a result. Perhaps in the beginning the pupils in a 
home-room catch the spirit from the teacher. In any 
event that teacher is succeeding who enables pupils to 
work together creatively, joyously, in meeting their own 
and the school’s needs here and now. 


1. What phases of administrative work, if any, should be carried 
on in the home-room? How does the size of the school affect 
this problem? 

2. Should the pupils share in the administrative work carried on 
in the home-room? If so, how? Why? 

3. Does the pupil need a school home} Why, or why not? 

4. How does the pupil composition of the home-room affec^ the 
teacher’s opportunity to know the pupils? 


5. How can the home-room affect the unifying of the whole 

6. What phases of pupil guidance, if any, can effectively be car- 
ried on in the home-room? Work O'lt a plan for carrying on 
some one phase of pupil guidance. In the plan you h«ivc made, 
what part should be carried out by the principal? — by the 
class adviser? — by the classroom teacher? — by the home- 
room teacher? — by the pupils? 

7. W hat factors affecting the w hole school should be considered in 
determining the pupil organization within the home-room? 
What, if any, other factors should be considered? In some 
particular school, work out a plan of organization within the 

8. What acthities should ha\e a place in the home-room pro- 
gram in each year of the junior high school? — of the senior 
high school? 

9. With all the work of the school in mind, what time, if any, in 
the weekly schedule should be allot ted to the home-room in each 
year of the junior high school — of the senior high school? — 
or in grades se\en and eight, and in the four-\ear .senior high 

10. W’hat, if any, are the adxanlages or disadx antages of ha\ ing a 
“core-content” of home-room programs for each year of the 
high school? If a “core-content” for each year is desirable, 
how shall this content he determined? What shall be this 

11. In what way, or ways, is, or is not, the home-room the basis of 
pupil participation in school government? (}ive an example. 

12. In what specific ways can a desirable spirit in the home-room 
be developed? Cite, if possible, a concrete example. 

13. In a school where there has been no home-room period, how 
should a principal proceed in de\ eloping and putting into 
operation the idea of the home-room period? In a school 
which, as a school, does nothing about the home-room period, 
what can an individual teacher do in working out and putting 
into practice some phases of the home-room idea? 

14. W’hat part should the home-room teacher have in disciplinary 
problems affecting one or more of his pupils? 

15. On the basis of educational ideas that you consider sound, 
work out a plan of home-rooms in some small high school that 
you know, of four to eight teachers, or a medium-size school of 



si\ or eight to twenty teachers, or a large school of twenty or 
more teachers. 

1 6. As a result of your study of the home-room idea, what are yov 
going to do about it in your school? When? How? Why? 

t:HAPTER ill 


Class organization furnishes a favorable opportunity for 
large group cooperation. W hether it be the 7II rlabs just 
entering junior high school or the 12A class in a four-year 
senior high school, the class organization serves as a means 
for all the members of one class to cooperate with each 
other, and for all classes to cooperate in a student council. 
Whether the classes when organized will devote themselves 
to intra-class warfare and inter-class fights, or to construc- 
tive, coiiperative cflfort to solve whole class and school 
problems, is a matter of intelligent class sponsoring and 

The younger pupils of the junior high school, as well as 
the older pupils in the senior high school, when intelligently 
guided, can organize themselves for constructive work. 
Probably the best way to make this point clear and, at the 
same time, to give some of the flavor of the large-group 
work of younger pupils, is to let the pupils of one school 
speak for themselves. To tell this story, liberal (luotation 
is made from the February number, 1726, of the .school 
newspaper, More About Morey, [)ublishcd and printed by 
the students of Morey Junior High .School, Denver, 

In the mid-year election at Morey, Norman Mains was 
cho.sen "Boys' President,” and Kathryn, ‘‘Cirls’ 
President.” Pupil reporters interviewed newly elected 
officers with the result that various interviews ajjpeared in 
the school paper. The “platform” of the “Boys’ Presi- 
dent,” as set down by the reporter, is quoted first: 



Norman Mains, President of the Boys’ Council, came to Morey 
from Corona School in the 7H class, and is now 15 years old. He 
has held the following offices with great success: Traffic Supervisor, 
Library Home- Room President, 9B ; Secretary of Boys’ Boost- 
ers Club, 9B; President of other home-rooms four times. 

The policy of our president is best expressed in his own words. 
In an interview with our reporter, he is quoted as saying: “Mack 
Colwell, as fircsident of the council, undertook the ‘Keep to the 
Right’ campaign, and established the Punctuality and Attendance 
Contests. Our former president. Jack Doyle, with the help of the 
•ouncil and the backing of his 9A class, put over the ‘Do Right be- 
cauae it is Right’ campaign, and also made some changes in the 
constitution. My ambition for this year is to 7 Tiakc our grounds as 
successful as our halls. 

“Last year, as traffic supervisor, I received your wonderful 
cooperation in halls and court; and if you continue to trust me and 
cooperate with me. I can assure you that we will make this a bigger 
and better year for Morey!’’ 

(Signed) Richard Van Wac.enen, 9A 

Of course, the pupils as far advanced as grade 8A, con- 
sidered the incoming yB’s as very young indeed. In fact, 
it took both verse and prose for an 8 A reporter to express 
at least his own welcome to the yB’s: 


You are only a humble little scrub, 

A Morey student in the bud. 

How little you know about the school. 

Why, you’\o ne\cr been in the swimming pool! 

You are km)wn by no one and pitied by all, 

But cheer up, just think how you’ll feel next fall. 

How they swarmed like bees over the building, these little 
"scrubs’’! Some, already knowing the building, nonchalantly 
strolled through the halls, but most of them ran distractedly about; 
now they peered through the door, now appeared again with rueful 
countenance, still to continue the “Quest of the Hidden Room.’’ 
Such was the plight of Morey’s new pupils on January 22, that un- 
forgettable Friday on which they made their debut as Moreyans. 

(Signed) Frank Pierson, 8A 


These little yB’s were really not depressed at all by being 
“known by no one and pitied by all,” if the inaugural 
speech given by a 7B home-room president may be re- 
garded as typical of the spirit of Morey’s new 7B’s. The 
newly elected president said : 

I want to thank you who have elected me to this high office of 
president. As this is the first semester we have conducted our 
room in this manner, I will endeavor to set an example which the 
rest may follow. 

To make this “advisory” a success, I must have the full cooper- 
ation of e\ cry student in the room. Now let us all get together and 
make this a 7B class that our home-room teacher, and Miss Hamil- 
ton, and e\ery student and teacher in Morey will be proud of. As 
good, loyal Moreyans we must support all campaigns of former 
years which are being carried out, and any new ones which may be 

W e must also support our officers, the paper, and all other stu- 
dent activities. W’e are mere yIVs, but the higher grades depend 
upon us to carry' out their high ideals. \\> must show the higher 
grades that we are capable of recening the responsibilities which 
they must place upon us when we become qA’s. yB’s, we must 
hit the line, hard. 

(Signed) Marjorie O’Donnell, Room 218 

These quotations may have served to show the attitude 
of these officers toward particular school problems: “The 
class organizations will continue to sponsor the attendance 
and punctuality contests which have done so much to re- 
duce the number of tardy and absent pupils.” The newly 
elected Boys’ President states his ambition, “to make our 
grounds as successful as our halls.” Here is responsibility 
willingly assumed. The pupils have a purpose of their 
own to accomplish. The home-room, the class organiza- 
tions, and the council provide means for group effort in 
shared responsibilities, and for the growth of larger group 
loyalties. The teacher-sponsors for home-rooms, for 
classes, and for council provide a favorable opportunity for 



wise guidance. The results can make for a better school 
now, for happier teachers, and happier and increasingly 
self-directive pupils. Can any school afford to miss such an 
educational opportunity ? 

What classes should organize? According to the plans 
in some senior high schools, only the classes in the upper 
half of the school are organized. Some high-school teach- 
ers who are interested in pupil organizations do not favor 
organization of the in the lower half of the school. 
These teachers point out that the lower classes are not able 
to govern themselves, that the members of the classes do 
not know each other, and that there is plenty of time to 
organize when they become seniors. This opinion is not 
limited to teachers. Graduate students in a university 
often feel that the work of the undergraduates is, after all, 
very light. Sophomores in college consider the freshmen 
as rather raw. Freshmen tend to consider high-school 
pupils as trivial. High-school seniors sometimes think the 
high-school freshmen are impossible, while high-school 
frCvshmen have been known "-o think of junior-high-school 
pupils as mere babes. The fact remains that many of the 
best examples of student councils in American schools are 
now in the junior high schools, and the reason that these 
councils are doing such good work is, in part, that the 
pupils, guided by their teachers, have an opportunity, 
through practice, to learn how to direct their own immedi- 
ate affairs. 

It is true that these lower classes in the high schools can- 
not govern themselves. Neither can any high-school class 
govern itself alone as well as it can with the guidance of 
some wise teacher, nor can it learn without practice. Such 
a thing as actual pupil self-government does not exist. 
That these lower classes, broken up into many home- 
rooms or sections, do not know each other is probably true. 



Wherever it exists, this lack of knowing the other fellow is 
a weakness in any form of democratic government. If the 
home-rooms are organized, and if each home-room sends 
two representatives to sit with tv.'o representatives from 
every other home-room, in a class congress or student 
council, the way for the members of each home-room to 
know the members of every other home-room in the class 
is begun. 

The discussion of plans for the class, and for the con- 
tribution of the class towards the welfare of the whole 
school, should go on in every home-room. These home- 
room representatives, w^hen assembled in a class congress 
or council, should actually represent their home-rooms 
rather than consider themselves overlords and p£iss laws 
for the good of their subjects. If the claim of pupil partici- 
pation in government is just, and if such participation does 
develop the initiative, the ability to lead or to pick a leader, 
the pupils’ ability to be intelligently obedient to authority, 
then the entering need this organization more than 
any other class in the school. If class organization and 
student councils are just another way of getting things done, 
it would probably be desirable to do away with all of them 
and appoint a benevolent despot to rule. If, however, 
there is any value in the doctrine of learning by doing, 
there is a chance to realize something of this value in organ- 
izing the lower classes. The argument that there is plenty 
of time to organize the classes when they become juniors or 
seniors is partly sound if one is interested in just classes, 
but if one is interested in the individuals of a class, it is 
necessary to recognize that many of the pupils drop out be- 
fore they come to the upper classes. These pupils who 
drop out probably need the sobering restraint of responsi- 
bility, willingly assumed, more than many of those who re- 
main in school. 



The time and energy of the pupils and of the home-room 
and of the class advisers are justified according to what the 
classes accomplish, and the way they accomplish it. If in 
managing their own affairs the members of a class learn 
how to lead or to follow a wise leader, how to manage 
themselves and cooperate with others, the result is worth 
all the effort it takes. There is, it seems, in the upper 
classes in some schools a strong tendency for a few leaders 
picked by the faculty, or elected by the class, to do all the 
work and the worrying while the others go enthusiastically 
on their way. Legislation too often seems to come from 
the top downward, and the worst of it is that too many of 
the pupils, like many of the citizens outside of the school 
seem perfectly satisfied with such a scheme until it inter- 
feres with their own way of doing things. The actual 
forming of public opinion in the home-rooms, then in class 
organizations, and finally in the student council should 
do much to secure intelligent participation of all pupils 
in solving their own and the school’s extra-curricular 

The organization should be suited to the ability of the 
pupil and of the teacher-adviser. Many schemes of pupil 
participation, sound in themselves, fail because either the 
pupils or the teachers, or both, have not yet learned how to 
live on the plane of intelligent, cooperative effort required. 
Perhaps a classic example may illustrate this point. A city 
superintendent of schools, while pondering the lawless, dis- 
organized condition of his own high school, went to visit the 
high school in a neighboring city. He found an orderly 
school in which there was a large degree of pupil participa- 
tion in government. He had heard of such a scheme, but 
he had never seen a school of this type in action before. On 
his way home, for this was in a country of magnificent dis- 
tances, the contrast between the school he had visited and 



his own stood out plainly before him. He made up his 
mind. The next morning, without consulting principal, 
teachers, or pupils, he appeared at the assembly of the high 
school of his own city, told what he had seen, and an- 
nounced that the plan — he called it self-government — 
would be tried immediately in the school. Result: two 
weeks of bedlam and a return to the old scheme; also a new 
superintendent the next year. Preparation must be made 
for the transfer from a paternalistic form of school govern- 
ment to any successful beginning of pupil participation in 
government, and, since teachers and pupils have to learn to 
live in the new situation, the change should be gradual. 
The organization of this pupil participation must begin in 
the situation in which pupils and teachers find themselves. 
The questions for them are: Where are we? Where do we 
want to go? How are we going to get there 

In the pupil’s progress through the grades there should, 
likewise, be progress in the pupil’s ability to direct himself. 
Any one who observes an intelligently directed kinder- 
garten must be able to note the progress that the children 
make in directing themselves. It may be true that heaven 
lies about children in their infancy, as Lowell has it, or that 
children come “in trailing clouds of glory,” as Wordsworth 
expresses it. Even Hood’s statement, about being “far- 
ther off from heaven ” than when he was a boy, may have 
some truth in it. Yet the fact remains that there should be 
a gradual development from the intense individualism of 
the little child to the self-directed, full-grown man, “who 
will find his place and use that place to shape both himself 
and society toward ever nobler ends.” A school that waits 
until pupils are in the eleventh and twelfth year of their 
life in school to arrange the situation so that they may or- 
ganize themselves to share in the responsibilities of direct- 
ing themselves is not making adequate provision for the 



gradual growth of pupils participating in governing them- 
selves. Bismarck is said to have held that the sudden and 
almost complete freedom of the old German university was 
a good thing because it provided a situation favorable to 
killing off those who could not make the sudden transfer. 
The one who holds this kind of philosophy would of neces- 
sity disagree with the one who insists that pupils should 
have a favorable opportunity to grow gradually, step by 
step, in the ability to direct themselves. 

The form of class organization will depend on the home- 
room organization. If the home-room is composed of 
pupils of the same class, the class organization develops 
naturally. According to this plan, as was pointed out in 
the preceding chapter, in discussing the home-room scheme 
of the senior high school at Wilmington, Delaware, the 
teacher-sponsors of the home-rooms of one class can meet 
to discuss the problems peculiar to their class and, at the 
same time, elect one of their number as chairman who, by 
virtue of office, becomes also class adviser. The principal’s 
bulletin, as was pointed ouv in the case of Tulsa High 
School, Tulsa, Oklahoma, may contain the “core-content” 
for home-room programs, and one teacher for each class 
may be free to devote a considerable part of his time to 
class advisement. In the Central High School of Bing- 
hamton, New York, the grouping of pupils by classes 
makes possible another development of position of class 
adviser. Mr. J. F. Hummer, when he was principal of this 
school, wrote: 

We have a “dean” in charge of each class — four “deans” in all 
Each “dean ” serves in a capacity somewhat similar to that of \ ice 
principal. Tlie women who have charge of the freshmen and soph- 
omore classes do no teaching at all, but devote their entire time to 
the work of their office. The freshmen dean, because her class 
is so much larger, also has a secretary. The two upper classes are 
taken care of by two of our men who also teach three sections each 



The “deans” have charge of attendance, programs, and discipline. 
This plan of organization has been in operation here since igi.s and 
we like it very much. 

As has already been pointed out in tne chapter on Home- 
Rooms, the junior high school has developed the idea of the 
class adviser, and principals and teachers, cooperatively, 
have worked out helpful advisory suggestions for all home- 
room sponsors of a particular class. A vital part of the 
junior-high-school movement has been pupil guidance to 
the end that the pupil, in a sincere and honest endeavor on 
his own part, shall explore both himself, the major fields of 
subject-matter, and worth-while pupil activities. As one 
result, in the field of extra-curricular activities, pupils in 
the junior high school, and probably to a lesser degree in 
the seventh and eighth grades in the 8-4 plan of school 
organization, have, as “uppcr-cIassmen,” become leaders 
in their school community. However, in entering senior 
high school these former leaders have become green fresh- 
men. Fortunately, as has been pointed out, some senior 
high schools have continued the program of guidance for 
these incoming pupils. One of the best examples that has 
been reported is that of the Lincoln High School, Lincoln, 

The freshmen class at Lincoln, Nebraska. During the 
year 1824-25, a committee of teachers in the Lincoln High 
School, consisting of Miss Olivia Pound, Miss Gertrude 
Jones, and Miss Ruth Price, was appointed to prepare an 
outline for home-room teachers of the freshman class. 
The material of the outline was by no means wholly new in 
this school, but it was considered worth while to bring to- 
gether the best of all old material and to supplement it 
wherever necessary, so as to ensure helpful guidance for all 
freshmen. The report of this committee is quoted here, in 
part, as an example of what can be undertaken whe^ a 


senior high school desires to guide the entering class 
through their home-room programs. 

The incoming students, more than any other group in the high 
school, need specific guidance if they are to become rightly familiar 
with the traditions, customs and rules of the school. The following 
outline has hcoii worked out as a suggestion for acquainting the 
freshmen with the various activities of the school. It covers in a 
general way the organization of the school, the extra-curricular ac- 
ti\ities, school traditions and the curricula. The order in which 
the suggested topics will be considered will be determined by the 
nature of the assemblies, the interests of the pupils, by the an- 
nouncements in the bulletins and by the order of school events. 
The topics hiive been arranged, therefore, with the tentative cal- 
endar for the year in mind. It is suggested that as much of the 
material as possible be iinestigated by the pupils themselves under 
the direction of the teacher so that the initiatixe of the pupils will 
be stimulated and so that the scheme will not become rigid and set. 
It is also suggested that the matter of personal responsibility and 
absolute honesty of the pupils be stressed at every point. 

I. Physical conditions 

1. Composition of the home-room group: 

a. About 35 boys and gids, who, for the most part, come 
from the same elenieniary school building, and who are, 
therefore, well acquainted with each other. 

2 . The home-room period: 

a. Regularly eighteen minutes in length, coming the first 
thing in the morning. 

b. On assembly days ten minutes in length. Alternate 
assembly periods (forty minutes in length) are spent in 
the home-room. 

[I. Aims 

1. To socialize the group and to establish a friendly relation 

between the teac'her and the group. 

2. To acquaint the group with the curricula, the extra-curric- 
ular activities, rules, customs and traditions so as: 

fl. To make the pupils feel at home. 

b. To arouse a feeling of pride in their school. 

c. To develop an all-school spirit. 

d. To make the pupils feel tliat they have a distinct part in 
the school’s activities. 


e. To develop within the pupil a realization of his own per- 
sonal responsibility for the welfare of the school. 

3. To disco\'er and to develop, to a certain extent, the poten- 
tial leaders in the group. 

III. The plan 

1. Routine work. (To take up a minimum of time.) 

a. Taking of roll by the teacher. 

h. Reading of the announcements to the pupils by a 

c. Issuing excuses for absence by the teacher. 

2. Internal organization. 

a. The home-room representative may act as chairman of 
the group. 

b. The secretary, elected by the group, may read the an- 
nouncements to the pupils. 

3. Topics to be considered. 

a. School hcnirs. W hat to do if tardy. Explain the func- 
tion of assistant principals. Try to have each pupil 
meet them sometime during the year. What to do if 
absent. What to do if one desires to leave the building 
before the close of school. What constitutes a skip. 
Explain the shifting period and the lunch hours. 

b. Conduct in the halls, locker-rooms and cafeteria. Walk- 
ing three or four abreast. Running in the halls and on 
the stairs. Eating lunch in the locker-rooms. Disposal 
of waste paper in the classrooms and in the halls. The 
care of school property — books, marble, shrubbery, 
etc. Lunch-line etiquette. Lost and found articles. 

c. The supervised study plan. W'hy we have such a plan. 
Its advantages. The value of correct study habits. 

d. The weighted credit scheme. Its significance. Ways 
in which weighted credit can be made. 

e. The student council. (To be considered preceding the 
student council election.) Have a member of the coun- 
cil explain to the group the history of the council, its 
purpose and its past accomplishments. Make a study 
of the organization of the council, of the relation between 
the council and the home-room representative body, and 
of the constitution of the council. Discuss the attitude 
which the students should have toward the policies 
suggested by the council. Discuss the qualification- 



which a council member should possess. At the time of 
the council elections have the pupils find out what they 
can concerning the platform and the qualifications of 
each candidate so that they can vote intelligently. 

/. Assemblies. Their purpose. The plan of conducting 
them. The conduct of pupils in assembly. Courtesy 
toward visitors and speakers. The attitude which pupils 
should assume toward those who do not exhibit good 
manners in assembly. 

g. The football season. The ()\al. How it came to be 
constructed. Courtesy toward members of the visiting 
team. What constitutes good sportsmanship. School 
yells and songs. 

h. The Advocate. Have a member of the staff explain how 
the school paper is managed, financed and gotten up. 
Explain that English VHI is reciuired of those who wish 
to try out for positions on the staff. 

X, Clubs. Have a representath e member of each of the 
clubs explain the purpose and the activities of his club. 
Explain the try-out plan. Stress the clubs in the school 
to which the freshmen may belong. 

j. Unsatisfactory work and notices of failure. When no- 
tices of failure and of unsatisfactory work are issued. 
What they mean. Ho\\r to avoid getting them. What 
one should do upon receiving them. 

k. Senior Color Day. Its history and meaning. How the 
under-classmen should respect its observance. This 
may be presented by a senior. 

l. School C'olor Day. Its significance. What is done on 
that day. 

m. The Mummers' Play. In connection with this, the first 
school play of the year, explain the work f)f the auditing 
committee — how the school has set up machinery to 
safeguard and to systemize the financial affairs of the 
various organizations of the school. How the sale of 
tickets to all school events is managed. 

n. The freshman class organization. Try to interest the 
group in the affairs of the class. Give to the class spon- 
sors the names of those pupils who can contribute to the 
programs for the class meetings. 

o. Matinee parties. Have a member of the student com- 



mittee explain the i)urpose of these parties. Discuss 
what constitutes proper conduct at these parlies. 

p. Fathers’ Night. May be prcs^uited by a member of 
the High V. 

q. The All Girls’ League. May be presented by a mem 
ber of the All Girls’ League C'ouncil. 

r. Mothers’ Night. May be presented by a member of the 
Student Club. 

s. The senior play. 

/. The basketball season. DLscuss the conduct of a Lin- 
coln High School pupil when he is a guest at another 

u. The mid-year concert. Its history. Try to interest the 
pupils in the \arious musical organizations of the school. 
Tell how the grand piano was secured. 

V. The physical training exhibition. 

w. The curricula. (To be discussed at the time of regis- 
tration for the second vsemester.) (live each pupil a 
curriciiluiii sheet. Note the several curricula, the 
course^ of stud\ in each, the constants and the reciuire- 
ments for graduation. I )iscuss the factors which should 
enter into one’s choice of a curriculum. I Ia\ e the pupils 
learn to spell the names of the subjec'ts offered and 
with w h<it each one deals. Kiicourage each pupil to map 
out his course for the next three years. Ha\e the pupils 
learn to spell the teachers’ names. 

Sk( oxi) Skmesi er 

a. The Links. How the staff for the annual is chosen. 
The value (jf a yearbook to the school. 

b. The junior play. 

The athletic festi\ al. 

The 01ymj)irs. Ha\’e a senior tell the group of the sig- 
nificance of the annual contest between the junior and 
senior classes. The part of the under-classmen in this 
e\ ent. 

e. The opera presented by the glee clubs. 

/. The junior-senior party. 

g. Senior Class Day. The meaning of this day. Tell the 
grouj) of the various prizes offered by the school, the 
winners of which arc announced on this day. 



h. Commencement. 

4. There will be many other topics such as the proper use of 
the library, how the school helps the pupils to find em- 
ployment after school hours, etc., which will suggest them- 
selves to the teachers. The committee will appreciate any 
suggestions bearing upon topics to be discussed or methods 
of presenting ideas which the teachers may have to make. 

5. Other means of socializing the group. Picnics and parties. 
Interest in members of the group who are absept on ac- 
count of illness. Mite box to furnish ink and pencils for 
those who forget. Share in the school charity projects. 

Freshmen are people, and they deserve special guidance. As 
newcomers into the school they should be recen ed courteously and 
be made to feel that they are a part of the school, rather than rela- 
tively unimportant persons v/ho are on the outside of things look- 
ing in. As a business proposition the freshmen are assets to the 
school. They will be of worth when they become juniors and 
seniors only as they are given an opportunity to develop as fresh- 
men and sophomores. We attempt to Americanize the foreigner 
who comes to our shores. Why not attempt to high-schoolize the 
freshman who enters our high schools? ^ 

How shall a class be prepared to enter a new school? 

The knowledge and the menial attitude of pupils entering 
a new school has much to do with their initial success. 
The sixth-grade pupils should be prepared not only in sub- 
ject-matter, but in the knowledge about the junior high 
school that will encourage them to go and enable them to 
get started cjuickly in the life of the school when they get 
there. The same attention to articulation should exist be- 
tween the senior and the junior high schools. To this end 
the principals of the lower and the upper schools should 
cooperate in planning and carrying out the necessary pro- 
gram. The principal of the high school could visit the con- 
tributing school, or schools, and explain the workings of 
the school to which the pupils are going. He could also 

' Jone.s, Gertrude. "High S 5 chool Freshmen at Lincoln, Nebraska," School and 
Society, 22 527-30. 


meet with the parent-teacher association of the contribut- 
ing school. Principals and selected teachers of the sixth or 
ninth grades could visit the high schoi^l to study, not only 
the curricula, but activities open to entering pupils, and to 
learn what specific things entering pupils need to do to get 
started quickly and most effectively. Likewise, pupils 
who are finishing the work of a school might visit, during 
their last semester, the school to which they are going. 
They might attend a class assembly or, under the direction 
of freshmen guides, might visit certain recitations or clubs. 
Pupils from the high school might explain various phases 
of high-school work or activities, in the assemblies of the 
contributing schools, to the pupils who are to come to the 
high school. These s[>ecches could be especially effective 
if the high-school pupils returned to the schools from which 
they themselves had entered high school. Principals may 
send a letter to prospective pupils, welcoming them to the 
school and giving them necessary information. The 
following letter from the principal of the Washington 
Irving High School, New York City, carries out this idea. 

Washin(i1on Irvin('i HhiH School 
40 Ir\in(. Place, New York 

Dear (hrls: 

We are very glad to welcome you to Washington Irving High 
School, and look forward to receiving you as members of our school 
on Monday, February the first. 

We ask you to come to the Washington Irving High School on 
Friday, January 29, at i p.m. to receive your card of admission 
from our committee of girls in the foyer. 

Please do not fail to report on this date, as the admission card 
gives you directions in regard to your Time of Arrival on the first 
day of the new term, the number of your Official Room, and the 
Name of Your Class. 

If for any reason you did not bring with you today your 
(a) Record Card 
(d) Census Slip 



(c) Attainment Card 

you should bring these credentials with you on Friday, January 
29, as they are necessary for admission. 

Very sincerely yours 

Edward C. Zabriskie 


When the pupil has entered the school, many principals 
have found it helpful to send a letter to the parents of the 
pupils, giving certain information about the school and in- 
viting the parents’ cooperation. The letter of the Wash- 
ington Irving High School to the parents is presented as an 
example of what one school does. 

Please preserve this Circular. 

Washington Irving High School 
40 Irving Place, New York 

To Parents: Mr. (Mrs.) 

Your daughter 

(Full Name) 

is now classified in section 

VVe wish her to succeed in her school work, and to grow up and be 
a useful, happy woman. We ask you to gi\ e careful attention to 
the following suggestions: 

1. Health — Nourishing food, regular hours, and open-air exer- 
cise are necessary. School girls should attend evening entertain- 
ments only on Friday and Saturday evenings. Every girl requires 
at least eight hours of sleep. Outside employment is inadvisable. 

2. Home work — Home study varies with the girl and with the 
grade of work. One and one-half to two hours a day are necessary 
for the first-year students. Three hours should be sufficient for all 
other years. 

3. Attendance — E\ery student should be in school on time. 

4. Reports — Scholarship reports will be sent home twice a term. 
Parents should see these cards and sign them. In case a girl’s work 
is noticeably poor, a preliminary report will be sent at the end of 
the sixth week. An a^ erage mark of 85 places a girl on the honor 
roll. A mark above 75 indicates commendable work. A mark be- 
low B in conduct shows failure in some quality of character such as 
self-control, honesty, or courtesy. 


The school welcomes parents and students for consultations in 
regard to courses and electives. 

Both parents (or guardian) arc requested to sign the slip below, 
detach, and return it by the student or ‘he class adviser. Please 
keep this sheet for reference. 

The Washington Ir\'ing Handbook gives further information 
about the school. 

Edward C. Zabriskie 


To the Principal of Washington Irving High School: 

We are in receipt of your circular asking our cooperation in the 
school work of our daiigliler. 

Father’s or (niardian’s Signature 

Mother’s Signature 

Daughter’s Signature 


Section Date 

The idea of a “freshman week” is proving helpful in an 
increasing number of colleges. It is possible that a “ fresh- 
man day” might prove helpful in all junior and senior high 
schools. The programs on such days would be made up of 
both curricular and extra-curricular activities. In its 
simplicity and sincerity it should aid the pupil mentally 
and emotionally to make the transfer from one school to 
the other, with as little loss of time and effort as possible. 

School handbooks can serve as one means of orienting 
freshmen. School handbooks should set down, in brief 
compass, the information immediately necessary, and 
should be written in the spirit of the school. Handbooks 
will be discussed in detail as a phase of School Publica- 
tions, but it should be noted here that some handbooks, by 
their all-inclusiveness, may tend to overwhelm the incom- 
ing pupil. Again, it should be pointed out that handbooks, 
in their brevity, can fail to capture the spirit of the school 
and be infinitely dry. South Philadelphia High School for 



Girls has a booklet of twenty pages, admirable in its sim- 
plicity and spirit, called '‘Freshman First-Aid.” The first 
item is a friendly “How-do-you-do” to freshmen. The 
thirty-six other topics are: our principal, heads of depart- 
ments and supervisors of other activities, the building, 
traffic, the elevator, fire drill, office — for information, 
medical staff, home visitor, vocational counselor, student 
adviser, roster, high-school studies, teachers, the Dalton 
Plan — assignments, conferences, check-ups, graphs, final 
graphs, promotion, study-hall, library, gymnasium, com- 
mended girls, “S” girls. Torch girls, student avssociation, 
class organization, assembly, banking, Fortnightly (the 
school paper), lunch-room, bulletin boards, school athlet- 
ics, school uniform, school colors, a look ahead, our motto, 
and finally, vsehool songs. Some handbooks cover as many 
as two hundred and fifty topics, but here are thirty-seven 
that four groups of sophomores and two groups of juniors 
considered the irreducible thirty-seven that serve best for 
“ Freshman First-Aid.” 

There is a distinct advantage in giving an incoming class 
just the information it needs for immediate use and giving 
it to the members in a printed form that carries both the 
facts and the spirit of the school. A “ First-Aid booklet” 
written by pupils, guided by teacheis, is probably one of 
the very best ways to accomplish this twofold purpose. 

The freshman himself may have ideas. While sopho- 
mores may work out “Freshman First-Aid,” the freshman 
himself may have ideas that are for the good of himself, of 
his class, and of the whole school. It is the saving grace of 
youth that it strikes out along new lines and, if the guid- 
ance is wise, the new line of endeavor may be for the good 
of the larger group. The trouble is that so many good 
ideas never get anywhere. They are born, blush unseen, 
and waste their sweetness on ihe desert air. If a class is 



organized, there is already a favorable situation for work- 
ing out an idea. 

Contrary to the opinion of some seniors, and likewise, at 
least of a few teachers, some new ideas may be originated 
or worked out by the freshmen. For example, in the Senn 
High School, Chicago, the freshman class had a real idea, 
or at least this was the class that worked it out. One un- 
usually alert freshman class wanted to help incoming fresh- 
men orient themselves. As a result the class organized it- 
self and grew a sophomore council. This civic spirit de- 
veloped as the class was promoted, and presently there 
were four class councils. The division rooms of about 40 
pupils each that composed the class elected officers and at a 
regular weekly meeting discussed division-room affairs, 
problems of school courses, vocations, colleges, and any- 
thing that affected the room as a whole or that affected any 
of its members. The presidents of each home-room group 
met by classes with the principal and the council adviser to 
plan the work of all the home-rooms of the class. The class 
assembly was an additional means of unifying the class. 
The need for unifying the whole school was recognized, and 
as a result representatives of all four class organizations 
met as an all-school council. One period a day, the fourth 
in the daily program, was set aside for these organizations: 
Tuesday for the all-school council, Wednesday for division 
home rooms, Thursday for large assemblies, and Friday for 
academic clubs and class councils. The organization of a 
freshman class developed by way of the home-rooms into 
the organization of all four classes and in four years into an 
all-school council.* 

How a class can work. The way a class works may even 
go beyond the school, and affect the school’s relation to the 

* Sleezer, Margaret M. "Student Citizenship at the Senn High School"; School 
Review, 32:508-20. 


whole community. Perhaps a single example may serve 
to illustrate this point. At the North High School, Des 
Moines, Iowa, the mid-year graduating class substituted a 
special edition of the school paper, January 29, 1916, for 
the usual semester book, or annual. This was not the first 
time such a thing had been done in American high schools, 
but it was an innovation in Des Moines and involved a 
break with a long-standing tradition. 

The story of how this break with tradition was made 
may throw some light on how an organized class can work. 
The preceding year all the high schools had found it diffi- 
cult to secure enough advertising in the city to support the 
high-school papers and semester books. In fact, the pub- 
lication of the semester books had been delayed, and the 
editions were finally unsatisfactory because of limited 
financial support. The merchants of the city had found it 
to be too much of a drain to give advertising to semester 
books from five high schools, annuals from two colleges, 
and newspapers from all these institutions. They had 
finally withdrawn their suppoi t and declared some kind of 
new policy would have to be adopted by the schools of the 
city. After much thought and many conferences, it had 
been decided that each of the high schools would substitute 
for the two semester books each year an annual, to be got 
out during the middle of the second semester and including 
the material of the two semester books. This annual was 
to be limited in size, so that it would only be one and one 
half times as large as any previous semester book. This 
meant that the gross financial support would be reduced 
twenty-five per cent. 

Once started, however, in making a change, the senior 
class of the North High School became sufficiently in- 
terested in an enlarged, special edition of the newspaper to 
appoint a committee to consider the matter. In the be- 


ginning, sentiment was decidedly against an “old news- 
paper” instead of the usual “semester book,” or the pro- 
posed new type of annual. Paren s as well as pupils were 
devoted to the usual publication. A senior committee, 
however, investigated the idea of substituting the special 
edition of the school paper, The Oracle, with the result that 
they brought back to the class a report favorable to the 
special edition. 

In the end, the senior class of one hundred members de- 
cided that they would like to ask the student body to adopt 
the idea of an enlarged special edition of the newspaper in 
the place of the annual. They appointed a committee to 
present their request to the student council. The student 
council acted favorably upon this committee’s request and 
agreed to present the matter to the student body. An 
assembly of students was called and the new plan presented 
to them by a student committee. The president of the 
student council presided at a forum which was held, where 
there was plenty of discussion for and against the innova- 
tion. The next day the home-room periods were given 
over for informal discussions of this new idea. On the 
following day a formal ballot was taken through the home- 
rooms to determine the wishes of the student body. The 
vote was more than two to one in favor of substituting the 
enlarged newspaper. 

Here was an absolute reversal of pupil sentiment through 
educational means, for there is no doubt that the pupils 
were practically unanimous against the idea when it was 
first proposed. However, through the various means 
mentioned, they were given plenty of opportunity to dis- 
cuss it and think the problem through, and as a result they 
felt that they had determined their final course of action 
through very democratic channels. One can easily im- 
agine with what interest, even anxiety, the senior class, all 



the other classes, the teachers, and the principal, Mr. C. H. 
Thrclkeld, awaited not only the new publication, but its re- 
ception as well. The special edition was a big success, but 
a much greater success, even if less obvious, lay in the fact 
that the senior class had learned how to work. The class 
convinced itself, and presented its findings to the council. 
The council had the whole matter discussed in a general 
assembly and in the home-rooms. Finally, the whole 
school voted as to whether or not there should be a change 
in school policy in respect to the annual. The whole 
school, and especially the senior class, was learning how to 
work in a democratic situation. 

Class fights. Some schools, in which there have been 
splendid achievements in pupil participation in govern- 
ment, have pupils of all classes represented in the school, 
grouped together in the home-rooms. Some of these 
schools believe that grouping pupils of the same class to- 
gether in the home-rooms stimulates class fights. Cer- 
tainly a class that is organized just to be organized, rather 
than to develop and carry out a constructive program, 
satisfying to itself and of worth for the whole school, is 
looking for activity. In the absence of intelligent guid- 
ance, original nature, relatively unmodified, asserts itself; 
the class may become a mob, anxious to fight its inherited 
foes and full of a wild desire to paint all creation redder 
still. A group of young, animated spirits get together, in- 
spired with a feeling of their own importance and a desire 
to attract attention to themselves. Psychologically speak- 
ing, their neurones are all ready to act, and not to act is 
annoying. In schoolboy language, they are all dressed up 
and have nowhere to go.” In the “good old days,” when 
everything was perfect, such groups used to paint the 
president’s faithful old white horse green, and stable a 
belligerent goat in the favorite professor’s study. If the 


group happened to be of the right racial mixture, they were 
“spoiling for a fight,” attacked anybody in sight, prefer- 
ably the village police or represen ^^atives of another class, 
and, if successful, gave an Alexandrian sigh for more worlds 
to conquer. Probably, since no new orbits swam into 
view, they yielded to a primitive urge and raided an an- 
cestral pie wagon, and thereby fell from glory. Well fed, 
they sleepily vowed eternal secrecy and went to bed. The 
next day, however, brought still greater adventure. If 
there is anything, according to original nature, more satis- 
fying than hunting, it is probably being hunted, fleeing, 
being pursued from one hiding-place to another, or, in 
more civilized society, from one verbal stronghold to an- 
other. In the absence of anything better to do, the original 
act was satisfying, being hunted was an adventure, and, if 
caught, there remained the thrill of sophomoric martyr- 
dom. There was really nothing the matter with these 
students. The teacher with a memory of some of his 
earlier “prodigies of valor” may be the first to assert that 
such students, of some little country college of long ago, are 
now the hope of a democracy. These students simply 
needed guidance — constructive guidance backed by a 
knowledge and appreciation of youth and a sense of humor. 

Class days. Classes do not fight because they hate each 
other. They fight because it is the traditional thing to do. 
As soon as an intelligent substitute can be worked out, if 
they do the working with just enough guidance, but not 
too much, real progress can be made. There is a necessity 
for constructive planning for what pupils call fun, as well as 
for work. This fun may be of constructive worth for the 
pupils and for the school. Wise leaders are constantly re- 
cognizing that, between neglect and attempted suppression 
of pupil activity, there is a wise course of pupil guidance. 
As a result of the initiative of three senior boys and the wise 



guidance of the principal, the senior picnic in the high 
school at Lincoln, Nebraska, ceased to furnish a favorable 
opportunity for a battle between the seniors and juniors. 
By careful planning, in which the pupils participated, an 
interesting dramatic field day between the juniors and 
seniors paved the way for a real junior-senior picnic and 
for a declaration of peace in a whole school assembly. 

This same plan of substitution has also been used to 
develop a really worth-while activity out of a dress up day 
that a particular class has sometimes called “ Bums’ Day,” 
“Hobo Day,” “Tacky Day,” or “Slouch Day.” Seniors 
would be insulted if any one considered that they were 
“tacky” or “slouchy,” or had any particidar admiration 
for “hobos” or “bums.” Yet, in cc-mmon with a large 
part of the human family, they like to dress up, to play a 
part, to be some one other than themselves. Stane schools 
have kept the dress-up idea and encouraged i)upil& to dress 
to represent some favorite character in history or fiction. 
In some cases, these characters have appeared as all, or a 
part, of an assembly program, and as individuals or as 
groups have pantomimed the character or characters they 
represent, or have presented speeches or scenes in which 
the character appeared. Where this plan has been used, 
the audience usually participates also by attempting to 
identify the characters, speeches, and scenes. Some 
schools have turned away from a disorderly “tacky day” 
by guiding the pupils to represent the trades or profes- 
sions they hope to follow, and by devoting the assembly 
program to vocational guidance. Some girls’ schools have 
turned such a day into a sensible '‘style show,” when all 
girls wear appropriate school dresses of their own make, 
and the assembly program, through illustration and ex- 
planation, provided interesting, helpful guidance in the 
fascinating problem of dress. 


In the high school at Ribbing, Minnesota, the sopho- 
more class has an annual banquet. In 1324 they issued 
volume 5 of The Reeders Guide, The preface of this eight- 
page booklet says: 

The S()i)h()in()rc banquet is an annual afTair in the High School. 
Se\eral >e«irs ago it was decided to eliminate dancing. The novel 
idea was originated of ha\ ing the class dixided into groups with 
teachers in charge*; each group was asked to jiut on a stunt of their 
own choosing, and to decorate their table in keeping with their own 
selection. Out of this beginning, the Banquet has grown to be one 
of the most interesting c\cnts in the student’s high-school career, 
for each student is made to realize his or her own responsibility, and 
that the success of the group depends on the cooperation of every 
one included. In previous years such general subjects as the fol- 
lowing ha'v e l>cen interpreted. Fairies, Pageant of Ore, Months in 
the Year, etc. 

This } ear the plan is a '‘Library Come to Life” — the books 
which e\ cry student has learned to enjoy at some time in his youth 
will be presented by each table. 

We fe(‘l it fitting and proper here to show our appreciation to the 
facultN' members who so kindK offered their assistance and who 
ha\e worked unceasingly to make this evening a success. 

(Signed) The Sophomore Class 

In the “table of contents” there are fourteen chapters, 
or “tables,” with such headings as Nursery Rhymes, with 
Little Bo-Peep, Jack and Jill, etc.; The Drama — As You 
Like It, William Shakespeare, A scene in the Forest of 
Arden, Fairy Tales, (ireek Myths, History, George Wash- 
ington X’isits Betsy Ross, and so on. The members of the 
class dress in costume according to the characters repre- 
sented. In 1824, Miss Harriet Dalton, the Adviser of 
Girls, wrote, “There were two hundred and thirty-six in 
the class, and two hundred and thirty were present at the 
banquet and took part in the program.” 

School handbooks, newspapers, and annuals recount a 
bewildering variety of these “dress-up days.” The en- 


couraging part of some of these accounts is that an in- 
creasing number of schools are getting away from a day of 
disorganization and little work to a kind of day in which 
there is provision for fun, work, good taste, and courteous 

Trends in class activities. It is impossible to discuss all 
class activities in detail, but it may be helpful to note 
briefly some trends in class activities. Class formal pro- 
grams may begin with inter-home-room programs, and 
culminate in a class assembly that entertains while it ex- 
plores the curricular or extra-curricular life in the school. 
“Senior Guides” may assume responsibility for very small 
groups of freshmen, or, in a four-year high school, seniors 
may sponsor sophomores, and juniors may assume re- 
sponsibility for freshmen. This pupil-sponsoring, like 
Mercy, is twice blessed; it blesses the upper-classmen who 
give as well as the lower classes who take. As a part of 
this sponsoring, upper classes may present assembly pro- 
grams that have real guidance value for younger and newer 
pupils in the school. Again, upper classes may give parties 
for lower classes, where not only standards of entertain- 
ment and behavior are set, but where the school is inte- 
grated and there is social satisfaction for all. People need to 
learn how to entertain and how to be entertained. 

Changes are taking place in class athletics and even in 
the traditional Commencement. Schools are coming to 
appreciate the value of intra-school athletics, and, as this 
phase of school life develops further, as it surely will, there 
will be greater emphasis on intra- and inter-home-room 
games as well as inter-class games. As schools are develop- 
ing real programs of physical education, more recognition 
is being given to class games. There are already splendid 
achievements to which one can point in many schools. 
Senior classes in Commencement exercises, as will be 



pointed out in the chapter on Commencement, are break- 
ing away from the pale imitation of college practices that 
have prevailed so long and are coming to interpret the life 
of the whole school. 

In thinking through the problem of class organization in 
junior and senior high schools, one can come to realize that 
class organizations do furnish a favorable opportunity for 
larger group cooperation than is possible in the home-room 
or the recitation unit. In many cases, probably in most 
cases, the junior high schools have done more in worth- 
while, purposeful class organization than have the senior 
high schools. The junior high schools have succeeded in 
part because they have suited the organization to the 
abilities of pupils and teachers. The form of the home- 
room organization affects the problem of class organiza- 
tions. Since the class organization really begins in the 
home-rooms, the plans of orienting freshmen, in such cases 
as the one at Lincoln, Nebraska, depends on both home- 
room and class organization. Printed material as well as 
personal guidance should be available for each incoming 
pupil. The handbook as a freshman first-aid is one of the 
elementary forms of this type of material. If one could be 
sure of sufficient time to develop a well-grounded form of 
pupil participation, it would probably be well to begin 
with the freshman rather than the senior class. However, 
every class has, or can have, many problems that affect 
the life of the class, of the school, and of the school’s stand- 
ing in the community. It has been urged by some teach- 
ers and principals that classes not only should not be or- 
ganized, but they should not be allowed to organize. The 
reasons usually given are that such an organization pro- 
duces class fights. Most class fights exist because, in the 
absence of wise guidance, the class has nothing better and 
more satisfying to do. Many schools that recognize the 


instinctive equipment of youth substitute for undesirable 
practices worth-while, constructive, satisfying class ac- 

In the smaller high schools the home-room organizations 
will often be also the class organization. In the larger high 
schools, however, the class organization is logically the 
second step in the social organization of the school. In the 
development of pupil participation in the government of 
the school, the idea here is to begin at the bottom. The 
liome-room as the smallest group organizes to participate 
in directing its own immediate affairs. Home-rooms of a 
particular class unite to participate in the direction of 
affairs of primary concern to the class, and finally as a 
third step all classes and the home-rooms that make up the 
classes unite to form the whole school council. 


1 . How do loyalties from a small, class-knit group to a large group 
de\’elop? What, if any, bearing docs your answer have on the 
place of class organizations in a high school? 

2. C onsider all the junior high schools of which you have first- 
hand knowledge in one group, and all the senior high schools of 
which you have equal knowledge. In which group are home 
rooms and class organizations the better developed? How do 
you explain your answer? 

3. In what specific ways does the pupil composition of the home- 
room affect class organization? 

4. In what respects is the freshman program, as v/orked out at 
Lincoln, the same as the core-content of the freshman program 
at Tulsa? In what respects different? What are the purposes 
of these two programs? To what extent do you consider these 
purposes sound? Select any one purpose of either program 
and show how, according to the theory of education that you 
accept, you would work it out as a home-room teacher or class 

5 For some high school, junior or senior, that you know well, 
work out a concrete plan for developing the attitudes and the 


knowledge that you consider desirable in the pupils before they 
enter the high school. 

6. What information should be con*"ained in a freshman hand- 
book.-^ How do you justify your answer? 

7. In what rcsjX'cts were the pupils in the North High School, 
Dos Moines, in the example given, having an opportunity to 
learn how to work in a democratic situation? 

8. List all the ways you can think of for getting rid of an unde- 
sirable “dress-up class day’’ in high school. Which way 
would you prefer to use? Why? 

9. Omitting commencement exercises, class plays, publication, 
and rings or pins, list all the class activities you can think of. 
If you were writing this chapter on class organizations, in the 
same number of pages used here, which ones would you stress? 

10. How should class sponsors be selected? How long should the 
same sponsor or spon.sors remain with the class? What reasons 
ha\e you for your answers? 

11. How, if at all, can the class organizations help the school pro- 
gressively to reconstruct itself? 

Chapter IV 


The idea of pupil participation in government is not new. 

Part of the reason for the pupils’ growth, well-being and 
happiness in Vittorino da Feltre’s "Pleasant House,” La 
Casa Giocosa, could be found in a kind of mixture of democ- 
racy and paternalism, that enabled the pupils to participate 
in governing themselves. This school, this “House of De- 
light” at Mantua (1428-46) could develop such happy, 
democratic relations because of the genius of the teacher 
and the intelligent understanding of his chief patron, the 
Prince of Mantua, and more especially of his wife, the Mar- 
chioness Paola. The swift intuitions of a genius toward 
right methods required then, as now, that the patrons of a 
school have at least some appreciation of the work of the 

In studying colonial schools in America, one does not 
carry away the idea that a typical one was a "house of de- 
light,” yet there are many recorded instances of pupil 
participation in government. Take, for example, this 
illustration from The Students' Gazette, number 7, pages 
1-2, July 23, 1777, of the Penn Charter School, Phila- 

To a considerate tnind how pleasing it must be to take a view of 
the laudable spirit of the boys of this school. Actuated by a noble 
I)rinciple and desirous to prevent the ill effects of internal broils 
they have established a constitution founded on their own author- 
ity. By virtue of this constitution an assembly is regularly chosen 
every month and empowered to make such laws as theyshall think 
necessary or useful. The first act of this Honorable Body was to 


open courts of judication and to order the election of judges and 
other necessary officers. The court takes cognizance of all crimes 
committed against any of the laws and is alwa^ s held in some pub- 
lic place. Since this \aluable institution has been adopted the 
absurd practices of fighting and calling names ha\c visibly declined 
among the boys who now carry themselves toward one another 
with a delightful and polite behav ior. There are some few excep- 
tions whose childish folly and quarrelsome tempers render them a 
univ ersal pest to the rest of their school fellov\ s. These are the ad- 
vantages which immediately result from our excellent constitution, 
but I am led to consider it in a view with regard to our luture bene- 
fit in life. The members of the asseml^ly to quality themselves for 
the office to which they are intrusted must applv themselves with 
great industry to the study of the law and rules in v\hich some of 
them are so proficient as to be able to draw up a hill in language 
that does honor to themselv es and the school thev lepresent. This 
will certainly be of great advantage to them heieatler, for when 
they are arrived at manhood and entered upon the busy stenes of 
life they will be useful members of society and qualified to serve 
their country^ in distinguished posts of honor and profit. 

This quotation just presented must sound strangely^ 
modern to those who insist that it is only in the present 
time, with the emphasis on education and training in 
citizenship, that there is any real recognition of the worth 
of pupil participation in government. 

Pupil participation in government has been confused 
with self-government. In the revival of interest in the re- 
lation of pupils to school government in the last quarter of 
the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twen- 
tieth, one has but to read the educational literature of the 
period to see that the emphasis was on so-called self-gov- 
ernment. Self-government was in the air. Whatever the 
facts may be, the experiments, whether in the school or in 
a George Junior Republic, were called experiments in self- 
government.* The use of the present phrase, “pupil par- 
ticipation in government,” represents a change in thinking 

* See Cronson, Bernard. Puptl Self-Government Its Theory and Practice 1907 


as well as a change in the direction of more exact expres- 
sion. The elaborate scheme of pupil school government 
that grew up after Mr. Wilson L. Gill organized the Patri- 
otic League of America, in 1891, has given way to a much 
more simple and effective means of pupil participation in 
the government of the school. 

Government in industry. The idea of participation in 
government has not been limited to our national govern- 
ment, to schools or to reform institutions, juvenile or adult. 
In 1916 the “Industrial Constitution” and the “agree- 
ment between the company and its employees, adopted at 
the coal and iron mines of the Colorado Fuel and Iron 
Company,” was published. This constitution provided, 
among other things, that “employees at each of the mining 
camps shall annually elect from among their number re- 
presentatives to act on their behalf with respect to matters 
pertaining to their employment, working and living con- 
ditions, and adjustment of differences, and such other 
matters of mutual concern and interest as relations within 
the industry may determine.”" This idea of cooperative 
effort has since changed its form somewhat in industry, 
but the point here is that this idea of group representative 
cooperation was going on outside of schools. In 1914, 
W. L. Mackenzie King had begun his study, finally pub- 
lished in 1918 as Industry and Humanity, a major portion 
of which “is devoted to the principles underlying right re- 
lations in Industry and to a consideration of rules of con- 
duct and methods of organization by which fundamental 
principles may be practically applied.” Schools, experi- 
mental reform institutions, and occasional industrial or- 
ganizations were, in some respects, moving in the direction 
of representative government. 

Changing conceptions of school government in some 

* Rockefeller, John D., Jr. The Colorado Industrial Plan. 1916. 


English schools. In England, as well as in America, this 
idea of pupil self-government has been the subject of in- 
terest and some experimentation. Mr. Ernest A. Crad- 
dock, at the Northern Polytechnic Day Secondary vSchool, 
Halloway, London, N., being of the opinion that the boy 
probably does not grasp the idee that “good conduct is a 
duty he owes less to his teacher than to his class and to 
himself “and that his “ill-doing is a crime against society,” 
maintained that the usual manner of instituting and apply- 
ing “rules and regulations and the whole apparatus of 
school discipline” is “totally opposed to the formation of 
right character.” The pupil, he further points out in his 
Class Room Republic,^ does not have a real chance to un- 
derstand the purpose of school regulations and comes 
finally to consider “that good and bad conduct are matters 
which concern nobody but the teacher and himself.” 

Mr. H. Caldwell Cook, in The Play ITay,* recognized as 
discredited “the method of teaching which consists of 
spoon-feeding under repression — overriding the natural 
habits and desires ot boys so that they may be crammed 
with instruction in certain subjects.” Moved by the be- 
lief that a fair principle of government, if ever reached, 
must “be wrought into a living practice by right education 
and good government,” he planned and carried out at the 
Perse School, C'ambridge, and finished writing up “some- 
where in France” prior to November, 1915, a scheme 
wherein boys, including one group of about thirteen years 
of age, had “charge of affairs” and the individual boy was 
responsible for the government of himself and of his own 

Mr. J. H. Simpson had in mind that there is “in all 
schools, as in all adult communities, a creative public 

* Craddock, Ernest A. The Class Room Republic, pp. 9-10. 

* Cook, H. Caldwell. The Play IVay, pp 54-79. 


opinion, which is independent of all the apparatus of gov- 
ernment and is responsible for social customs often more 
strictly binding upon members of the community than law 
itself.” With this conception of ” creative public opinion ” 
in mind, he planned and carried out an experiment “in the 
educative effect of self-government” in one of the lower 
forms of a public school." He believed that the prefect 
system of self-government in the English public school re- 
duced pupils, other than the prefects, to law-abiding, cus- 
tom-observing nonentities. The twenty-three fifteen- 
year-old boys in this lower form carried the idea of self- 
government to the extent, not only of ruling themselves, 
but of fining the master five shillings for his “non-appear- 
ance at early morning calling-over.” However, they 
evidently did not know that he had planned a test-case to 
see if self-government weis really working, even if he had 
not planned for a “blunt razor” to be the chief contrib' 
utory cause on this particular morning. 

Mr. Caulfield Osborne ^ considered the oligarchical pre- 
fect scheme as the antithesis of self-government in the 
modern sense, and defined self-government “as the en- 
trusting to a group of children of full power to determine 
either the whole or a part of their school life.” Whether 
.self-government be a means to develop “the power of 
cooperative action,” or to give “practical training in 
citizenship,” or to be psychologically remedial, he recog- 
nizes that “the exact scope of self-government cannot be 

A stereotyped phrase. Self-government has come, in 
some American educational writing, at least, to be a stereo- 
typed phrase. It may have almost any meaning. It may 

* Simpson, J. 11 An Adventure tn Education, pp 1-34. 

•Osborne, C. II. Caulfield. "Experiments in Self-Government in Secondary 
Schools,” a chapter in Education Movements and Methods, edited by John Adams, pp. 



mean that powers are delegated to pupils by the school 
faculty, that they are derived from the consent of the gov- 
erned, or it may indicate that the principal or headmaster 
has appointed certain pupils who ^ry to get the other pupils 
to do what the master wants them to do, or again, it may 
describe a group, perhaps an enthusiastic group of pupils, 
who have chosen a small oligarchy to rule over them. The 
brevity of the expression, self-government,’' as opposed 
to the longer one of '‘pupil participation in government,” 
in some cases, at least, may account for its use. The 
English writers in the interesting experiments to which 
reference has been made, and in other accounts of experi- 
ments that are listed in the bibliography of this chapter, 
have more nearly in mind actual self-government than have 
American writers who use this expression. At the same 
time, one of Mr. H. Caldwell Cook’s boys probably had a 
real idea when, speaking to his fellow pupils against tom- 
foolery, he pointed out that “if the practice of self-govern- 
ment degenerated into a ‘rag,’ Mr. Cook would abolish 
the Republic and they would all return to their ordinary 
lessons.” It might prevent much confusion in speaking 
or in writing, as well as in listening or in reading, if those 
who have in mind actual self-government were left free to 
say “self-government” and those who mean something 
else would express themselves more accurately even if it 
involved using as long a phrase as “pupil participation in 

The relation of the pupils, the council, and the principal. 

The powers of the council or students’ association should 
be derived from all the citizens of the school, and within 
the scope of the charter granted by the principal. The 
pupils may become citizens with rights, duties, privileges, 
and obligations simply by entering the school, or by paying 
a small fee of twenty-five cents and joining the general 


organization, as the usual plan is in some cities, or by at- 
tending classes for instruction in citizenship and passing a 
naturalization test, as in the Longwood Commerce High 
School in Cleveland. The participation in government in 
the home-room, in the class organizations, and in the coun- 
cil and its committees is so important that every pupil 
should be considered a citizen. The council, composed of 
pupil representatives and one or more teacher-advisers, 
subject to the direction and to the veto of the school prin- 
cipal or his representative, should regulate extra-curricular 
activities. All pupil organizations should be chartered by 
this central organization and all rules for regulating affairs 
of any pupil organization should be passed on by this cen- 
tral body. The office of the president of the council should 
be the most honored position any pupil can attain in the 
school. The successful, organized participation of pupils 
in .school government demands that the elected representa- 
tives shall not constitute themselves as an oligarchy and 
assume all power, but that the home-rooms and the various 
classes shall be organized so that opinion passes from the 
citizens to the council quite as freely as the directions of the 
council pass to the citizens. 

The work of the student council must be subject to the 
direction of the principal of the school. The principal is 
responsible to the superintendent of schools for every activ- 
ity of the whole school ; the superintendent, to the school 
board; and the board, to the people or to the representa- 
tives of the people who created the board. There cannot 
be, in any absolute sense, pupil self-government. The 
pupils are not responsible to the people who make the 
school possible for the way the school is conducted. It 
should be kept in mind that the principal is responsible for 
the whole school. 

The student council and the real life of the school. 


Both teachers and pupils may desire a cooperative type of 
government. This desire is the necessary basis on which 
to build, but it is only a basis. It is no assurance that 
either teachers or pupils are able to carry on immediately 
in a democratic situation. The people of a nation may 
overthrow the tyranny of a czar, but, because of lack of 
knowledge and experience, may fall to rioting, to fratrici- 
dal strife, and be quelled only by ‘‘ the man on horseback.” 
They may, through the iron hand of the master, become 
orderly, pay their debts, and gain or maintain a place of re- 
spect among creditor nations, but this may tK^t be p^roof 
that they have become democratic. Fortunately, schools 
may proceed more intelligently and more ciuickly. How- 
ever, even under the most favorable circumstances, a 
democracy grows slcjwly. 

The idea that finally develops into a real, whole-school 
council develops most quickly among pupils from homes 
where children are intelligently guided rather than bossed, 
where children are educated rather than just trained to 
make certain responses. Pupil participation in govern- 
ment succeeds best in a school where the teachers and 
supervisors, including the principal, are accustomed to 
work cooperatively in attacking and solving common prob- 
lems. This form of government is not for the dictatorial 
principal that saith to one teacher, go, and she goeth with 
glad, separating haste, and to another, come, and she 
cometh with dread and misunderstanding fear. If pupils 
and teachers are to participate intelligently in working to- 
gether in a council government, there needs to be real 
socialization in the ''recitation” class, and in the guidance 
of well-directed study and intelligent responvse. Often, 
however, pupils who have no real share in developing any 
purposes of their own in the classroom recitation strive 
with zeal and, finally, with skill, in home-room, in class 


organization, and in the student council. The desire, in 
some cases almost mad desire, to have a part in directing 
themselves and in controlling their environment, makes 
some pupils work to an actual self-realization in a demo- 
cratic situation. However, the fact remains that the stu- 
dent council is not a thing apart. It grows most success- 
fully out of the real life of the school. It is simply one of 
the cooperative ways that the school provides for real edu- 
cation by enabling pupils and teachers to recognize and 
share in solving the school’s problems. 

Whatever powers the student council has are delegated 
powers. That the powers of the student council are dele- 
gated powers is expressly recognized in many student 
council constitutions. For example, the senate charter of 
the Lower Merion Junior High School, Ardmore, Pennsyl- 
vania, of which Mr. Edward H. Snow is principal, states 
in the preamble: 

In view of the power invested in me as principal of the Lower 
Morion Junior High School, I authorize through the agency of the 
student body and the faculty, the establishment of a School Sen- 
ate. The various terms and purposes of this establishment are 
designated below. This charter may be used as a constitution or 
as a basis for the making of one. This charter is subject to with- 
drawal upon due notice by the principal. 

In the constitution of the Student Body Organization of 
the Senior High School, Springfield, Missouri, the source of 
power is expressed thus: 

Since the principal and faculty are directly responsible to the 
superintendent and to the Board of Education for the welfare of 
the school, it is expressly understood that all student powers, 
herein set forth, are delegated by the principal and the faculty, and 
may be revoked by them at any time. 

It is the exception rather than the rule for student coun- 
cil constitutions to state their source of oower. Mani- 


festly, according to the theory that has been stated, pupils 
cannot say, “We, the pupils of Panther Branch High 
School, do ordain and establish this constitution.” Since 
they cannot do this, and since thf^y have a constitution, as 
a rule, rather than a charter, they usually say nothing 
about the source of power. This omission is not peculiar 
to high schools. Miss Amos, in analyzing fifty council 
constitutions in women’s colleges, found that only fifteen 
of the fifty stated how they were authorized.* It seems 
reasonable that all student councils should contain some 
statement of their source of power. 

The purposes of student councils as stated in their con- 
stitutions. The purposes of student councils usually are 
to promote the general welfare of the school, to pro\ade 
tra.ning in citizenship, to provide for cooperation of pupils 
and teachers, and to direct the extra-curricular activities 
of the school. However, there is no well-thought agree- 
ment among the schools so far, at least, as the expression 
of that agreement is concerned. Seven examples, chosen 
at random, may show the lack of unity of purpose and 
show, at least theoretically, what the schools are attempt- 
ing through the councils. 

The purpose of th*^ Student Council in the John Adams 
High School, Cleveland, is stated in this manner: 

1. To promote the general welfare of the school. 

2. To arouse school spirit. 

3. To pro\ide opportunity for student cooperation and partici- 
pation in management of school afTairs. 

The purpose ol the Student Council of the High School, 
Athens, Ohio, is: 

To direct the extra-curpcular activities of the student body and 
to maintain and develop school spirit. 

• Amos, Thyrsa W. “Student Government"; Proceedings, National Education 
Association, d. aa. 2 . 


The purpose of the Students’ Association of the West 
Philadelphia High School for Girls is expressed thus: 

To promote an enthusiastic school spirit, good fellowship among 
pupils, helpful cooperation between pupils and faculty, and a 
v'holesome interest in athletics, literary, artistic, musical, dramatic 
and scientific clubs, and all other activities that represent the 

The purpose of the General Organization of the Wad- 
Icigh High School, New York City, is: 

To foster school spirit, to have general direction o\er school 
activities, and to prepare for citizenship. 

The purpose of the Student Council of the Pine Bluff 
High School, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is expressed in this 
fashion : 

It shall be the constant efTort of this body to secure by every 
means in its power, gentlemanly conduct and thoughtful observ- 
ance of school regulations on the part of the student body, and to 
[iromote harmonious relations between teachers and pupils and 
among pupils themselves. 

The constitution of the Student Body of the High 
School, Boise, Idaho, expresses its purpose in this pream- 

We, the students of the Boise High School, in order to cooperate 
with the faculty in the management of student affairs, do ordain 
and establish this constitution for the Associated Student Body of 
Boise High School. 

The seventh of these constitutions to be oclected by 
chance is that of the East Technical High School, ('leve- 
land. This council presents its purposes in five divisions, 

(a) To create opportunities for closer cooperation between stu- 
dents and faculty. 

(b) To provide opportunities for student self-direction. 

(c) To foster all worthy school activities. 



{d) To provide a forum for discussion of questions of interest to 
the student body. 

(^) To create and maintain standards of good citizenship among 

If the student council does grow out of the life of the 
school and as a result does have to meet the needs of social 
situations \astly different, there is probably no need for 
the purposes of student councils ever to become exactly the 
same. In fact, this diversity may be some indication of the 
vitality of the whole mov ement toward pupil participation 
in government. At the same time there might be greater 
progress if there were more general agreement in the pur- 
poses of the movement. It seems fair to the writer, at 
least, to propose that the purpose of pupil participation in 
go' ernment is to provide a means for education and train- 
ing in citizenship here and now through sharing in the 
guidance of the curricular and especially the extra-curricu- 
lar activities of the school. 

What claims are made for pupil participation in govern- 
ment? Earle Rugg ^ found, in an analysis of fifty articles 
dealing with this topic, that the “chief objectives, values 

or claims” made by the writers were: 


oi' Mlm^on 

1. To train for worthy <.iti/cn.ship through the de- 
velopment of cooperation, self-contio> self- 

reliance, initiative, and responsibility . 35 I 

2. To establish lx;tter undei standing, better 
spirit, and cooperation between students and 

faculty 13 2 

3. To develop interest in school work, school 

spirit, and school pride 9 3 

4. To develop intelligent leadership 6 4 

5 . To provide for pupil expression I 5 

Since many of the writers on pupil participation in gov- 

> Rugg, Eaile Twenty-Ft/lh Yearbook^ National Society for the Study of Educa- 
tion, Part II, p 120. 


eminent are interested in school administration, it is to be 
expected that many suggestions would be made as to the 
manner of introducing this form of government. As a re- 
sult of his analysis of these fifty articles, Rugg presents,' 
under the title of “Theories and Principles upon Which 
Student Participation is or Should be Established,” the 
following table; 

Frequency Rank 

1. Student participation should be introduced 

gradually 2I I 

2. The machinery should be simple I2 2 

3. It makes school administration easier and 

more pleasant 9 3 

4. It must come from within the school and not 

be imposed from without by authority 8 4.5 

5. Student meetings, such as council, class and 
club meetings, should be given a regular place 

in the program of the school 8 4.5 

6. Student participation is a good way to utilize 

adolescent, instinctive activities 7 6.5 

7. Pupils should have a voice in disciplinary 

problems 7 6.5 

8. Faculty advisers or sponsors should attend all 

meetings of the students 6 8 

9. Student participation in the management of 
the school is the most logical way to teach 

civics 5 10 

10. The old autocratic plan of school management 

is not satisfactory 5 10 

11. The schools have not been successful in teach- 
ing worthy citizenship 5 lO 

12. It should not be considered a disciplinary de- 
vice 2 12.5 

13. Student participation in the school govern- 
ment is the best way for teaching respect fer 

law 2 12.5 

14. Student participation helps break down class 

barriers in school I 15 

15. Scholarship is improved through student par- 
ticipation I 15 

16. Pupils are developed socially by participating 

in school government I 15 

• i^ugg, op at. 


This table seems to be made up of claims and adminis- 
trative suggestions rather than theories and principles, but 
it does show, as far as can be shown in a form so brief, a 
cross-section of current opinion of ^hose who are sufficiently 
interested in this subject of pupil participation in govern- 
ment to write about it.* 

Seven of the purposes of pupil participation in govern- 
ment. If pupil participation in government is not simply 
a way of getting things done, but a means rather of real 
education and training, any one working in this field should 
think through what he is aiming to do. There is no need 
that all workers agree, but it is necessary that whatever 
the individual does should grow out of his educational 
philosophy. The writer, therefore, in accordance with his 
theory, before going on to analyze various types of student 
councils, stops to set down seven of the purposes he has in 
mind in considering pupil participation in government. 

I. Pupil participation in government provides a favorable 
opportunity for the pupil to have a definite purpose of 
his own. This purpose he must make clear to his asso- 
ciates through explanation if he is to get it accepted by his 
group. If it is his purpose, it has in it a drive for him that 
makes for action. Psychologically, this is the law of readi- 
ness wherein to act is satisfying and not to act is annoying. 
However, in working in the student council he has to pre- 
sent his case, to speak clearly and definitely, to an exact- 
ing audience; he has to work in accordance with orderly 
procedure; he must recognize the chairman, present his 
motion, struggle with the fickleness of public opinion, get a 
working committee appointed. The purpose that he has 
may make him strive for exactness, a completeness in re- 
sult. vSuch action as is here described is not peculiar to 

* In sampling current opinion there seems to be a chance for error in that the advo- 
atea of a movement of this kind do most of the writing 


student councils; it may exist, and ought to exist, in regu- 
lar recitation classes, but the council, because of pupil re- 
sponsibility, is peculiarly favorable to the pupil’s having 
and carrying out a definite purpose. 

Furthermore, such action as has just been described is 
a very practical education and training in citizenship. 
Orderly, intelligent, critical discussion cannot be carried on 
by a mob. The pupil, in order to get his purpose fairly and 
adequately considered, will be the first to insist on the ob- 
servance of simple, orderly parliamentary procedure. It 
is necessary for him to learn the mechanics of free dis- 
cussion, and it is even more important that, through ex- 
perience, he shall know why the forms of simple parlia- 
mentary procedures are necessary. Knowledge is not 
enough; the pupil must have practice. According to the 
plan of pupil participation that has been presented in this 
and the preceding chapters, he can gain this practice in the 
small home-room group, in the class organization, in the 
student council, and finally, as will be pointed out, in the 
assembly of the whole school. It is this practice in carry- 
ing out a definite purpose that gives much of the intense 
drive that characterizes pupil effort in cooperative school 

2. Pupil participation in government tends to create a 
friendly feeling between teachers and pupils. The basis of 
this friendliness is cooperative effort. The first step here is 
a consideration, by pupil representatives and teacher-ad- 
visers of what are the conditions; second, what ought to be 
done; third, how it can be done; fourth, the selection of the 
best plan that stands at least a fair chance of being success- 
ful ; fifth, putting the plan into operation; sixth, to what ex- 
tent was the plan successful; seventh, revision of the plan 
for continuing it or possibly dropping it temporarily or 
permanently. The question in all this cooperative plan- 


ning is not, What does the teacher want? Rather, it is, 
What does the situation require? If wisely directed, the 
work becomes objective rather than subjective. Friendli- 
ness between teachers and pupils is often a matter of person- 
ality, and there is certainly no desire here to disparage rich, 
interesting, many-sided personality. However, there is a 
type of teacher that exploits at least some pupils on this 
basis. This type of teacher says or implies, 'M)o this, 
please, dear, because it will make me so happy.” Govern- 
ment is necessary, not on personality, not even on sweet 
personality, but on as nearly an objective basis as the 
group can work. Through cooperative effort in planning 
and in carrying on pupil participation in government, 
friendliness on a high plane may develop between teachers 
and pupils through shared experiences. This experience 
may enable teachers to understand and appreciate the 
pupils’ point of view and enable, likewise, the pupils to 
have a keener understanding and appreciation of the 
teachers’ angle of vision. The result may be that, through 
actual experience, all teachers and all pupils work together 
on a friendlier basis. 

3. Pupil participatioyi in government can be psychology 
cally remedial. The pupil may not hav^e learned that, as 
Benjamin Franklin put it, ”\'icious actions are not hurtful 
because they are forbidden, but forbidden because they are 
hurtful.’' Requirements of polite home behavior may 
have repressed perfectly natural tendencies until there are 
habitual attitudes of hostility toward anything that is for- 
bidden. Again, there is a type of pupil whose day-dreams 
are so vivid, so distinct, that ”he absolutely loses contact 
with the real world.” * The classroom procedure is full of 
devices for catching and holding the attention of such 
pupils. Other pupils come to the school self-asvsertive as 

* Green, C H Psychanalysts tn the Classroom, p 13 


the result of bossing, or so inhibited from having been the 
victims of bossing that they are not free enough to guide 
themselves intelligently. As judges of juvenile courts 
have shown, youthful delinquents frequently come from 
such types of the psychologically unfree as have been 
mentioned, If there is some real participation in govern- 
ment, whether it is the gang in the alley, or in a group in 
school, the pupil may learn that the law which he helped 
make, and which he may understand because he helped 
make it, does aim to forbid hurtful practices. The day- 
dreamer, by becoming active with his fellows in creating a 
real world, may find this new creation more attractive than 
his "castles in Spain." The boss may learn that his peers 
do not appreciate his superior dictation, and that if he 
wants to be part of the group, he must play the game ac- 
cording to the rules. Finally he is drawn into the group 
because he can have a par t, though not the whole part, in 
making the rules. The shy little fellow, who may be 
simply a bundle of inhibitions, may find, under wise guid- 
ance, that he can do something to contribute to the general 
welfare. It is neither good intentions nor advice on the 
part of adults that can do the remedial work necessary. 
Purposeful action of the pupil with his peers must do the 
work. Just enough guidance, but not too much, can help. 

4. The development of a plan of pupil participation in 
government is concerned with the development of attitudes 
in pupils, in teachers, and in administrators. There is 
the absolute necessity that individual, or group, oppor- 
tunity be definitely associated with responsibility. It is a 
virtue of this opportunity of pupils to share in government 
that the situation insistently demands that they do some- 
thing. The pupils by nature are interested in action; to 
act is satisfying. To act in meeting the opportunity may 
mean to assume responsibility. The results of action in a 


school situation usually have an immediate as well as a 
deferred value. Professor Bode defines democracy as “A 
social organization that aims to promote cooperation 
among its members and with othei groups on the basis of 
mutual recognition of interests.’* * The pupils probably 
see darkly through the glass of their own activities, but the 
adult guide must see clearly. Pupils, and, perhaps, espe- 
cially American pupils, in their idealism, inherit a belief in 
democracy and, to some extent, a belief in education. 
Pupils under the pressure of immediate circumstances are 
constantly desirous of modifying the form of school gov- 
ernment and, if the guidance is wise, they can develop the 
attitude that they are not one-hundred-percenters, but 
that they are becoming effective in realizing what they are 
striving for. They are not killing the democracy they 
have by becoming satisfied with seemingly established 
forms. They are concerned with progress, with reform, 
with fitting their immediate society for themselves as well 
as fitting themselves for society as represented in the life of 
the school. They are having a favorable opportunity to 
learn through stern necessity that the expression of their 
own native tendencies cannot exist except through what 
Professor Bode calls ‘‘cooperation based on mutual recog- 
nition of interest and through progressive modification of 
institutions and practices.” Pupils do not express them- 
selves in the language of a professor of philosophy; they 
say, ‘‘Oh, you got to learn to give and take or you get 
thrown out ” ; but, painful as it sometimes is, they can learn 
how to work together. 

Pupils themseh^es are interested in getting things done. 
While the guide may be interested in civic or character 
education and see pupil participation in government as a 

• Bode, B H "Democracy and Education", Eighth Yearbook, National Associa- 
tion of Secondary School Principals, p 123 


means to this end, the pupils are interested chiefly in 
action. They desire to organize the games, to celebrate a 
victory in assembly, to regulate traffic, to see that the 
activities in which they are especially interested share in 
the school budget. Teacher-guides see in these desires a 
basis for enabling pupils to want better conditions and to 
strive cooperatively to satisfy these improved wants. The 
working-out of the attitude may establish desirable habits 
and ultimately result in a knowledge of how to work in 
situations requiring individual initiative and cooperative 

5. Pupil participation in government tends to provide for 
emotional satisfactions. In this discussion emphasis has 
been placed constantly on practice with satisfying results, 
with a recognition that the emotions must be included. 
There is the desire of most intellectual workers to be free 
from envy and worry and emotional disturbances. Prob- 
ably most wise people desire to bring feeling under con- 
trol of the intellect. Tis a consummation devoutly to be 
wished.” However, the human family does not live on so 
high a plane. In everyday life it is usually the emotions 
that give the drive to human endeavor. The high-school 
boy or girl is guided very largely by feeling. To say that 
it should not be so may be true, but it does not affect the 
facts. There must be provision for education in right feel- 
ing in connection with right acting. It is a healthy emo- 
tional satisfaction for a pupil to share in directing affairs, 
in the home-room, class, or council; to have one’s opinions 
courteously considered by one’s associates and especially 
by the members of one’s own group; to have the con- 
sciousness of being expected to do the right thing and to 
help others to do it; to be a part of an organized group that 
in the very nature of the situation demands one’s best 
effort in creating, building, promoting through cooperative 


effort. Action and emotion are inseparably associated. 
While emotional satisfactions should be provided for in the 
upper levels of the pupil’s range, it must be recognized that 
the satisfactions are satisfactions suited to youth rather 
than to age. Since youth cannot suddenly become old, the 
only hope seems to be that teachers, possibly wise in years, 
stay young in spirit. 

6. Participation in govertwient can make for intelligent 
obedience to authority. There is no instinctive tendency 
that makes youth recognize that freedom comes through 
law. Even if it were desirable, there is not time, as Kip- 
ling ha^ pointed out, '‘to ask for the reason of every com- 
mand and argue with people about you.” In a complex 
world it is necessary for learners to realize that there is 
authority, so long as it is authority, that must be obeyed. 
The individual cannot know e\erything about everything. 
Authority in many things must be accepted — but ac- 
cepted how? Blindly or intelligently.'^ Authority is 
changing; the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings has 
passed. If the pupil can have a hand in making the school 
laws about smoking, corridor traffic, returning report cards, 
parking automobiles on school grounds, conduct in study 
hall or assembly, a point system for regulating pupil partic- 
ipation in extra-curricular activities, he can be more in- 
telligently obedient because he knows why, in the opinion 
of the majority at least, these laws are necessary. If he 
has a part in making the laws, it is probably true that the 
laws will be better enforced ; but this is not the fundamental 
idea. The primary thing is for him to understand why the 
law is necessary and that it is only through law that he can 
have either freedom or safety. 

7. Participation in government is a means of education. 
As Carl Schurz has remarked, “Self-government as an ad- 
ministrator is subject to criticism for many failures, but it 


is impossible to overestimate self-government as an edu- 
cator.” Writers on the government phase of school life, 
however, frequently emphasize that pupil participation is 
“an effective way of developing and controlling the school 
situation”; that the intimate contact of principal and 
pupils in government brings to light “knowledge of many 
situations undiscovered by the faculty”; that the “council 
takes the lead in organizing pupils to observe regulations”; 
that “pupils are more responsive to conventionalities” 
when they have part in the government. These writers 
also claim that when pupils share in the government, they 
“reduce tardiness”; “solve difficult disciplinary prob- 
lems”; “care for petty offenses”; “develop and conserve 
public opinion as to what we do and what we do not do.” 
There are also repeated claims that squads or patrols — 
sanitary, lunch-room, corridors, lockers, study hall, 
grounds, and so on — make it easier for school officials to 
control the school. In fact, out of 210 claims for pupil 
participation in government which the author has listed, 21 
of them are to the effect that such participation makes for 
efficiency and ease in lunning the school. All of these 
claims, and many others that could be made, are, in many 
cases, true. Yet the fact remains, as Dean Kerr pointed 
out at a national meeting of the deans of women, in 1920, 
“Student government is not an end, but a process; it 
never will be, nor can be, expert government.” W. D. 
Lewis went a step farther when he said in the President's 
address at the meeting of the National Association of 
Secondary School Principals in 1919, “I believe it is su- 
premely important that principals and teachers recognize 
student participation as a principle underlying proper 
training in democratic thought, feeling, and action, and not 
as a device for getting desirable work done.” There is no 
doubt that a benevolent despot, or a school principal de- 



voted to paternalism, if he be supremely wise, absolutely 
just, and not self-seeking, can furnish either a community 
or a school, “as far as the practical working of adminis- 
trative machinery goes,” belter government than can 
citizens who are subject to the vagaries of public opinion. 
There is need for good government in schools, but the 
reason for developing pupil participation in government 
is not just as a means to get things done. Rather it is a 
means of enabling pupils, intelligently guided, to practice 
the qualities of the good citizen here and now, with results 
satisfying to themselves. 

What is the place of pupil participation in government in 
education and training in citizenship? Rugg found, in 
analyzing fifty articles, that of the sixty-two objectives set 
down for pupil participation in government, thirty-three 
were for training in “worthy citizenship through the de- 
velopment of cooperation, self-control, self-reliance, initia- 
tive, and responsibility.” In the author’s own analysis, 
almost half the claims were for citizenship values. These 
claims seem to fall roughly into five overlapping divisions: 
individual and group responsibility, group cooperative 
effort, practice in habits of citizenship, moral self-reliance, 
and, finally, as a preventive measure. No one quotation 
presents all of the claims of any division, but six brief 
statements may make these claims more concrete. 

In 1899, in the John Urerar Public School, Chicago, J. T. 
Ray was working out in detail a plan whereby a pupil 
“should learn early in his school life that he must guard his 
own rights and privileges if he wishes to retain them. He 
must therefore learn to influence others to right conduct.” ^ 

In 1909 and earlier, Dewey was emphasizing that “the 
school cannot be a preparation for social life except as it re- 
produces, within itself, typical conditions of social life.” * 

« Ray. J. T Democratic Government of Schools 1890 

■ Dewey. John. Moral Principles in Education. 1909- 


In pupil activities, and especially the activities of the 
University High School, Chicago, of which he was prin- 
cipal, Franklin W. Johnson, in 1909, said: “With the same 
idea and determination any school, whatever its situation 
or circumstances, may at once begin to make effective 
those agencies which, as no others in our public schools 
can, train boys and girls to become morally self-reliant 
men and women/’ ‘ 

The working of individuals in groups has been a part of 
Kilpatrick’s philosophy and practLe. In 1919 he said: 
“ It is cooperative, purposeful activity in group affairs that 
has perhaps most to do with building the healthy social 
character, with its spirit of give and take, its like-minded- 
ness, its tendency to personal welfare.’’ “We are not pre- 
paring these boys and girls merely to live after a while. 
We expect them to live now.*’ * 

After organizing and supervising the Speyer Junior High 
School in New York City, wherein the experimentation in- 
cluded pupil participation in government as a part of the 
extra-curricular activit^’es, Briggs summarized his views 
thus: “These activities offer the school its best opportuni- 
ties to help pupils to do certain desirable things that they 
are going to do anyway, viz. take their places as members 
of social units and exercise each according to his ability, 
those qualities of leadership, initiative, cooperation and in- 
telligent obedience, all fundamental in society.*’ ^ 

In surveying the pupil activities in the eleven senior high 
schools of Philadelphia, the writer said: “These pupils can 
be learning in the voluntary associations with their fellows 
how to cooperate for the common good, how to lead or 

* Johnson, F. W. "The Social Organization of the High School"; School Review, 
December, 1909. 

■ Kilpatrick, W. H. " Education of Adolescents for Democracy"; Religious Educa- 
tion, June, 1919. 

J Briggs, T. H. " Extra-Curricular Activities in Junior Hi^h Schools"; Educational 
Administration and Supervision, January, 1922. 



select a leader wisely and to follow him, how to assume re- 
sponsibility and to make good, and, where the teachers ad- 
vise enough but not too much, there ‘s a real opportunity 
for the development of many of the qualities a good citizen 
must have.” ' 

What shall the school do? Three ways are open. The 
whole matter may be left to chance; pupils may be told 
what to d(^; or the situation may be arranged that i)upils 
practice the qualities of the go(xl citizen here and now, with 
results satisfying to themselves. This whole mo\ement 
for pupil particip«ition in government seems to be a part of 
the democratic movement inside and outside of the schools. 
Educators are recognizing increasingly the truth of what 
Thorndike said in igii: “In the last analysis what the 
scholars do, not what the teacher does, educates them; not 
what we giNC, i)Ut what they get, counts, and only through 
their self-activity are they directly trained.” ' 

Does the school know how to call the active virtues into 
play? Probably most scdiools know how to kill off initia- 
tive, especially if it e\[)resses itself in inis('hief or non-con- 
formity; how to prevent coo{K*ration wherexer it me.ins 
one pupil helping another; how to break down leadership, 
especially if it be along non-aj^proN cd lines; how to rew.ird 
the passively good. 1 )oes the school know how to develop 
the active \irtues of citizenship in a demcxTacy? Prob- 
ably the one who answers this cjuestion of the school’s 
ability to educate citizens in a democracy for a democracy, at 
least in so far as pupil participation in government is con- 
cerned, will have to answer first siu h fjuestions as: Docs the 
student council in its various activities tend to cause t)upils 
to contribute, to what they conceived to be a good cause, 
all that they can? Do these ways of participating in gov- 

• Frclufll, K K. Report of tin* Survey fif the I’uhlir S< hooU nf I’hil.iflt'lphi.i, Book 

4 . PP 3 

• Thorndike. E L Principles nf Teaching, pp jy-41 


eminent tend to make pupils want to change good practice 
to better practice and come to have the skill to do it? 
Does a pupil’s work in the home-room or class organization 
or in the council require that he recognize his own and 
everybody else’s ideas and select the ones of most worth; 
that is, do these situations help him think independently? 
Does a pupil’s activity in sharing in his own government 
provide a favorable opportunity for discriminating prac- 
tice, not miscellaneous practice, but selective practice in 
changing ways of doing things to better ways of doing 
things? The psychologist emphasizes the necessity of 
providing “those situations which by the nature of homo 
.sapiens call the active virtues into play and make their ex- 
ercise satisfying to the individual. Induce these tenden- 
cies to act and reward their action.’’ 

What is the place of guidance in practice? Practice of 
the active virtues of citizenship is important. There are 
those advocates of pupil participation in government who 
say: “Cuve pupils responsibility and trust them and all 
will be well.’’ Others say* ‘Schools have only to give boys 
and girls chances to be self-reliant and inventive in matters 
where it is useful for them to be so and to reward their 
successful efforts.’’ Those who are satisfied with these 
statements might do well to keep in mind that, while suc- 
ce.ssful practice must be satisfying, failures must be in- 
structive. There are many attempts to practice the active 
virtues of democratic citizenship that are probably worse 
than a waste of time. There may be, owing to an absence 
of intelligent guidance, failure after failure that is in no 
way instructive, with the final result that there are no 
more attempts. The individual may not only give up 
practice, but lose the attitude of believing it is worth while 
to try to accomplish anything by democratic means. 

It seems p^^rfectly clear that to develop the knowledge, 


the attitudes, and the skills necessary for improving a 
democracy, pupils must have experience, pr^ictice, in 
living in a democracy; that practice in a democracy may 
be bad as well as beneficial; that guidance is absolutely 
necessary in arranging the situation, in making failures in- 
structive, and, wherever possible, making the rewards of 
successful practice come from within the situation rather 
than from some external cause. It is the author’s opinion 
that at the present time the school’s opportunities for edu- 
cating pupils in a democracy for a democracy lie in subject- 
matter, in methods of teaching, in the way the school is 
organized, and in the whole extra-curricular field; but that 
the school’s greatest opportunity lies in guiding pupils to 
participate in the organization and direction of the school’s 
extra-curricular activities. 

A definition, positive and negative, of pupil participation 
in government. It is the business of the school to organize 
the whole educational situation so that there is a favorable 
opportunity for everybody, pupils and teachers, to practice 
the qualities of the good citizen here and now, with results 
satisfying to themselves. Pupil participation in school 
government, when guided wisely, is the best means the 
school has for providing this practice. The thinking must 
be on the positive side, but such thinking will probably also 
lead the reader to recognize that pupil participation in 
government is not self-government; that it is not primarily 
a means of discipline; that it is not just a way of getting 
things done; that it is not paternalism, benev(dent despot- 
ism, an oligarchy, or an aristocracy; that it is not a way of 
building esprit de corps by rivalry; that it is not a way of 
freeing teachers from work; that it will not run by itself; 
that it is not a way of setting pupils in one group over 
against teachers in another; that it is not a way of teaching 
information civics; that it is not a substitute for vigorous 


application to worth-while curricular work; that it is not a 
way of finding effective leaders without the difficult work 
of developing them; that it is not a means for educators to 
shirk responsibility by leaving affairs entirely in the hands 
of pupils; that it is not a miraculous way of lengthening the 
attention-span or of getting rid of temporary interests; that 
it is not a means of capturing the drive in pupil participa- 
tion in government and reducing it to a curricular course of 
study by the easy means of providing time for it in the 
daily program. Negative definition is not an end in itself, 
but simply a means of clarifying positive thinking that 
precedes constructive action. 

Some ideas to keep in mind. The student who is trying 
to think through this phase of pupil activity can keep in 
mind that the idea of pupil participation in government is 
not new cither in the secondary schools of Europe or of the 
United States. However, in expression at least, there has 
been confusion between self-government and pupil par- 
ticipation in government. This idea of participation in 
government is found in ino'istry as well as in the schools. 
In theory and in practice there has been a change in both 
England and in the United States away from what some 
educationists called self-government in the direction of 
pupil participation in government. Since the principal is 
responsible for the whole life of the school, whatever powers 
the student council has are delegated to it by the principal. 
Partly due to the rapid development of the idea of pupils 
sharing in the government of the school as an educative e-x- 
perience, there is as yet no complete uniformity in the 
statement of the purposes of this phase of pupil activity. 
A cross-section of current opinion, however, shows that 
there is a rather general agreement in the claims made for 
pupil participation in government. An analysis of seven 
of the purposes brings out the idea very definitely that the 


f:xtra-cl'rricular activities 

emphasis is on providing educative experience for pupils 
rather than on considering pupil participation in govern- 
ment as an end in itself. The school has had difficulty in 
calling the acti\ e \ irtues into play and even greater dilTi- 
culty in guiding their practice. Here is one phase of the 
life of the .school that can provide a favorable opportunity 
for placing the emphasis on the active \irtues and of mak- 
ing their practice sati^^f^'ing. Ibij^ils are citizens here and 
now, with rights, duties, pri\ileges. and oi)ligations. If 
they are to grow into >till better citizens, ideas about citi- 
zens may be helpful, but satisfying practice is al)solutely 
fundamental. 'Fhis idea is a \ ital part of the whole philos- 
ophy of iiKxiern education. Howe\ er, if there is to be con- 
tinued progress in this field, individuals and groups must 
think through this idea of pupils partici[)ating intelligently 
and increasingly in the direction of their own and the 
schools’ affairs, and try out their ideas in a(' practice. 


1. In what sense, if an\, is the ide.i of pariici[).iti()n in go\’- 

ernineiu new 

2. Does j)upil parli('ij)alion in g»»\ermiu‘iu appK to organizing 
and directing the e\tr<i-( iirri<'nlar atiixiiies (»f the scliooD If 
so, in what s[)ecifH wa\'>'’ 

3. How' do \'ou account for tlie fac 1 (hat to sunn* educ ators pupil 
particiihition has to do alniosi cmIusimIn with school clis- 

4. In what ways, if an\, has jiupil p.irtic ij).il ion in go\ eminent 
been confused with .self-go\ eminent.’' If there' has bc'en any 
confusion, how' do you acTount for it 

5. W’lnil claims do >ou make for and against pujiil partic’ip.uion 
in govemmeiU? On basis do >ou jii^tif> these claims.'' 

6. In what respects, if an\, do you consider e*ac'h of the sexeii 
purposes of pupil particijiation in goeernmemt cited in this 
chajaer, true? — untrue.'' W hy? 

7. W’hat do you consider the* purpose e)f [)upil participation in 
government? How do you e\.iluate these jiurposes.'^ 


8. Should a student council be chartered? Why or why not? 

9. Should the principal have the power to veto council legislation? 
W hy or why not? If he should have this power of negation, 
what sliould he do on the positive side? 

10. W'hcit is a student council? (Setting down in parallel columns 
what a council is and what it is not may help clarify )oiir 

11. ('an a s( hool develop the [)ositive virtues that characterize the 
good citizen? How? 

Chapter V 


The junior high school and extra-curricular activities. 

One (jf the most important phases of the progress made by 
the jiinior-high-school movement has to do with the or- 
ganization of the e.xtra-curriciilar activities of the school. 
Junior high schools in the main seem to ha\e attracted 
principals and teachers who are re.dly interested in boys 
and girls. Writers in this field, such as Hriggs. I Hass, ('ox, 
Koos, C. (). Davis, Pechstein and McGregor, I’homas- 
Tindall and Myers, Sheehan, Terry, and W. .A. Smith, to 
mention only a few, have devoted one or more cli.iiiters in 
their representative luKiks or reports on the junior high 
school to the acti\ities of the school. 
Many magazine articles, by l.yman,, Foster, h'ret- 
well, Johnston, Myers, and others, have reported the .social 
progress that exists in some junior high scliools. Notwith- 
standing all that has been prescntefl in theory and in con- 
crete report, the writer, after xisiling many junior high 
schools, believes that if one rearl all that has been said, and 
well said, one would still have only a \er\ inade(|uate \ iew 
of the widesjiread progress that has been made <ind is being 
made in developing extra-curricular aitivities in junior 
high schwls. 

This progress in junior high schools is many-sided. 
However, the five in which most advance has been 
made seem to be in home-rooms, student councils, assem- 
blies, clubs, and intra-mural athletics. Home-rooms have 
already been discussed. Assemblies, clubs, and athletics 


will be considered later. The present chapter is devoted 
to an analywsis of a variety of types of student councils that 
exist in junior high schools. The philosophy underlying 
the student council was discussed in Chapter IV, under the 
head of “Purposes.** To stop with the philosophy is to 
get nowhere, so far as wise action on the part of the school 
is concerned. There is a necessity of getting at the way 
this philosophy can be worked out. 

Work of the council is fundamentally educative. It is 
concerned with right and satisfying action here and now. 
'Fhere is no important need of the present or of the assured 
future more insistent than the habit of right action. The 
council, on a level that adolescent boys and girls under- 
stand, specializes in the type of direction and action that is 
for the good of the larger group as well as for the individual. 
The junior high school is exploratory, but exploration of 
fields of subject-matter and of a pupil’s interests and abili- 
ties in these fields is not enough. There must be explora- 
tion for all pupils in ways of using one’s initiative for the 
good of the group, of cooj, rating intelligently in a worthy 
enterprise and enjoying it, of sharing in the direction of 
immediate alTairs that are of real importance, from the 
pupil’s point of view, for himself and for his fellows. If the 
pupil, with the aid of his parents and his teachers, is to get 
started on the career th<it is best for him and for the state, 
he must take into account what he is as well as what he 
knows. Pupil participation in government, as represented 
in the council, is one means, but only one means, of de- 
veloping right habits and attitudes and in some respects the 
knowledge of how to live and work with people. 

Types of councils in junior high schools. In the junior 
high school, practically all types of councils have one 
element in common — direct home-room representation. 
The types considered fall roughly into the following divi- 


sions: councils made up of home-room representatives in a 
single house; a single house with an executive committee; a 
series of all-school councils with or without a central all- 
school council; a council of two houses — the lower elected 
by home-rooms and the upper elected, for the most part, 
by the lower; a council modeled after outside city, state, or 
national organizations; a council that is a combination of 
lower and upper house and a city plan of government; and, 
finally, a type of so-called council that has some one of the 
forms enumerated, but really has little power other than 
“running errands” for the principal. It should be bf)rne 
in mind that this list is not exhaustive and that practically 
every council has one or more distinct variations from the 
typ)e to which it belongs.* 

Home-room representatives in a single house. The 

particular council described here grows directly out of the 
home-room organization. This council is organized “to 
secure pupil participation in the exercise of leadership, 
coop)eration, and assistance in pro\'iding for the general 
welfare and success of the whole school.” The duties of 
the council £ire “to approve or disap{)rove social functions 
within the school; to issue charters for the formation of 
clubs, teams and associations; t(i cociperate with the prin- 
cii)al in promoting wholesome school spirit and j)roj)er 
student ('onduc t; to appoint officers to carry into effect 
rules and regulations; to consider cases of offense and re- 
commend suitable action to the home-room.” 'I'he coun- 
cil is composed of two representatives from each home- 
room. The principal may pcmiit special representatives 
from home-rooms to attend council meetings. Such re- 
presentatives may talk, but not make a motion or vote, 
'fhe council nominates, two weeks before election, not less 

' Tlif analysis of a particular roiintil may rntirHy rorrcct wlu-n tho analysi*^ i^'. 
made, but it is nrressary for the student to keep in mind that these coum ila .ire gnaw- 
ing, hence constantly changing. 


than three nor more than five non-council members for 
president and for vice-president. The whole school then 
elects a president and a vice-president for one term. As 
this council developed, it established a court of three 
judges, one from each school year, to serve during school 
membership and good behavior. In addition, the home- 
room presidents and the council officers meet weekly as a 
club to discuss parliamentary procedure. A council com- 
mittee visits home-room and club meetings and reports to 
the council on the nature of the program and the conduct 
of the meetings. 

In the student association of a second junior high school, 
the teachers as well as the pupils are members. The coun- 
cil has “control of all financial enterprises” in “accordance 
with the regulations of the principal,” and carries on its 
work through standing committees. Each of these com- 
mittees, consisting of four pupils and one teacher, is elected 
by the council and responsible to that body. In common 
with some senior high schools, this council provides that 
all the officers of the as.socit 4 Lion shall be elected at the last 
meeting of one semester and hold offices during the next. 

The student-government association of a third junior 
high school has at least three additional variations: the 
teachers elect one of their number to be a member of the 
council; the council elects its own officers; the president 
assists in maintaining the general discipline in the school 
“by appointing, under the direction of the adviser, the 
following squads”: assembly, patrol, sanitation, lunch- 
room, and ushers. 'Fhe duties of these five squads are 
specified in the constitution. 

The student council of a fourth junior high school differs 
in some respects from the three councils that have been 
considered. This council is composed of home-room presi- 
dents, but in the home-rooms the first officers elected are 



temporary. At the end of the first six weeks when report 
cards are issued, the temporary officers are “checked up in 
regard to scholarship and abilit> to uphold the school 
creed.” A permanent election is then held. This council 
carries on its work through five committees appointed by 
the president: traffic, playground, social, athletic, and 

In a fifth junior high school the council is made up of 
home-room presidents as in the fourth example given, but 
the committees are almost entirely different. They are: 
property, locker, decoration, lost and found, cheer, in- 
formation, and the insignia committee that “investigates 
every claim for merit or athletic insignia.” IVobably one 
of the ways to understand the purpose and work of a 
council is to study its committees. 

Home-room representatives in a single house with an 
executive committee. A sixth junior high school has one 
significant variation from the councils that have just been 
presented. The senate, composed in the usual way of 
home-room representatives, has an executive committee, 
consisting (ff fi\e members: the i)resident, the vice-presi- 
dent, two other members elected by the council, and a 
faculty adviser. 

A series of all-school councils with no elected central 
council. A seventh junior high schocjl has a type of organi- 
zation essentially different from any one ()f the six sch(X)ls 
considered so far. It bases its pupil participation in gov- 
ernment on the hc^me-room, but has a series of all-school 
councils, organized in the following manner: 

A. Home-room or^uJiization 

I. Officers elected hy home-room: 

a. President — agent for library campaigns and otlier school 

b. Vice-president — business manager of hoiiu‘-room activi- 
ties; safety first iepresent.iti\e. 


c Secretary- treasurer — promoter of savings accounts and 
thrift-stamp drixes. 

d. Usher — receives and escorts visitors, leads his group 
through corridors. 

e ncpiit> — in charge of discipline. 

B School (oin^nh 

1. UoiiiHil of home-room president's, principal, and librarian. 

2. ( ouruil of Mce-prcsidenis, directed by health officer. In- 
spection and care of scliool plant, safety and sanitation. 

3 ( oiiiuil of sc(rct<ir\ tPMsurers, with adxiser, manages and 
directs c«imf).iigrs and school bank. 

4 ( oiincils of ushers, trained in roiirtesx and good manners. 
Ten s(lc‘ctc*d ushers serxe as guides for the entire school. 

5 C ouiuil of dei)uties, campaigns for attendance and prompt- 

( \ third set of othcers. constituting a series of community com- 

mittee's, are selected l)> the f uultv directors of these commit- 
tees to aid m m lintaiPing discipline These committees are* 
a lunclu'on committee that takes tare of dishes, payments, and 
ac ts as (aside rs, a committee of otlice messengers; an unknown 
committee of marshals that polices the building, guarding 
<igainst cloak room thefts, a committee of deputies that directs 

Home-room representatives in a series of councils, the 
presidents of which, with class presidents, constitute the 
all-school council. The student council of the eighth 
junior high school, in common with all the other junior 
high schools that ha\e been presented, is based on the 
home-room organization. Each home-room has a presi- 
dent, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, librarian, thrift 
officer, newspaper representati\e, traffic officer, luncheon- 
room deputy, and a grounds’ deputy. The presidents of 
all home-rooms meet as a ‘‘presidents’ council” and in 
turn elect a “president of the presidents’ council.” The 
vice-presidents of all home-rooms meet as a “vice-presi- 
dents’ council,” and elec^t their presiding officer, who be- 
comes president of the \ ice-presidents’ council, and thus 



all of the ten kinds of officers that have been enumerated 
organize their councils. The six classes also are organized. 
In addition the school has an orchestra, a color guard, Big 
Sisters, Boys’ Senior Corps, and office monitors. The stu- 
dent council is made up of the presidents of all these 
twenty organizations, together with a head boy and a head 
girl. Thus it is composed of the presidents of the following 
organizations: Presidents’ Council, \’ice-Presldents’ Coun- 
cil, vSecretaries’ ("ouncil, Treasurers’ Council, Librarians’ 
Council, Thrift C'ouncil, Newspaper C'ouncil, Traffic 
Council, Lunch-Room Deputies, (hounds Deputies, 
Orchestra, Color Ciiiard, Big Sisters, Boys’ Senior C'orps, 
Office Monitors, c)A Class, 9B ('lass, 8A ('lass, SB ('lass, 
jA ( lass, jB ('lass. Head Boy, Head (lirl. 

Each council meets twice a month. The student council 
meets weekly. 

1. The j).irti('ul«ir duty of the Presidents’ ('oiineil j)r.)\ed to 
l>e of assisting in c.iring lor .iltend.iiUH*. Rooms are 
rankefl weekly on the basis of attend.ince, [>unctii.ilit\ , and 

2. The function of the \’i('e- Presidents’ ('ouncil is to assist in the 
order and routine of the as^emblN. The majority of ushei's are 
( hosen from the \ ic'e-presidents. One head usher i^ .ippointed. 

3. 'I he Secretaries’ ('ouncil keeps the minutes for the liome- 
rooms, countersigns attendaiue rej)orts, and comnnmicates 
with absent members. 

4. The Treasurers’ Coumil, under the s|)onsor, handles the money 
for \arious home-rooms. Printed forms are used to s\'stema- 
ti/e the wfirk. 

5. A librarian is electerl from eac h home-room to the Librarian^'' 
('ouru'il. 'I'he function of this group is to establish and pro- 
mote the growth of high library standards in the school; to 
maintain a close coo[)eration between the home-room and the 

6. Members of the Thrift C'f)uncil, marie up of re[)resentati\ es of 
each home-ror)m, keep the interest in [)ersonal sa\ ings at a high 
standard. This council arranges the schedule for a rejiresenta- 


tive from the hank to come to the school for opening accounts. 

7. The function of the members of the Newspaper Council is to 
handle and sell The Skinner Citizen ^ and to keep the interest 
stinuilated by moans of advertising. 

H. The function of the Traffic Deputies is to assist with the traffic 
during the jiassing f)f classes and thus to participate in the 
governing of the student body of the school. 

9. The chief duty of the Luncheon-Room Deputies is to assist in 
the order and routine of the luncheon-room and lower corridors 
during the lunclu'on periods. 

10. The fuiK tion of the (irounds Deputies is to maintain the up- 
keep of the grounds around the building as far as pap)er and 
untidy conditions are concerned and to super\ise the grounds 
during th(‘ luiuh periods. 

11. Two (orchestra periods a day are held, one for advanced stu- 
dents and one for beginners. In the ninth grade, orchestra re- 
cei\es three tenths ot a credit each semester. 

12. The (\)lor (iuard the flag in the morning and lowers it in 
the attern()(ui, while the entire school stands at .salute. This is 
done just alter school has begun and just pre\ ions to dismissal. 

13. The Big Sisters consist of all qA girls. It is a group which 
carries on the social scr\ ice w'ork in the school. 

14. The Rons’ Senior Corps is ."ade up of qA boys. It is the pur- 
f)ose of this group to serve as big brothers to the lower-class 
boys. The Senior Corps assists in the social ser\ice work and 
sponsors a seric\s of bens’ meetings. 

15. The Monitor Staff c'onsists of two bens appointed by the office 
each period from the study halls. This group performs duties 
recpic'stc'd by the offic'e and collects attendance slips. 

There is a ruling that only one office which is followed by 
membership in a council may be held. All home-room offi- 
cers are elected on a ba.sis of citizenship qualifications (that 
is, no grade in citizenship below “C”) ; failure to maintain 
the original eligibility requirements automatically with- 
draws the officer from service; all student council members 
(that is, presidents of councils, presidents of the six Classes, 
president of the color guard, etc.) are made eligible on the 
basis of both citi/^»^shio and scholarship qualifications 


(that is, no grade in scholarship below “C”). Head Boy 
and Head Girl must have both scholarship and citizenship 
qualifications. Failure to maintain the original qualifica- 
tions results in the automatic, permanent withdrawal from 
office, the place being filled by the one receiving the next 
higher number of votes in the final election. 

Grade congresses and a cabinet. The scheme of pupil 
participation of the ninth junior high school, in common 
with the other eight schools that have been considered, 
was based in the early years of that school on the home- 
room organization, but has, as the following analysis shows, 
“grade congresses” and a whole school “cabinet”; 

A. I lame -room onfanization 

1. Monil)CT<^Mp-pLipiU 

2 . Officers: 

a. Presicleiu — takes charge of class and appoints com- 

b. \’ice-I*resicl(*nt - assists in cami)aigns. etc. 

c. Secretar> and 'rreasiirer- t.ikes care of routine. 

d. Re[)orter to Junior Life — the school paper. 

f. Two p presentatives to (irade Congress — one girl and 
one hoy. 

/. boosters or other officers are elected whenever the occ.i- 
sion demands. 

b. Grade (’ou'f^rr^srs, one for each of the three classes 

1. Membership: 

a. Two put)ib from each home-room. 

b. Cirad«* administrator and one other faculty member. 

2. Officers. IVesid(‘iU, \’ice- President, SetTct.iry, .Spon.sors. 

3. Pur|)ose: begisbite for all internal affairs, such as .uidito- 
rium, acKisrjry periods, conduct, transmission of ad\isory 
groups, suggestions to Cabinet, and vue-iersa. 

C. .Sch(X)l ( abinet. (Faculty and pupil organization.) 

I. Membership: 

a. Two i)U[)ils from each C’ongress 

b. One Junior Life representative 

c. One from a special “ b” Council 

d. One from Corridor Officers 


f. Two faculty members — principal and assistant principal. 

/.Three administrators — one of “subjects” committee, 
social committee, and steering committee. 

2. Officers: President, Vice-President, Secretary. 

3. Purpose: In\estigate, deliberate, delegate, and authorize. 

In addition, there were the corridor officers’ force, the 
“ B ” Council, and the auditorium officers. The first is the 
police force appointed by a sponsor with the approval of the 
advisory group to which the candidate belongs. The force 
is organized in military fashion, holds weekly meetings at 
^lub hour, and takes over the general question of behavior 
in the halls, lunch-room, and premises generally. The 
“ B ” Council is composed of six faculty members appointed 
by the principal, together with all the pupils in the school 
who have received their third attainment in any one activ- 
ity, one boy and one girl from each grade congress, and the 
principal and assistant principal ex officio. It is the busi- 
ness of this council to award honors in athletics, citizen- 
ship, and scholarship subject to the provisions of the con- 
stitution. The auditorium -ficers are peace officers and 
appointed by the congress of the grade to look after the 
behavioi at auditorium sessions. 

A council modeled after an outside political organization. 
In Social Guidance in Clroeland IlioJi Schools a tenth Coun- 
cil is described briefly: 

At brnwncll Junior High School, Cleveland, national party or- 
ganizations with presidential nominating con\entions are copied. 
'I'hings arc done very realistically. A floor is a w’ard, and a room is 
a precinct. Election board are appointed. Pupils register, old 
official registration books of the city of Cle\ eland being used. 
Delegates are chosen to a nominating convention ; two political par- 
ties with party named are formed; platforms are drawn up; candi- 
dates and speakers plead their causes at a political rally of the en- 
tire student body; voting is done on official school ballots printed 
in the school print shop; and a special extra edition of the school 
paper gives prompt election returns. 


The argument for such a plan is that it gives pupils by the most 
concrete demonstration ptissible a knowledge of how real election 
machinery works. One objection is \ery pointedly stated in the 
replies on one of our (|iiestionnaires: 

Question: Do you ha\e a semi-political organization such as 
school city with ma\or. elections, etc.? Is it an elTecfi\e form of 
organization^ 'Fell ^\hy. 

AnSiirr: This form of organization is 'Fhe t\pe of or- 
ganization should til the needs of the grou[). 'Fhe m.ichiiUT\ of a 
city go\ernmeiU should not be imposed on a school. A school or- 
ganization should be a matter of growth according to the needs of 
the group. 

Vet the plan seems to work excellentK at Brownell Junior High 
School. The as'^istanl lays stress not onl\ on lh(‘ excel- 
lent training for AnuTican citizenship gi\en, .ind the i .ireful study 
of American go\ernmental methods to \\hi(‘h the school organiza- 
tion incites, but also on the f.ict that the pl.itforms fr.imed 
and argued, being ba^ed on school conditions and possible school 
reforms. “gi\e the wlmle student ImmIv a [ inten^st in the 
methods best .idapted to make Brownell .i better sdiool.” ^ 

Grade congresses, house of representatives, city plan. 

The eleventh junior high school is, in some res[)ects, a 
combination of the ninth and the tenth i)lans that have 
been presented. All home-rooms are organized. Repre- 
sentatives of home-rooms form class congresses anfl repre- 
sentatives of the three class congre.sses form the house of 
representatives. With an executive commit lee composed 
of the seventh, eighth, and ninth grade tea( her-directors, 
the house of representatives carries on its work through 
five departments: school health, school safety, social re- 
lations, school finance, information ser\ice. In addition 
to the advisers, each of the five departments has a director 
and a deputy director. The department of school health 
ha.s, as advisers, the heads of medical inspect if >n and of the 
physical training dei)artment. School safety has the 
heads of general science, industrial arts, and domestic arts 


departments. Social relations has the heads of social 
science, music, and guidance departments. School finance 
has the heads of mathematics and commercial depart- 
ments. Information service has the heads of English, fine 
arts, printing, and library departments. The work of 
these five departments is carried on by a series of com- 
mittees. For example, school health has ten committees: 
boys’ athletic activities, girls* athletic activities, inspection 
of school building, inspection of school grounds, athletic 
apparatus, waste paper, school athletic association, swim- 
ming and rowing, track teams, and improvement of school 

School safety has a series of committees including corri- 
dor, grounds, and street patrols, school ushers, bicycle and 
lunch-room squads, and the fire brigade. Likewise, the 
other three departments have a series of committees. The 
whole extra-curricular life of the school is supervised by an 
executive committee, composed of the assistant principal, 
the counselor of boys and the counselor of girls. This is a 
plan that was held in mind when the school was started. 
In its de\clopment it may undergo many changes, prob- 
ably in the direction of simplification. 

The council must grow out of the life of the school. A 
council docs not stand tiansplanting, but it can be grown, 
and, in the cxpciicnce of the junior high school, the home- 
room is the pi. ice to begin cultivation. It is possible that 
many senior high schools have something to learn on this 
point from junior high schools. In the opinion of the 
writer, the council made up of one or two home-room rep- 
resentatives, in its directness and in its simple machinery, 
is an especially good type of council. Affairs to be taken 
up in council should be discussed in home-rooms both be- 
fore and after council action. In many cases, council rec- 
ommendations, after discussion in home-rooms, should be 


voted on by the whole school. Probably the g:reatest diffi- 
culty in council work is, on the one hand, that the council 
may fail to lead public opinion and, on the other, that the 
council sometimes may get too far ahead of public opinion. 
The fomiation of public opinion in home-rooms, in clubs, 
in the assembly, and in the school publications is one of the 
main privilep:es of a student council. One of the main 
duties of a teacher-adviser of a junior hi^h school council 
is to enable the council to plan further in advance, to con- 
duct an educational campaign before any direct action is 
necessary. A student council is not primarily a discipli- 
nary body. The first business of the council, composed of 
home-room representatives and teacher-advisers, is to 
share in planning for the organization and guidance of the 
extra-curricular activities of the school. 

Councils in junior high schools. So far as the data pre- 
sented here are representative of current practice, junior 
high school councils are, as a rule, composed of elected 
home-room representatives and teachers appointed by the 
principal. As a variation some councils have an executive 
committee composed of pupils elected by the council and 
one or more teachers appointed by the principal. A second 
general type, but not so often found, is composed of a 
lower and an upper h(juse elec ted by the lower. The 
practic'e, found so cjften in senior high schools of having a 
lower house elected by hcjme-rooms and an u[)per house 
elected by, does not prevail to the same extent in 
junior high schools. There is a third type of council com- 
posed of the representatives of a series of coun- 
cils, and a fourth type mcxleled after outside political or- 
ganizations. This type may, or may not, be an outgrowth 
of the plan advocated many years ago by Mr. W ilson L. 
Gill. The trend of student council organizations in junior 
high schools is toward a “one-house’* council composed of 


home-room representatives. This council is coming to be 
chartered by the principal, and in the eleven cases pre- 
sented here, he has veto pow^. In comparison with 
senior high schools, junior high schools place a greater em- 
phasis on regulating the behavior of pupils. However, 
most of the councils that have been discussed plan for the 
whole extra-curricular life of the school. In the lowest 
form of council found, but not discussed here, the “coun- 
cil,” in the words of one philosophic critic, seems to be “a 
modern spanking machine cranked by the principal.” 
This type is a vanishing exception. 

To accomplish the educational objectives set forth in the 
discussion of home-rooms in Chapter II, junior high schools 
are usually organized on the home-room basis. In a school 
organized on the home-room plan the simplest form of 
council is one composed of home-room representatives. 
The representative of a home-room to the council is really a 
two-way ambassador. Through him the ideas of the 
home-room can flow to the council and likewise through 
him ideas of the council can pass to the home-room. The 
simplicity and directness of the home-room representative 
type of council probably explains why the trend in junior 
high schools is toward this type. It really is the simplest, 
most direct form of representative government. 

In developing a council in either the junior or in the 
senior high school, the place to begin is in the home-room. 
The ability to participate in government intelligently, and 
to assume the responsibility of such participation, has to 
grow, 'fo learn how to participate in government is vastly 
different from learning about participating in government. 
To learn how to participate requires practice. It is this 
practice that can result in real growth in the young citizen. 
The home-room plan furnishes a favorable opportunity for 
each small group in the school to practice successfully in 



participating in its own government. As a result of the 
abilities developed and the ways of procedure learned in 
the home-room, pupils, ^ wisely guided, may be able to 
pass from the simple, direct, town-meeting type of democ- 
racy of the home-room to the represen tativ'e form of gov- 
ernment as expressed in the council. In both theory and 
experience it seems wise to begin with the home-room, and 
after the home-room is working reasonably well to under- 
take the development of a council. The home-room and 
the council can help a school to run effectively. However, 
the home-rm:)m and the council are not ends in themselves. 
They are rather means the school uses to help its pupil- 
citizens become increasingly self-directive. 


1. SpecificalK . what progress has been made in the development 
of c\tra-(Hirri( iilar activities in junior high scliooU^ C'ile the 
evidence for vour answer. 

2. In respects do the first group of authors mentioned in tlu* 
first paragraph of this chapter <igree .imong thi'inselves .is to 
the place ot pupil participation in governnu*nt in the junior 
high school ^ 

3. In w'hat respec t^ do the ''econd group of author'-, me ntioned in 
the first paragraph lind the same kinds of .utiviiies >011 
have found.'' 

4. Is the work of the .student council in the junior high sc'hool 
fundamentallv edin .itive.*' Is not the m.iilu of getting de- 
sirable tilings done of first importam e*' W .iie the le.i.sons 
for >our .uiswers^ 

5. What tvjies of councils, cither those presented in 
chapter, do you know, or know about.'' 

6. W hat are the strong and wx‘ak points in the of the councils 
ycju know, or know’ about'' What is the st.ind.ird in \our own 
mind that enables >ou to ev’aluate these* councils.'' 

7. Is it, as a rule, possible to tran.sfer the plan of ,1 well-developed 
council in one sc hool to a junior high school is just being 
organi7cd^ — to a junic^r high schex)! that has Iieen in e.xislenc ^ 


several years and that has a poor council, or none at al 
>ou cannot give an unqualified answer, state in what r 
the transfer can or cannot be made? 

1 )es( rihe a particular junior high school that you know wi 
outline the council vou would try to develop if you wen 

9. W luit are the siicressive steps that you would take as th< 
cipal in de' eloping the council you have in mind? 

Chapter VI 


Guiding theses. In the beginning of the Speyer Junior 
High School in February, 1916, the whole work of the 
school was based on two theses. The first of these theses 
was; The first duty of the school is to teach young people to 
perform better those desirable activities that they arc 
likely to perform anj way. The second thesis was: An- 
other duty of the school is to re\ cal higher types of activity 
and to make these both desired, and, to an extent, possible. 
These theses having been accepted, the question naturally 
arose. How can the recreational activities of the school be 
organized and directed.'' 

This junior high school of two hundred boys was organ- 
ized as a free public school under the administrative direc- 
tion of the New York C'ity public schools, but under the 
educational direction of Teachers C'ollege. Professor 
Thomas H. Briggs as educational adviser made possible 
this experiment in recreational leadership. Mr. Abraham 
Rosenthal as physical director of the school devised the 
means for attaining the ends in the recreational activities 
desired by the educational adviser, and carried out the ex- 
periment. The writer assisted both the educational ad- 
viser and the physical director in organizing and develop- 
ing their work. 

The first question that arose in organizing the recreation 
under the theses laid down was. How could these recrea- 

» This account of the nrowth of a council was published in The Teachers College 
Record, September, ipio. under the title, '* Education for Leadership " It is included 
here, not as an ideal, but as an illustration of the way one council grew. 


tional activities be so directed that they would enable the 
boys to perform better and have more fun out of those 
games, sports, and general extra-classroom activities which 
they were going to have anyway, and, at the same time, 
how could the whole scheme of recreation provide oppor- 
tunity for developing initiative, cooperation, responsibility, 
and intelligent obedience? The question involved in the 
second thesis that was accepted demanded that these boys 
in their recreational activities should desire and success- 
fully explore higher types of activity. Having in mind, 
then, the two theses on which the work of the whole school 
was based, the problem of this article is to tell what hap- 
pened in the attempt to put these theses into operation in 
the recreational work. 

The director and the boys. The aim of the director and 
that of the boys was by no means always the same. The 
aim on the part of the director was sound character and 
good citizenship, with health as a by-product; the aim on 
the part of the boys was fun a i 1 more fun. The director 
aimed to train the boys to perform better those desirable 
activities which they were going to perform anyhow, and 
at the same time to lead them to explore new fields of sport, 
new fields of cooperative effort, and new interests in them- 
selves. The boys were untroubled by any philosophy. 
The director has said: '‘I did not see any reason for not 
having the gymnasium as an annex to the street. From 
my own experience of having lived and played in the city 
all my boy-life, I knew, and the boys knew, that most of 
the fun of having real good, hard games comes on the street 
after school with the gang in the block. One or two of the 
fellows, usually the ‘choosers,’ acted as leaders and, as 
long as nobody interfered and the ball lasted and the 
policeman kept away, we had a wonderful time. This was 
proof to me that boys could organize themselves. To get 


started in the gymnasium, all that was needed was the 
spirit of the street. The first day I had to lend a basketball 
and an indoor baseball set. i'he boys began to learn 
better those games they already knew, and I taught them 
some new ones. Equipment was nec'essary. Ry organiz- 
ing an athletic association with dues of twenty cents a 
semester, the two hundred bo\s, by clubbing together, 
could get forty dollars’ worth of material, d'his was really 
the same money that they usually spent in getting a ball or 
mitt or other athletic equipment for the street. The big 
thing, in fact the entire success in making the gymnasium 
a part of the street, depended ui)on cooperation of the 

It was, then, the work of the director, as he himself 
pointed out, to help the boys play better those games they 
already knew, iilay better games, organize better clubs, 
choose better leaders, and through these games and leaders 
to form more desirable physical, social, moral, and mental 
habits. To talk to the boys about being good was a waste 
of energy; to talk to them about doing good was a different 
story. The business of the director was to help them im- 
prove their wants by hel[)ing them to satisfy the worth- 
while wants they already had. These boys wanted to play 
more skillfully; they wanted to learn new games. The real 
teaching problem w'as to further these ends by means of in- 
creased co()[)eration between individuals — between boy 
ind boy, between boy and teacher. 

The first step — leaders. The first step was to secure 
leaders — not bullies, but real leaders. The teachers in 
many of the rooms had appointed class presidents, but 
these were often not acceptable leaders to the boys in the 
gymnasium perifxls. During the hour period, which came 
twice a week in the gymnasium for each class of about 
twenty-five boys, and in the afternoons from three to five, 


the boys demanded leaders who could lead. If the leaders 
failed, everybody had a dull time. The boys in each class 
were asked, therefore, to elect leaders whom they would re- 
spect, whom they at all times would be willing to obey, and 
to whom they would give the right to mark them in their 
gymnasium periods for the month. They were told that 
the leaders would meet every week, and to a large extent 
determine the program of work for the following week in 
the gymnasium and have full charge in carrying out this 
work. It was promised that at the end of the term five 
leaders, whom the leaders from the entire school thought 
had done the most for the school by performing their 
duties best, should be awarded Speyer sweaters — a white 
sweater with a green “S.'' 

The second step — athletic association. The second 
step was the formation of the athletic association, the 
“A A,” as the boys called it. The leaders and the physical 
director decided that any boy in school could become a 
member by paying the dues, twenty cents a semester. 
Any boy who could nut pay the twenty cents was asked to 
wsee the director privately and talk the matter over. If it 
was necessary, this might mean a lowering of the dues for 
this boy, but no one except the director knew it. How- 
ever, no boy was admitted who did not pay as much as two 
cents. The “AA” was launched with enthusiasm. 
Within two weeks four rooms, about twenty-five boys to a 
room, had one hundred per cent membership. It was de- 
cided to start the indoor baseball tournament immediately. 
All classes that did not have eighty per cent of their mem- 
bers in the “ AA” were barred. The result was that all 
classes had at least eighty per cent membership. Within 
a month, ninety-two per cent of all the boys in the school 
belonged to the “AA.’’ 

The third step — leaders’ club. The responsibility that 


rested on the leaders made them seek help from the direc- 
tor, from other boys, and especially from the other leaders. 
This feeling of a need for hel[) expicsscd itself in the organi- 
zation of a leaders’ club. 

The first step had been made in securing leaders: the 
second in organizing an athletic assoi'iation ; this leaders’ 
club was really the third big step. The first week the 
leaders were elected, they met to decide on the next week’s 
program for the gymnasium periods. At this meeting 
they were comparatively heli)less and Juid to depend al- 
most entirely on the director. He explored the range of 
possible activities for them, and the program that was 
made up was really the result of the choice of the leaders. 
As the weeks went by, the responsibility for direction was 
gradually assumed by the boys. Within two months after 
the initial meeting, the boys were ready for their fourth 
step. Guided of course by the director, they drew up a 
constitution. W’ith all its virtues and imperfections, here 
is a copy of the original document. 

.\r'1. I. Name. This organization shall be known .is the “Lead- 
ers’ Clulj of Spe\er School.” 

.Art. II. OnjECT. The object of this club shall be to promote a 
.spirit of cooperation between individual and indi\idual; indi\idual 
and class; indi\idual and school; all of which leads to the coopera- 
tion of e\ery student for the highest ideals in scholarship, athletics, 
and social acti\ities for Sj)eyer School. 

Art. III. An\ student of the .Speyer .School in good standing is 
eligible for memberslnT in the Leaders’ C lub in the following wa>s: 

a. As one of the two leaders elected by the members of his class at 
the beginning of each semester. 

b. By proposal in writing by five members of the Leaders’ Club, 
two of whom shall be from his own class, and by receiving a 
majority vote of the members present at any regular meeting. 

c. By proposal in writing by two regular members of the faculty 
of .Speyer .School and by receiving a majority vote of the mem- 
bers present at any regular meeting. 


Art. IV. The officers of the Leaders’ Club shall be: President, 
Vice-President, Treasurer, and Secretary. They shall be elected 
every six months by a majority vote of the newly installed leaders. 
Art. V. 

Sec. I. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Club. 

Sec. 2. The Vice-President shall preside in the absence of or at 
the request of the President. 

Sec. 3. The Secretary shall keep a record of the minutes of the 
meetings of the club and conduct all correspondence. 

Sec. 4. The Treasurer shall keep a record of all moneys received, 
which shall include that of the Athletic Association and all other 
funds under super\ision of the Leaders’ Club. A member of the 
faculty designated by the Leaders shall ha\'e charge of the money 
received, and he shall account to the Leaders at the end of each 
month for all money received, spent and on hand, and pay only 
such sums as shall be authorized bj the club and upon order signed 
by the President and Secretary. 

Art. V’I. There shall be no standing committees. All commit- 
tees shall be either appointed by the President or elected by the 

Art. VII. 

Sec. I. The club shall hold its regular meeting at 3 p.m. every 
Friday afternoon during ♦he regular school year, excepting when a 
holiday interferes. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings may be called by the President at the 
written request of Ihe members of the club or by two members of 
the faculty. 

Art. V'IIL Twehe members shall constitute a quorum at all 

Art. IX. The order of exercises shall be as follows: 

Call to order; roll-call; reading of minutes; Treasurer’s report 
last Friday t)f e\ery month; re[x)rt of committees; unfinished busi 
ness; new business; "Ciood and Welfare”; adjournment. 

Art. X. 

Sec. I. Any member of the Leaders’ Club may be forced to re 
sign by (i) three members of the faculty, (2) a member of the fac- 
ulty with the majority vote of the leaders present at any regular 
meeting, (3) a petition signed by three fourths of the members of 
his class or by the adverse vote of three fourths of the members of 
the club. 

Sec. 2. Ungentlemanly conduct, lack of leadership, or absence 


from four consecutive meetings shall he considered just cause for a 
request on the part of the faculty or Leaders’ riiib that any mem- 
ber resign. 

The trial of a “ dictator.” The Leaders’ (dub was a 
serious affair. Seemingly, in the l)o\'s’ imagination, it was 
but a short step from membership in the Leaders’ Club to 
the presidency of the United States. The boys were eager 
to assume the responsibilities of leadership, but these re- 
sponsibilities sobered them. All the troubles of a little 
democracy w'ere here. One peculiarly able leader was 
tried on the charge of attempting to become a dictator. 
One of the details of this trial may make clear some of the 
struggles of these boys in defining leadership. A. H , 
physically of diminutive size, had been leader of his class for 
two consecLilix e terms. He was known as a capable public 
speaker and leader. At all times he was known to be very 
severe, depriving his class of games at the least sign of lack 
of cociperation ; yet everybody admired him. His popular- 
ity with both teachers and pupils increased, for he showed 
a great deal of common-sense and initiative in the many 
projects for the good of the school. I )uring the last half of 
the second semester, however, some of his classmates 
thought he was developing sym[)t(nns of “ swell-hcaded- 
ness.” He seemed too busy to talk to anybody; he did not 
prize the opinions of some other class leaders. The next 
term he was not elected as one of the leaders of his class; in 
fact, he was defeated by a heav^y majority. \^ery much 
downcast, he felt that his class had not appreciated his past 
record, his fine work for the school paj)er. Liberty Loan, 
Red Cross, and monitor staff. The physical director 
suggested that it would be a much better plan for him to 
make his classmates his confidants whenever possible, 
spend as much time as feasible in their company, and en- 
deavor, by his actions as a member of the class, to show 


that just the same he was working as hard as ever for the 
good of the school. It was pointed out that there would 
be a possibility of his being elected to the Leaders' Club by 
his presenting an application endorsed by two members of 
the faculty and five leaders. Outside of his own class he 
was still greatly admired. Upon presenting his application 
the following week, he was easily elected to the club. 
Meanwhile, his class firmly opposed and protested that he 
was being forced upon them as a leader. During the next 
two months there was constant dissatisfaction by a rapidly 
growing group in the class against him as a leader. The 
main contentions were that, first, he was not elected by the 
class; second, he was swell-headed " ; and, third, that he 
was altogether too autocratic and should not be included as 
a leader during ‘‘gym" periods. 

He aroused the antagonism of practically the entire 
class one day when he gave the class almost a complete 
half-hour of march drill, as a result of slight inattention. 
At the next weekly leaders' meeting, a petition was pre- 
sented to the Leaders' Club, requesting that Leader A. B. 
of Class C2 be compelled to resign. Leader A. B. was 
called upon to defend himself. As the class had appointed 
a committee of five to present the petition and answer all 
questions, quite a representative body was present to 
bring back a report of A. B.'s defense. This speech of de- 
fense is memorable. ‘‘I'ellows," he started in, ‘‘I know I 
am a member of the Leaders’ Club against the wishes of 
my classmates, but my class is not the entire school. 
Whatever I have done has been for the good of the class. 
I did not work directly for myself or my class, but all my 
efforts as a member of the Leaders’ Club were for the good 
of the school. As a monitor, as an editor of the Odz-an- 
Endz^ as a leader in the Liberty Loan and Red Cross drives, 
all my energies were devoted toward having Speyer School 


achieve the highest records. Indirectly, the class and 
every fellow in the school were benefited. My task in the 
‘gym’ comes as a part of every leader’s duties, and you 
fellows know that I have tried to do my level best, always 
keeping in mind that it was for the good of Speyer as a 
whole. Whatever improvement is made in each fellow, 
results in a better class and a better school. Therefore, 
in casting your vote, you will decide whether each leader is 
to consider the good of the school first, then his class, and, 
lastly, himself; or first himself, then his friends, then his 
class, and, finally, the school. I will admit I perhaps 
neglected my classmates and as a result, as they expressed 
it, may have shown signs of ‘ swell -headed ness * ; but I have 
learned my lesson.” 

Quite a heated discussion followed upon the theory of 
the school leader as set forth by A. B. Those in defense of 
A. B. contended that every leader must consider himself a 
leader for the school; that each leader must make every 
action be for the credit of Speyer; that a leader elected by 
the Leaders’ Club assumes all the powers and shoulders all 
the duties and responsibilities of the Speyer School leader. 
The committee of his class finally narrowed their argument 
down to the unfitness of A. B. as a leader in so far as he had 
become too “swell-headed” and “stuck-up.” This com- 
mittee could not see how A. B. was working for the school, 
for they considered that, while his actions were for the good 
)f the school, he was too dictatorial. A motion to the 
effect that Leader A. B. of C2 be placed on parole for one* 
month was made, seconded, and carried. A. B. had been 
educated in one phase of practical leadership; and the 
Leaders* Club and class committee were convinced that 
there was only one type of leader that was worth while; 
this type was the School Leader. 

Setting the pattern. The sadness, fights, and heartaches 


that came with leadership were unending, yet the sense of 
responsibility grew. When the Leaders' Club was six 
months old, the following list of ‘"Aims" and “Accom- 
plishments” appeared on the bulletin board. 

The Leaders* Aims 

1. To seek the maximum cooperation of ever>' individual in all 
worthy movements instituted in the Speyer School, tending 
toward the highest ideals in scholarship-hygienic living, gen- 
tlemanly conduct, and friendship. 

2. To give everybody a fair and square deal. 

3. To stand as an example for the rest of the student body in 
all matters of fair play, clean sportsmanship, conduct befit- 
ting a gentleman, and the use of common sense and clear 

(Taken from minutes of Leaders’ Club) 


President: A. Forster; Secretary: S. Levine; 

Trea.^-, ^'cr: A. Rosenthal. 

I. Forming of Athletic Association with a full-paid-up member- 
ship of two hundred students. 

2 Conducting and instituting rules for the Indoor Baseball and 
Basketball Tournaments; the former won by Bi, the latter at 
present l^eing conducted according to schedule. 

3. Passing resolutions to the effect: 

a. That all boys be required to wear rubber-soled and heeled 
shoes or slippers in the gymnasium at all times. 

b. That the lockers and shower-baths be put under the direct 
supervision of leaders appointed by the Leaders’ Club. 

c. That a window fund be established to pay for all breakage 
occurring to private property as a direct result of play 
during school hours. 

d. All boys having two or more ‘‘ D’s” on their report cards be 
barred from playing on either the class or school teams for 
the month following their receiving the two “D’s.” 

Three things seem to stand out in the work of the Lead- 


ers* Club: cooperation, group responsibility, and the neces- 
sity of “setting the pattern “ for the other boys. The boys 
found in their athletic equipment and in their games and 
tournaments that cooperation paid. When fifteen cents 
was taken out of the window fund to pay for a window 
through which a boy had batted a ball, it meant fifteen 
cents less athletic equipment for the group. The result 
was that every broken window was paid for, but breaking 
a window became socially a “high crime and a mis- 

“Setting the pattern” troubled the boys greatly. 
What should a leader do? The vagueness of their thinking 
troubled them. 'I'here were endless discussions. They 
asked: “Shouldn’t a leader have any fun?” “Should a 
leader be a little tin saint?” Here was a need of finding a 
new kind of fun. Finally, in one mighty cooperative burst 
the “Leader, Ask ^'ourself ” sheet was evolved by this little 
troubled group of leaders. Here is the questionnaire just 
as it was set down : 

94 Lawrence Street 
\ew York City 

Leauer — Ask Yourself 

1. Do I know exactly wliat I want my class to do at each mo- 
ment when I am in charge.-' 

2. Is my class organized so that each boy is responsible for some 
particular thing in each activity? 

3. In what ways is .Speyer better because I am here? Because 
my class is here-' 

4. Do I set the pattern for my class? 

a. Am I obedient? 

b. Do I do my work a little better than I am required to do it? 

c. Do I always play fair? 

d. Do I ever nurse a grudge? 

e. Do I threaten the fellows? 


f. Do I help the one who tries and fails? 

g. Do I try to help all the others, even the most successful 
ones, to improve on their own records? 

h. Do I keep my mouth shut when some one else is speaking: 

5. Can my class manage its own affairs in an orderly manner 
without help of some older person? 

6. In exactly what ways is my class cooperating with other 
classes to maintain and improve school spirit? 

7. Am I a leader? 

In this “Ask Yourself” sheet definite ends to be attained 
were set down. There was no more argument for the time 
being about the worth of these ends. It was taken for 
granted that a class should manage its own affairs in an 
orderly manner, and it was the business of the leaders to 
see that this was done. A leader had certain particular 
things to do in order to set the pattern for his class. He 
might think of other ends, but for these definite ends he 
must strive. He had the encouragement and kicks of his 
constituency to see that he made good. The class that 
had weak leaders was su^^ to be soundly licked in every 
contest, whether it be the oasketball tournament or in the 
numbers of A’s received in the academic work for the 
month. The boys knew that if their leader did not keep 
his mouth shut at the right time he was not, for the mo- 
ment at least, a real leader. The leader had a standard by 
which to test himself. The formulation of the ends to be 
sought gave direction to the approval and disapproval of 
his fellows. These twelve- and thirteen-ycar-old boys were 
not especially restrained in expressing their approval and 

Expressing the spirit. This expressed approval and dis- 
approval, this effort of the leaders to be real leaders, had 
behind it something intangible, something bigger than 
could be expressed in any words the boys could command. 
In talking of this, Mr. Rosenthal said: “Without doubt all 


the things accomplished would have failed if the spirit be- 
hind these accomplishments had not been right. I felt 
that this spirit in the boys to which I appealed stood for 
everything that was fine, something ideal, something that 
transcended all our good deeds, yet something that could 
be expressed only in the doing.** The boys struggled for 
some expression of what they came to call “the Speyer 
Spirit.** Editorials in the school paper Odz-an-Endz tried 
to set it down in words. The boys in expressing disap- 
proval of an action said, “A Speyer boy would not do 
that.'* “More than once,** said the director, “the boys 
have asked me, ‘Just what do you mean by spirit?* It was 
hard for me to make a clear reply. When I did try to de- 
fine it, I found I was to a very great extent, giving what is 
contained in the oath and laws of the Boy Scouts of Amer- 
ica. In my work as a Scoutmaster and in my experience 
as director of boys* work in an East Side Settlement, I 
found myself substituting the word law for spirit.'' By 
such steps as these the boys and the director, in their effort 
to formulate the Speyer spirit, modified the scout law 
somewhat and called it “The .Speyer Creed.’* Here is 
“The Creed*' as the boys and the director formulated it: 


94 Lawrence Street 
New York City 

The Speyer Creed 

(Adapted from the Laws of the Hoy Scouts of America) 

1. A Speyer boy is Trustworthy. 

His honor is to be trusted. If he were to violate his honor by 
telling a lie, or by cheating, or by not doing exactly a given task, 
when trusted on his honor, he is not a real Speyer boy. 

2. A Speyer lx)y is Loyal. 

He is loyal to all whom loyalty is due — his teacher, his home, 
hiB parents, his country. 


3. A Speyer boy is Helpful. 

He is ready to help persons in need at any time, to share the 
duties of home and school. He does one good turn to somebod> 
every day. 

4. A Speyer boy is Friendly. 

He is a friend to all and a brother to every other Speyer boy. 

5. A Speyer boy is Courteous. 

He is polite to all, especially to women, children, old people, 
and the weak and helpless. 

6. A Speyer boy is Respectful. 

He rcsjK'cts and obeys his parents, teachers, leaders, and other 
duly constituted authorities. He respects the con\ictions of 
others in matters of custom and religion. 

7. A Speyer boy is Cheerful. 

He smiles whenexer he can. His obedience to orders is 
prompt and cheerful. The harder the task the gladder his heart. 

8. A Speyer boy is Thrifty. 

He does not destroy pro[)erty. He works faithfully, wastes 
nothing, and makes the best use of his opportunities. He saves his 
money so that he may pay his own way, be generous to those in 
need, and helpful to worthy objects. 

9. A Speyer boy is Brax e. 

Fie has the courage to face danger in spite of fear, and to stand 
up for xvhat is right against ti.e coaxings of friends or the jeers or 
threats of his opponents, and defeat does not down him. 

10. A Speyer boy is Clean. 

He keeps clean in body and thought, stands for clean speech, 
clean sport, clean habits, and travels xvith a clean crowd. 

When the “Creed” sheets were distributed to all the 
boys, it seemed to some of them too ideal. One boy ex- 
claimed: “Gee! we’d be angels if we were all that.” The 
director says: “I told them the Creed was an ideal that 
would exist as long as the real Speyer spirit was alive, that 
Speyer demanded that a boy be trustworthy, loyal, help- 
ful, and, since every boy was aiming to be a real Speyer 
boy, he was aiming to live just these qualities set forth in 
the Creed. I pointed out, too, that he might not attain all 
these qualities until he got his angel-wings, but just th^ 


same these were the qualities that a real Speyer boy aimed 
at.” Here, then, for these boys was the spirit in so far as 
it could be captured and set down. Here was a code of 
honor, a creed, a philosophy of life; but to the boys it was a 
series of qualities a boy had to have to be a real Speyer boy. 

The greatest earthly ambition and a check-up system. 
Some scheme had to be invented to help the boys check up 
Dn their actions to sec if they were living “The Creed.” 
Probably the greatest earthly ambition of these boys was to 
kvin the right to wear the Speyer “S.“ It has been pointed 
Dut that the boys elected leaders who were given the right 
Lo mark the others for the month in their gymnasium work. 
The leaders wanted to know just what was demanded of 
them. 'I'his demand was met by the following set of in- 
structions formulated almost entirely by the director but 
accepted by the leaders and all the other boys. This 
‘Notice” was mimeographed and given to every boy: 

94 Lawrence Street 
New York City 


Below are the instructions given to the leaders of your class for 
narking in Physical Training. Note the references to the “Speyer 
Treed’' and the number of points for the Speyer “S.” 

To THE Leaders 

1. Remember you are marking factors that cannot be easily 
neasured; therefore the greater necessity of using your best judg 
nent. Profit by the advice of your parents, teachers, and older 

2. Recognize that fine physkjuc, athletic ability, and mischie\- 
lusness d() not necessarily accompany (|ualities like courage, self- 
“ontrol, ability to think quickly and accurately in a crisis. 

3. Marks are to be divided into five grades: A = excellent: B = 
;ood: C = average: D = poor: E = bad. 


4. Speak privately to those individuals in your class whom you 
expect to mark "C" or lower in any quality, to ascertain whether 
they have any just grounds for expecting higher marks. When 
you have assigned a mark, please see the director before making 
any change. 


Watch for: 

1. Ability and willingness to obey orders. 

2. Signs of being easily aroused to anger. 

3. Performing of command exercises too slow or too fast. 

10 points. 

Fair Play 

Look for, expect and demand generous actions, fair play, real 


1. Selfishness — constantly arguing in games as to time at bat, 
getting the ball, or being overlooked. 

2. Tendency to evade the rules of the games and trying to gain 
an unfair advant:^ge. 

3. Lack of honor — creating disorder when the teacher’s back is 
turned or when he is otherwi' occupied. 

4. Marking or defacing wall, boards, etc. Is he Trustworthy? 
See “The Speyer Creed.” 

10 points. 


W^atch for: 

1. W’illingness to cooperate wuth teacher, leader, or classmate to 
further any movement which tends toward the betterment of the 
mental, moral, or physical standards of Speyer School. 

2. Readiness to give smaller or weaker fellows a chance. 

3. Cheerfulness, Obedience. 

4. Is he Loyal? Friendly? Cheerful? See “The Speyer Creed.” 

15 points. 

Ability to Act in a Crisis 


I. How pupil acts when faced with a difficult situation in am 


2. How he acts when a stranger enters the room, or when the 
teacher is forced to leave the room. 

3. W hether he uses his intellect in playing games like dodge-ball, 
prisoner’s base, or just runs along with the crowd. Is he Trust- 
worthy.^ See “The Speyer Creed.” 

15 points. 


Watch for: 

1. Any weakness or readiness to give up entirely when faced by a 
blustering, loud-mouthed opponent. 

2. The spirit of slicking to the end of a game without giving up 

3. Willingness to test strength or ability with anybo(l> regard- 
less of strength, size, reputation, etc. 

4. Ability to s[3eak straightlorwardly when questioned regard- 
ing any past actions. Is he Brave? Loyal? See “The Speyer 

10 points. 


1. Does your classmate express himself j)ro|^erl> at all times? 

2. Does he make any remarks that denote low inoials? 

3. Has he bt^en known to write indecent poems, or carry about 
objectionable picture^? 

4. Does he insist that those who go with him be a clean crowd? 
Is he Clean? See “The Speyer Creed.” 

10 t)oiiUs. 


Note whether: 

1. Chest is high. 

2. Chin is in. 

3. Shoulders are well back. 

4. There is a tendency to slouch; e. g., standing with one knee 
tient, constantly leaning against objects, sliding down in seat. 

10 points. 

The reader has noticed that the lenders were to 
“look for, expect, and demand generous action, fair play, 
and real manliness.” The plan was to have the emphasis 


placed on the positive side, to keep the boys busy forming 
right habits. When a new class came in, the director spent 
two or three minutes at the beginning of each period com- 
mending the class or individual boys who had shown 
special self-control or cooperative spirit or some other 
quality that leaders were to watch for. If necessary a lack 
of these qualities was pointed out with vigor. This was an 
attempt on the part of the director to determine what 
qualities should be approved, what passed without com- 
ment and what condemned. The boys wanted the ap- 
proval of their leaders and of the director. It was by 
having the boys practice these desirable traits with satis- 
fying public approval that the director and the leaders 
hoped to form right habits in the boys. 

Visible recognition of success in living. At the end of 
all the work stood the Speyer and a graded series of 
lesser insignia These insignia served as visible recog- 
nition that the winner had met with a fair degree of success 
in living “The Creed. “ The requirements for the “S” 

were clear and definite. Every boy had a copy of the 

“Requirements ’’ 


Physical Efficiency 


1. Making one or more of the class teams 10 

2. Making one or more of the school teams . 15 

3. Doing ten practical exercises in perfect form with ease . . 20 

4. The correction N\ithin six months or marked improvement of 
any physical handicaps relating to eyes, nose, skin, throat, feet, 

etc 10 

5 Demonstrating a knowledge of at least five offensive and de- 
fensive movements in wrestling and boxing, respectively .. 10 

6. Appearing at least twice a week at recreation periods regularly 

for a period of four months every term 15 

7. Retaining perfect posture while standing, sitting, or performing 
any exercises for a period of six months and receiving a mark of 
not less than 80 from the leaders 



8. Bringing evidence from parents or guardians that immediately 

upon arising in the morning a cold shower, w^et cloth rub or air 
bath with deep breathing exercise is practiced 15 

9. Presenting evidence of having attended group hikes, covering 
from 50 to 100 miles, or attending a gymnasium or other play- 
ground regularly two times a week for five consecutive months 20 

Social Efficiency 

1. Being a member of one or more clubs with a record of attend- 
ance for the term of fifteen meetings for each term 10 

2. Acting efficiently as an ofiicial in any club for an entire term or 

doing some conspicuously meritorious work 10 

3. Getting a mark of 80 or over in sociability from the leader . . 15 

4. Knowing the first and last names and speaking more than once 

to fifty pupils in S{:)eyer School outside of those in his own class 15 

5. Convincingly proving that he has helped at one time or another 

at least five different schoolmates in their studies, habits, or 
athletics 20 

6. Work done with any single individual resulting in marked 

physical, mental or moral improvement 5-20 

7. Being especially helpful in any way to a teacher for a period of 

not less than four weeks 20 

8. Being the prime mover in the organization of a group leading 
toward higher ideals mentally, morally, socially, or physically 

in one or more sfxxrial fields 25 

Mental Efficiency 

I. Having a record of no “ I)’s” in any subject (unless just cause 

can be given) for a period of four months 25 

2. Receiving from the leader a mark averaging not less than 80 for 

four consecutive months in “ability to act in a crisis” 15 

3. Reading at least sixty per cent of the books listed and being 

able to answer correctly questions as to the contents 40 

4. Submitting an original set of five educational exercises to be 

practiced at home 15 

5. Submitting in writing at least five practical ways in which he 
thinks the course in Physical Education and Hygiene can be 
made more interesting or better in any way as regards Hygiene 
Lectures, Athletic Drills, Clogs and Dance Steps, Games, Recre- 
ation FY*riods, Tournaments, Leadership, Order and Apparatus 

Work 25 

6. Composing a school song or cheer which is adopted by the 

school 20 


Moral Efficiency 

1. Receiving from the leader a mark averaging not less than 80 in 

“fair play" and "self-control," respectively, for the term. ... 20 

2. Receiving from the leader a mark averaging not less than 80 in 
"courage" and "clean-mindedness," respectively, for the term 20 

3. Bringing absolutely convincing proof endorsed by parents and 
teachers showing a gain of five good habits regularly practiced 

for at least four months 20 

4. Showing evidence whereby he helped arouse the opinion of the 
class against an individual or a group of individuals who by ac- 
tions or words tended toward the setting-up of bad practices. 20 

5. Writing a digest of not less than 100 words as to w hat his idea is 

as to the make-up and practices of a courageous, fair and square 
self-controlled and clean young man, keeping in mind the two- 
minute talks during the gymnasium periods and what he has 
read 30 

General Requirement 

1. In order to gain the "S,” students must work toward a totcal 
of 380 points. 

2. The above points are divided into two divisions, the required 
and the optional. 

3. The required number of points is 280, consisting of at least 70 
points in each division, as: /o 'Joints in ph>sical, 70 points in social, 
70 points in moral, and 70 points in mental. 

4. The optional 100 points remaining may be gained without re- 
serve under any of the other divisions. 

5. To those students gaining a total of 380 points, the Speyer 
sweater will be awarded. 


1. A month before the end of the term, the Board of Judges, con- 
sisting of three members of the faculty and three representatives of 
the student-body, \vill meet for as long a time as will be deemed 
necessary to decide as to what students have met the standards in 
their endeavors to pass the requirements. 

2. Every student must hold himself ready to appear before the 
Board when notified. 

3. All written material necessary in meeting the various re- 
quirements, or presented in any w'ay for evidence, must be plainly 
written, on one side of sheets of the same size all securely fastened 


4. For every requirement a new sheet must be had, having the 
applicant’s name, class, the general heading of the requirements, 
and the number of the requirement he is endea\oring to meet. 

John Smith Class D2 

Social Efficiency Requirements 5 

The requirement that out of a total of 380 points neces- 
sary to win the Speyer “S,” 70 points must be won in each 
of four divisions — physical, social, mental, moral - called 
for the development of the all-round boy. The 100 op- 
tional points made pro\isions for individual differences. 
W hen one had gained the 380 points, there was a formal 
presentation of the “S’* before the whole school. In later 
years great honors may be won by these wearers of the 
Speyer “S,“ but probably ne\er again w'ill there be such 
whole-hearted cheering, such flashing eyes, such a look of 
high resolve, as when, on the morning of the presentation, 
the winner of the “S” marched down the aisle and received 
from the representative of the whole school this insignia. 
Here was recognition that he had stood successfully for the 
ideals of Speyer. 

The drive inside the boy. W hile the number of points 
necessary for winning the Speyer “S“ remained fixed the 
requirements could be easily extended so as to focus public 
approval on desirable new activities. Thus on our entering 
the war the Leaders’ C\ub felt that war work should be 
recognized and encouraged. This feeling on the part of 
the leaders resulted in their issuing the “Real American 
Extension’’ of the possible ways of winning the Speyer 

44 ^ 

These boys led the whole of the great city of New York in 
the public school contest for the greatest per capita sale of 
War Savings Stamps. One newsboy bought and paid for 
two fifty-dollar Liberty Bonds out of his savings from the 


sale of papers. Regular Liberty Bond teams, composed of 
speakers and salesmen, organized and rehearsed in English 
classes, campaigned successfully in the streets selling 
Liberty Bonds* 

It was a part of their creed to be of service. It was 
through performing activities worth while in themselves, 
through service, through games, through sports, and 
through taking part in club and class affairs, that these 
boys became so absorbed that they wanted to be helpful, 
loyal, trustworthy. The boy’s own interests and public 
approval directed him. When there was a rivalry between 
these two, public opinion, stimulated by the Leaders’ Club, 
usually won. (It should never be forgotten, however, that 
while the Leaders’ Club ran their own affairs they had a 
continuous source of inspiration in the physical director, 
Mr. Rosenthal. Part of the director’s success was due to 
his getting the right mixture of boy-initiative and teacher- 

There is, however, a side to the life of the school boy be- 
sides that of recreation . which the character-building 
process goes on. Mental and moral habits are formed 
during study hours as well as during playtime. The spirit 
that has been developed on the playground can be a part 
of the boy every minute of the day, in the classroom, on the 
street, in the home. In the requirements for the Speyer 
''S,” there is, as has been seen, an attempt to place em- 
phasis on worth-while activities other than purely athletic 

The council arrives. Many interests of the boys ex- 
pressed themselves in clubs. A great number of these had 
grown up in the school. There was the Reading Club, the 
Latin Club, the Mathematics Club, the Science Club, the 
Editors’ Club, the Wrestling, Boxing, and Tumbling Clubs, 
the Bicycle Club, the Shop Squad, and many others. 


Some faculty member was the adviser of each of these 
clubs, but the Leaders* Club thought there should be one 
organization that included all of these organizations. 
Thus during the second semester of the school, that is, in 
the autumn of 1917, the Leaders’ Club presented the plan 
of a General Organization, the '‘G.O.,” as* it was called, 
that should take the place of the ‘'A.A.” The plan was 
adopted by the school. Ninety-five per cent of all the 
pupils joined the “G.O.” and paid dues — twenty cents a 
semester. No one was kep)t out who really wanted to join 
and paid as much as two cents. However, nearly every 
boy found a way to pay the full amount. All clubs were 
invited to send delegates to the Leaders’ Club at the be- 
ginning of each semester. These delegates were to show 
why their club should exist and to present the budget of 
their respective clubs. Thus the '‘G.O.,” headed by the 
Leaders’ Club, came to embrace the whole school. 

Evaluation. As a result of helping, studying, and fol- 
lowing the exj^eriment, certain conclusions are definite. 
There was opportunity for initiative and leadership. The 
individual boy found his place by his ability to serve his 
fellows. They improved their wants and their means of 
satisfying these wants. The positive side of character 
training was emphasized with as few negations as possible. 
The boys discovered new interests in their lives and new 
abilities in themselves. The details of the whole scheme 
were constantly developing and, like the membership of 
the Leaders’ Club, constantly changing. Their actions 
indicated that they came more and more to recognize per- 
sonal and group duties and responsibilities as well as privi- 
leges. This work, centered in the gymnasium, affected 
the classrooms, in method, in subject-matter and in dis- 
cipline. It revolutionized the Assemblies. This spirit, 
starting in the gymnasium and aided by some of the class- 


room teachers, captured the school. From the endless 
complexity of races, nationalities, languages and religions, 
from the varying degrees of poverty, near-poverty and 
comfort, there developed a spirit of respect and coopera- 
tion. They respected each other’s ancestry, religion, so- 
cial views, and home life, and expressed this respect in a 
fair degree of real courtesy. They learned team work — 
how to cooperate. They carried on. The large group 
that went to De Witt Clinton after their two years at 
Speyer went over the top 100 per cent for membership in 
the “G.O.” of that school the first day they were there. 
They had learned to perform better those desirable activi- 
ties which they were going to perform anyway. They did 
discover and desire increasingly higher types of activity, 
and by cooperative effort many of these higher types be- 
came possible. This is one way, at least, to train citizens. 


1. Did Mr. Rosenthal know where he was going with these boys 
when he set out? Did he boys know? What makes you 
think so.’’ 

2. Did the program develop in accord with the philosophy stated 
in the two theses, or in spite of it? 

3. Wherein wms there a conflict in the aims of the director and the 
boys? \\ as there re«illy a conflict? 

4. In starting this experiment should boy leaders have been ap- 
pointed by director or teachers or elected by the boys? Why? 

5. Did the director guide elections? Was his nlan, or absence of 
plan, correct? Why? 

6. W'ere the successi\c steps in the right order, or should three in 
the text ha\o come before two? W hy? 

7. Did the work of the director increase or decrease as the Lead- 
ers’ Club de\ eloped.^ Did his guidance change in character? 
If so, how'.^ 

8. W^as it a w ise plan to arrange the situation so that the leaders 
developed the “Leader — Ask Yourself” sheet, or should one 
equally good luue been pro\ided by the director? W’hy? 


9. Did A. B. at his trial present a sound argument? 

10. What was the fundamental difficulty of these boys in “setting 
the pattern”? 

11. Was it worth while for them to have a creed? Why did they 
have so much trouble in formulating it? Although they based 
their creed on the Boy Scout Laws, was the creed their own? 
Would it have done just as well to have borrowed a creed bodily 
from some other school? 

12. What is the really big idea in the “leader — Ask Yourself” 
and “The Speyer Creed” so far as these two hundred hoys 
were concerned? 

13. Was it a wise plan for these boys to have a definite system of 
checking-up on their ability to li\e their creed? With the two 
theses in mind on which the whole experiment was based, was 
the plan for checking-up sound? Why, or why not? 

14. What was the fundamental difference between the way of 
winning the school letter at Speyer and the usual way of win- 
ning a sch(X)l letter? Do you approve of either way? Why? 

15. Was visible recognition of success in li\'ing an ideal desirable 
for these boys? On what psychological grounds do you base 
your answer? 

16. Would it have been wiser in this case to have started with a 
council rather than to have developed one? Why? 

17. In what specific resfiects does the writer’s evaluation seem 
correct or incorrect? 

Chapter VII 


Student councils in senior high schools. In comparison 
with the councils in junior high schools, those in senior 
high schools are more varied in activities and more com- 
plex in form. These differences are due to three obvious 
reasons: the longer line of inherited tradition, the greater 
maturity of the pupils, and the comparatively complex 
nature of the school. No two councils are exactly alike. 
There are many types and an almost infinite number of 
variations of each type. 

How can councils be classified? It is possible to classify 
councils on the basis of election: by home-rooms, by classes, 
by the school at large, by special activities, or by some 
combination of these way^. Again, it is possible to group 
councils according to the form: as a one house council, or an 
upper and a lower house, or an upper and a lower house and 
a cabinet. It is possible, also, to group the councils by the 
powers they exercise into some such groups as the following: 
councils, so-called, that meet “to confer with the prin- 
cipal ’’ ; councils that cannot legislate on anvthing until the 
principal has approved; councils that by their charter may 
legislate on almost every phase of pupil welfare subject to 
the principal’s veto; and councils, in a few cases, that are 
said to have final power in certain fields of activity. The 
writer has tried classifying councils on each of the bases 
mentioned; such classification looks “scientific” and re- 
sults in beautiful complex tables. 

The purpose here, however, is to present in simple, 


orderly fashion material that may be helpful to those who 
are concerned with organizing senior high school councils. 
As a result the plan followed is to begin with a very simple 
type of council and to advance to the more elaborate types, 
noting, by the way, the significant variations. 

A pre-view of council organization. Possibly before be- 
ginning the detailed study, a brief comment on the types 
that may be found wall be helpful. There is the council of 
one house made up of home-room representatives and 
operating through standing and special committees, or, in 
rare cases, through a city manager plan. Or again, there 
may be a council made up of a few pupils who, on some ob- 
jective bases, ha\'e showm themselves most active in the 
schools extra-curricular activities. There may be, also, 
a council of tw^o houses wdth the lower house elected by 
home-rooms and the upper house made up of class presi- 
dents, or class representatives, and members at large, or 
from classes and representatives of special activities, or 
from the school as a whole with many seniors and few 
freshmen. Again, the lower house may be the legislative 
body and the upper house the executive. Or the upper, or 
the lower, house may be only advisory. In some cases the 
lower house wall be only a glorified '‘messenger service” for 
the upper house. There may be, also, three bodies; a 
house of representatives, a council, and a cabinet, or there 
may be class sul)-councils and a strong cen t ral council , or the 
everse of this sclieme. In some cases there are four strong 
class councils and a loosely organized central council. Fur- 
ther, there are coeducational schools with strong Hoys’ Fed- 
erationsand even stronger Ciirls’ Leagues which unite, some- 
times rather feel)ly, in a school council, 'riiere are lower 
houses composed, chiefly or wholly, of pupils, and upper 
houses, or boards of governors, composed chiefly of teachers. 
There are houses where pupils, voting and non-voting, out- 



number the teachers, but in which teachers by their num- 
ber of votes predominate. Again there are councils with 
no teacher members. In some schools the council in- 
cludes and charters the athletic association, and there are 
other schools where the council directs all activities except 
athletics. There are councils that appoint their own com- 
mittees, others in which the council appoints part of the 
committee and the principal the remainder, and still other 
councils in which the principal appoints all standing com- 
mittees. There are, also, examples of the prefect system 
— English in origin, American in modification. These are 
a few of the types and variations that may be observed in 
the following paragraphs in the advance from the simple to 
the more complex types. It should be borne in mind that 
these councils are honest attempts to realize some measure 
of democratic government and that being democratic they 
are constantly changing. The emphasis, therefore, is 
placed on the plan of the council rather than on the school 
in which it has existed. 

The single-house t3rpe of council, i. In the first senior 
high school to be considered the council is composed of one 
representative from each home-room, the president and 
the vice-president of the student body, the director of 
extra-curricular activities, the faculty treasurer, and the 
principal ex officio. The president and vice-president of 
the student body are elected by the whole schoc. . 

By this plan of having the council composed of home- 
room representatives, the student body and the council can 
be really in touch with each other. Each home-room has a 
member of the student council as one of its members. 
Ideas may pass freely and quickly from the home-room to 
the council and from the council to the home- room. Such 
a council does not degenerate easily into an oligarchy pass- 
ing laws for the good of its subjects. The daily contact 


through the home-room representative of the student 
body and the council makes it unnecessary to call frequent 
special meetings to make suggestions to the council or to 
receive suggestions from that body. Schools that have as 
many as one hundred home-rooms report that while the 
council is large, the advantages of the direct contact of 
council and home-rooms far outweigh any disadvantages 
of a large council. 

2. A second high school has a student council composed 
of home-room representatives, but with at least two in- 
teresting variations: first, the home-room presidents are 
the home-room representatives to the council; second, the 
council, in accordance with the city manager plan, elects a 
manager. The ordinances passed by the council are car- 
ried into effect by the manager and his cabinet. This 
cabinet of four members is appointed by the manager and 
consists of a “secretary of civic education and welfare, 
who is in charge of volunteer service work and gives citizen- 
ship tests to newcomers; secretary of social activities and 
clubs, who is in charge of all social functions such as dances 
and parties; secretary of athletics, who assists the faculty 
athletic manager in arranging games and distributing 
tickets; secretary of the treasury, w’ho is in charge of stu- 
dent funds.” The modeling of the school council after 
some outside organization may or may not be a good plan. 
In theory at least such a plan seems to get the legislative 
and the executi\’e functions of the council too far apart and 
the executive group too small. 

3. In a third high school an organization was begun in 
1911 which has developed into a school council with at 
least two distinct variations. This school council is an 
authoritative student body elected to make regulations and 
to elect officers for supervisory duty in the school. Three 
representatives are elected in each of the fifty or more 


divisions. The representatives then meet under the di- 
rection of their faculty class advisers and elect councilmen 
— eight seniors, six juniors, four sophomores and two 
freshmen. Next, the councilmen meet under the direction 
of the faculty adviser and elect a president and a secretary. 
They in turn appoint the chairman of committees. 

4. There is an almost bewildering number of variations 
on the “single-house” type of organization. Among these 
variations the one in a fourth high school is of particular 
interest. In this school there is an “honor-point schedule” 
of some fourscore items, including such widely diverse 
activities as athletics, class and club offices, class grades, 
garden club, Bible study out of school, art work, and per- 
sonal hobbies. Each activity is weighted at so many 
points, and “the seven pupils having the highest number 
of honor points are assigned to the student advisory board 
for the following year.” “This student advisory board 
shall determine student opinion, advise the general super- 
visor of desired action and perform other legislative 
duties. It shall perforin administrative duties at the 
direction of the general supervisor.” In addition there is 
a major council, composed of all pupil officers and all 
teachers. This body meets when called and is said to be 
very effective. In theory at least this plan narrows partic- 
ipation by giving the highest offices to those who already 
are carrying the heaviest schedule of extra curricular 
activities. This scheme seems to encourage the pupil to 
get as many points as he can as a means of becoming one of 
the honored seven who have still more activities to per- 
form. It should be noted, however, in the development of 
this council that, in the constitution of September 7, 1825, 
provision is made for limiting definitely the number of 
clubs and other organizations to which a pupil may belong, 
the number and kinds of offices he may hold, the number of 

i 64 extra-curricular ACTIVITIES 

important parts he may have in the various activities. 
The principal, in his report of this plan, notes that “some 
people may say that we are robbing the pupils of their right 
to elect their leaders, or that wc are teaching them a false 
brand of representative government,” but he adds, “the 
pupils do not make such a criticism.” One of the chief 
difficulties in a council of this type probably lies in the lack 
of direct contact between the council and the student body 
as provided for in a council made up of home-room rep- 

The two-house type of council: i . While the single-house 
typo of council prevails generally in junior high schools and 
seems to be increasing in senior high schools, the two-house 
plan is the type most often found at present in senior high 
schools. The student organization of one high school may 
illustrate this scheme. This organization is composed of a 
house of representatives and a council. The of rep- 
resentati\es is made up of home-room, or advisory period, 
representatives. The council is made up of the presidents 
of the three classes (sophomore, junior, and senior) and six 
others — three seniors, two juniors, and one sophomore 
elected by ballot at the regular class meetings, bather the 
council or the house may originate resolutions but must re- 
fer the same to the other body for approval. I'he council 
puts all resolutions into effect and handles all routine 

2. Student participation in government in a second high 
school has essentially the same plan as the first school, ex- 
cept that in the house there are two representatives of each 
home-room; there is a nominating committee of five mem- 
bers of the, which, together with the faculty com- 
mittee on student affairs, nominates forty members of the 
school at large for membership in the council; the school at 
large elects a council of twenty members composed of eig^t 


members from 12B, six from iiB, four from loB, and two 
from loA, equally divided between boys and girls. In 
addition the editor of the school paper is, ex officio, a mem- 
ber of the council without voting power. 

3. The tendency, especially in the older student coun- 
cils, seems to be for the upper house to be the executive 
body. However, in some of the newer councils the upper 
house is advisory. In the third school to be considered 
pupils participate in the government of the school through 
a council and an advisory body. The council is composed 
of representatives from each home-room; the advisory 
body is made up of members elected from the council and 
three faculty members appointed by the principal. The 
advisory boaid members, elected by the council from the 
council, consist of two pupils each from the following se- 
mester classes: 12B, 12A, iiB, iiA, and one each from the 
lower classes. This board meets to discuss the work of the 
council and to make recommendations as to the way this 
work should be done. The council must pass upon these 
recommendations. The advisory board meets on the first 
and third Wednesdays and the council, on the second and 
fourth. This plan seems wise in that the upper house is 
advisory only. There seems to be a necessity for a fairly 
small steering committee, but one of the chief troubles in 
this “ two-house plan ” is that the small group tends to take 
unto itself all power, to become very efficient fc*- a time, 
ind in the end, to destroy the whole plan of wide pupil 
participaticm in government. The tendency is for the 
home-room representatives, as soon as they have nothing 
to do except to carry out orders, to cease creative thinking 
and presently to quit work entirel>. 

4. The associated stud»Mit body of a fourth high school 
cooperates with the faculty through a student council con- 
sisting of two members from each class and four members 


from the school at large. Class presidents attend all meet- 
ings, and have the right to speak but not to vote. This 
council, among other activities, and in consultation with a 
faculty committee, charters all pupil organizations; elects 
all managers and editors, but not athletic captains; main- 
tains standing committees; and approves the budget of all 
activities. The student body cooperates with the council 
through a home-room assembly, consisting of meml)ers 
elected from each “advisory.” The members of this as- 
sembly “present to their advisories the issues of the school 
as determined by the council.” 

5. In a fifth high school the reorganization of the plan of 
pupil participation in government included a revoking of 
all charters and the calling of a constitutional convention 
composed of home-room representatives. The convention 
deliberated three months. The result was the formulation 
of a constitution which provides for a legislature made up 
of home-room representatives and of an executive council 
composed of pupil representatives from certain adminis- 
trative boards and of faculty sup)ervisors. These boards 
are: finance, publications, athletics (one for boys and one 
for girls), social affairs, civic affairs, music, and dramatics. 
Each board consists of three members elected from the 
associates and of the faculty supervisors of the respective 
activities. The legislature has the power “to initiate and 
approve legislation, recommend charters, recommend 
appropriations, and to represent the school in all matters 
that are legislative in character.” The executive council 
has the power “to levy taxes upon various organizations in 
order to create a general fund, to make appropriations 
from such fund, grant charters, pass emergency measures, 
initiate and approve legislation, direct the work and formu- 
late the policies of the administrative boards, and exert 
general control of all student activities.” In addition to 


the form of organization, one of the most interesting fea- 
tures is the manner in which it was created. The school 
eliminated all existing organizations and through a con- 
stitutional convention, made an out and out fresh start. 

6. In making the survey of the extra-curricular activi- 
ties of the eleven senior high schools in Philadelphia in 
1922, the writer analyzed the students’ association of the 
William Penn High School for Girls in this fashion: 

The William Penn High School for Ciirls was a pioneer in de- 
veloping a democratic, vital students’ association with a spirit that 
breathed a new life into the whole scheme of pupil participation in 
the affairs of the schools. In this high school, where the interest in 
pupil participation has been so keen, the senate is composed of the 
president and vice president of the student association and eleven 
other senators, two from each of the three highest grades and one 
each from the five lower. The Senate has the power to supervise 
all organizations formed by members of the student association, to 
take charge of the financial affairs of the student association, to 
grant charters to clubs, to make new laws when necessary, and 
generally to take such action as it believes will be for the good of 
the student association and tl ' whole school. Meetings are held 
once a week and are conducted by the president of the association. 
The sponsor, a teacher who represents the principal, is present at 
these meetings to offer suggestions or advice if needed, but she en- 
courages the e.xpression of individual opinion and free discussion. 
Plans requiring the principal’s approval are submitted to him by 
the president or by a committee of senators. 

The house of representatives, consisting of one girl elected from 
each of the sixty groups in the school, enables the whole school to 
have direct representation. The unusual success in this school in 
getting all the pupils interested and cooperating in the student 
association and in affairs of their home-rooms, is largely due to 
these representatives. The larger decisions are made in the senate, 
but it is the section and intimate group discussion of ways of better- 
ing the life i>f the school that makes for an unusual degree of de- 
mocracy in this student association. At the monthly meetings of the 
house of representatives the ideas, plans, schemes for better ways 
of pupil cooperation in government that hav’e been discussed in the 
home-rooms are brought up for discussion before all the sixty rep- 


resentatives. The pupils in this school do not once for all dele- 
gate their power, rights and interests to certain ofhee holders in 
senate or house of representatives at d then gi\ e up active interest 
and passi\ely submit to the laws made by the ofiicers they ha\e 
elected. There is a kind of intense, personal interest among these 
pupils that is hard to capture in words, but which in an unusual 
degree makes each pupil feel that she is a “committee of one” to 
manage herself and cooperate with others for the good cd the scIkk)!. 

This plan of pupil participation is further carried out in the 
system of Monitors. The monitorial force is composed of approxi- 
mately one hundred and fifty girls appointed by the sponsor of the 
students' association from the upper clashes. Kach period of the 
day the study hall is superxised by a monitor captain and her as- 
sistants. These monitors assign seats in the siiidv hail, make out 
the chart of the seating, verify and post it in the study hall. The 
monitors check attendance and if a girl is absent, ascertain where 
she is. The monitors do not seem tt) spend much time talking 
a[x)ut order; rather, they are \ery bus\ li\ing it. In the study 
hall on the two days it was \isitc*d thcTc* seianed to be no feeling of 
repression on the part of the pupils; there Wiis lile, \itality, \im, 
but with no confusion. I'here realh seemed to be a contagious 
spirit of happiness and work. 

The scheme of pupil participation carries itself still further. Xot 
only the president and \ice president of the student association, 
elected by the whole school, or the ele\en senators elected by the 
classes, or the sixty repre.sentati\es elected by eac h home-room, or 
the hundred and fifty monitors ajipoinled by the spon.sor, work in 
definite ways for the welfare of the student body but lluTe is still 
another group, the V'olunteers. This group, made u[) of volunteers 
from the I) class in charge of the I) .senators, is di\ided into teams 
with c'aptains. Kach team has a specific duty at lunch time in or- 
ganizing and directing the actixitiesof thejiupilsin the lunch-room. 
These volunteers are the younger girls, d'heir work is not e.xactly 
joyful, but they do it because it is for the good ol the schoed and 
they do it als<j because service to the groujj and to the .school is tlie 

Another feature of many of the plans of student associations is 
'‘The Court” or 'Fribunal. At W illiam Kenn the ('ourl consists of 
a judge elected from the eighth or seventh term class and six assist- 
ants, three from the eighth and three from the seventh term class. 
The trials are often informal. Tiie court admonishes and at- 


tempts, when the girl has failed, to make her see where she has 
failed. In more serious cases there is a trial. The one making a 
charge against a pupil must present it to the judge in writing before 
the weekly session of the court and must be present in court. The 
representative of the assembly group of which the offender is a 
member must also be present at the meeting of the court to testify 
as to the character of the offender. While no decision of the court 
becomes operative until it has received the approval of the prin- 
cipal, the seriousness and justice of the court are such that when a 
\erdict is pronounced and the offender is asked if she thinks the 
verdict is just, she usually agrees that it is.* 

7. The student council of a seventh high school consists 
of fifteen members elected at large from the four upper 
classes and a house composed of one member from each 
advisory group. The chief variation here is that there is 
a faculty advisory committee appointed by the principal 
which, together with the officers of the senate and house 
representatives, forms a student relations committee. It 
is the duty of this committee to act as a higher court, in- 
terpreting the constitution and settling any controversies 
that may arise between the lwo legislative bodies. 

8. In the general organization of an eighth high school 
all legislative and executive power “ not otherwise granted 
is vested in an executive committee of fourteen members, 
composed of the president, elected from the seventh or 
eighth semester, the secretary, a girl, elected from the fifth 
or sixth semester, the honorary president and *wo ad- 
ditional members of the faculty chosen by the principal, 
and eight pupil representatives, one from each semester. 
The essential variation here is that the section presidents 
meet with the vice president of the executive committee at 
stated times to discuss the business taken up by the com- 
mittee, to make recommendations, or otherwise act in an 
advisory capacity. Since there are no home-room repre- 

» Frctwell, Elbert K. Survey of the Public Schools of Philadelphia, vol. 4. pp. 
126-2%. 1922. 


sentatives, this vice president — class president confer- 
ence, to some extent, serves to preserve council and pupil 

9. A ninth high school illustrates an interesting variation 
in the method of forming its executive council. This 
school, its principal writes, had no student council as such 
until the year 1325 1826, when the civic-industrial club 
reorganized itself on the council plan. Each session room 
elects a delegate who represents the room in the year coun- 
cil and the school council. Each year council elects dele- 
gates to the executive committee, composed of two fresh- 
men, two sophomores, three juniors, three seniors, and the 
president, vice president, and secretary of the civic-indus- 
trial club. The school council is the legislative body; the 
e.xecutive council presen t.s projects, etc., to the school 
council and is responsible for carrying out all projects ap- 
proved by the school council; the class councils present to 
the executiv'e and to the sch.ool council, matters needing 
their attention. In a number of t'hicago high schools the 
indu'-trial clubs, originally fostered outside the school, pre- 
s ‘lit a unif|ue situation. 

10. A tenth high school shows the variation of a council 
chosen by a congress. In this school the congress is com- 
posed of two representatives of each home-room. After 
the congress is elected, the members choose from their own 
number a smaller group of eighteen to act as a council. 
The council meets once a week, the congress once a month. 
The usual result of such an organization is that the smaller 
council is the active body and that the congress tends to 
become something less than a good rubber stamp. How- 
ever, there are exceptions even to this rule. 

11. An eleventh high school presents several distinct 
variations from any council that has been analyzed so far. 
The direction of affairs in this school is in charge of an ex- 



ecutive council composed of a president and a vice presi- 
dent elected by pupils, five pupils elected from the third- 
and fourth-year pupils, five teachers elected by pupils, 
three teachers, including a treasurer appointed by the 
principal, and three non-voting pupil members, including a 
secretary and two representatives of first- and second-year 
::lasses. Thus in a council of fifteen voting members there 
are eight teachers and seven pupils. As a part of the plan 
there are seven standing committees each of which con- 
sists of a teacher and four pupils, two boys and two girls, all 
appointed by the principal. The chief variations to be 
noted here are three: first, the election of teacher members 
by pupils; second, the teachers outnumber the voting pu- 
pils in the council; third, the principal’s appointing all 
standing committees. 

12. A twelfth high school presents three interesting 
variations. The president is elected at large from a list 
nrovided by the principal. The council is composed of two 
members from each home room, a boy and a girl, and a 
[acuity sponsor elected by the council. The chief execu- 
tive body of the council is the senate, consisting of twelve 
senators elected by the senior class, the faculty sponsor, 
:he vice-principal and the principal. In the councils an- 
ilyzed in this chapter, this is an extreme case of senior 

13. One of the distinctive features of the stude..ts’ asso- 
iation of a thirteenth high school is the sub-councils. The 
:ouncil consists of twelve members; three seniors, three 
luniors, three sophomores, and three representatives of the 
acuity who act only in an advisory capacity. Post-grad- 
iates are also entitled to one representative in an advisory 
:apacity without the power to vote. In addition, “the 
lighest elected official of each extra-curricular activity and 
jach athletic team, is entitled to sit with the council in an 


advisory' capacity without the power to vote, but privi- 
leged to speak upon all questions directly affecting the 
activity represented. There are three sub-councils, senior, 
junior, and sophomore. A sub-council is composed of two 
representatives from each session room of the class. Each 
sub-council has “one faculty adviser chosen by the teach- 
ers of the session therein represented.” The council func- 
tions as the upper house of the association legislature; the 
sub-councils constitute the lower house. As the only 
single body empowered to speak and to act for the whole 
association, the council aims to formulate policies and to 
interpret them through the sub-councils and other media. 
Another rather distinctive feature is that the organization 
of athletics, under a boys’ athletic commission, a girls’ 
athletic commission, and an athletic advisory board, is 
chartered by the council just the same as any other re- 
cognized extra-curricular activity. These athletic com- 
missions submit annual reports to the council. Three 
features have been enumerated that ditterentiate this coun- 
cil from those that have been presented thus far, the rela- 
tion of athletics to the council; the sub-councils; and the 
representaticjii of each chartered extra-curricular activity, 
including athletic teams, in the council by a speaking, non- 
voting member. 

14. The student co(iperative government of the four- 
teenth high school considered consists of a home-room re- 
presentative body and a student council. The council con- 
sists of twenty members: twel\e senic^rs, six juniors, and 
two sophomores. I'he home-room representative body is 
made up of a member from each home-room, including the 
freshmen, and all members of the student council. How- 
ever, these council members cannot vote. The first coun- 
cil, a provisional one, appointerl by the faculty, was estab- 
lished, October 6, 1916. The following year the council 


was elected by the pupils. Beginning with the fall of I825, 
the council of the previous year held over until a new one 
was elected. During the early years of the council, al- 
though there was a faculty committee on student affairs, 
the council had no official adviser. Since the principal, to 
whom all niiitters are finally referred, was not always 
easily acce.^sible, the council in 1324 petitioned the faculty 
committee on student affairs for an adviser. As a result, 
the princijial, with the approval of the council, appointed a 
faculty member to act in this capacity. The home-room 
re[)resentati\x*s as a direct means of communication be- 
tween the ('OLincil and the pupils, convey to the council the 
suggestions of the pupils they repicscnt, and likewise report 
to the home-rooms such projects as the council brings be- 
fore them. The activities of the council are reviewed by 
the faculty ( ommiltee on student affairs. There is also an 
all-girls’ league council, made up of si\ seniors, four juniors, 
and two sojihomores, that acts as an auxiliary to the stu 
dent council and deals with problems that have to do 
wholly with the girls of the school. The president is the 
girl wlio holds the highest office in the student council. 
This au\> org.inization is in direct contrast to the 
usual plan in a school >\here a girls' league exists. 

15. A fifieenth high school in its plan of pupil participa- 
tion in go\ eminent presents certain significant variations 
in that the class councils developed before the all-school 
council and that it has no written constitution. The gen- 
eral plan is that all “dixision rooms” of about forty pupils 
each, of the same class, are regularly organized and hold 
one meeting a week; division rooms of the same class work 
together so that there is a freshman council, a sophomore 
council, a junior council and a senior council; the class pres- 
idents, elected from the A sections, and representatives 
from the H sections, compoi^e the all-school council. Each 


of the four councils works through five committees: social, 
publicity, scholarship, make-Senn-beautiful, and courtesy. 
All these twenty committees, together with the principal 
and faculty advisers, hold occasional meetings. 

The absence of a written constitution does not mean 
that there is no sequence in handling an idea that concerns 
this phase of school life. As a former vice-principal of the 
school explains it: 

If it (an idea) arises in the committee and applies to that year 
onl>, it goes directly into the committee report in a council meet- 
ing and is acted upon. If it arises in a division room, it is carried 
to the council by the delegates from the room and there referred to 
the proper committee or discussed by the whole body and referred 
back to the rooms for a referendum \ote. If it arises in the council 
itself, it is referred to the rooms. If, however, the idea is of in- 
terest or value to more than one year, it is laid before the councils 
concerned, directly, by a committee, or indirectly, through the 
all-school council. Any idea which affects the whole school goes 
through the class council to the all-school council and is referred 
back with modifications or suggestions to all fotir class councils, 
there to 1^ ratified or vetoed. In a very important matter which 
affects a school policy, spirit, or tradition, or which relates to the 
standing of the school in the community, considerable time is 
taken, as the subject is discussed in etich council, in each division 
room, and again in each council, this time for the purpose of de- 
cision and definite recommendation; the final announcement is 
made by the all-school council. 

An extremely important issue involving the community may, of 
a^urse, arise in such a way that immediate action is necessary. In 
tl at case the all-school council may at an> time call a meeting and, 
after laying its plan before the i)rincipal or adviser, send a com- 
mittee to act at once, later reporting to the class councils its pur- 
pose, method, and results. 

All this may seem comjjlicated, but in actual practice it is very 
simple, since it follows perfectly natural methods of pn)gression 
and cooperation and is not the product of an arbitrarily made con- 
stitution but of actual needs as they have arisen in an alert and 
growing body of citizens. 


16. In a sixteenth high school there are a series of organ- 
izations and committees of the faculty, of pupils, of faculty 
and pupils, that do types of work ordinarily accomplished 
by a student council. Beginning with the faculty, there is 
a board of control of about the same personnel from year 
to year. This board of seven members manages boys’ 
athletics and debate and, as would be expected, is com- 
posed largely of athletic and debate coaches. The board 
of publications has general responsibility in connection 
with the weekly paper, the annual, and the handbook. 
The sponsors of the various publications are on this board 
and as individuals, work under the board. The school has 
a point system and the activities committee keeps a record 
of a pupil’s points on an activities card, checks the pupil’s 
grades, and informs sponsors if any pupil has too many 
activities. The mass committee furnishes the machinery 
for cooperating with other activities in arranging mass 
meetings from time to time. The home-room committee 
supervises home-room ac vities and helps carry out plans 
that have to do with the yearly calendar. 

Among the pupil organizations, there is, first, the student 
control with three related yet distinct duties: to regulate 
traffic in the halls; to keep pupils in line going to the cafe- 
teria and preserving general good order in the cafeteria; to 
supervise the larger mass meetings. The purple legion, 
composed of forty or fifty boys, works directly with the 
faculty board of control in helping manage all kinds of 
athletic games — taking tickets, ushering, checking any 
uncomplimentary remarks or lack of sportsmanship. 
Many of the members of this group try to aid any boys 
who need help in a big-brother fashion. The membership 
of the central committee is selected largely by the teachers 
from many of the home-rooms. This committee creates 
and formulates standards for the school and does all kinds 


of clean-up work from ridding the campus of dandelions to 
establishing ink-filling stations throughout the school. 
The library monitors’ council. spc>nsorcd by the head 
librarian, helps to care for registration, organization, be- 
havior, and general welfare of all pupils in the lil)rary. 
This school, through the groups that have been mentioned 
and others, carries on many of the activities usually di- 
rected by a council but differs from the plans discussed so 
far in not having one all-inclusive council. 

17. One of the significant \ariations in the student coun- 
cil of the se\'enteenth high school is the “discussion units.” 
First, there is a student council assembly, comiiosecl of two 
representatives from each of the one hundred, or more, 
home-rooms. The nominations for home-room repre- 
sentatives are made in the home-room the last month of 
each semester. The home-room teacher certifies to the 
eligibility of the nominee if he, or she, meets the following 
requirements: (rj he must be passing in all his studies; (2) 
he must have a record of reliability; he must have an 
interest in his school; (4) he must ha\’e his studies so ar- 
ranged that he has time to gi\e to coiimil work; (5) he 
must be an undergraduate member of the school. hVom 
this certified list the two hiKne-room representatives arc* 
elected to the student council assembly. .Sec'ond, immedi- 
ately after his program for the new semester is made out, 
each member of the assembly files a copy of his program 
in the council offu'C* and registers for the* periods he |)refer.s 
for council work. ICach of these members is then assigned 
to one of eight discussion groups. An effort is made to 
have in each group about the same number of sophomores, 
juniors, and seniors. Thes^* groufis meet as soon as possible 
to organize and elect their own officers, including a chair- 
man. Third, the chairmen of these eight disc ussion units 
meet at the call of the faculty adviser and nominate any 


number (not to exceed twenty) from the two hundred, or 
more, members of the student council assembly^ for the 
other four places on the executive council. The assembly 
meets and elects four of these nominees as members of this 
executive council. By virtue of their office, the president 
of the senior class and the editor of the school paper are 
members of the council. The officers of the student coun- 
cil are a president and a vice president, elected by a pre- 
ferential ballot of the entire school, a secretary, and a 
treasurer elected by the majority vote of the twelve mem- 
bers of the executive council. The tenure of office is one 
semester, unless the officer is recalled by a five-sixths vote 
of the e\ecuti\ e council. The executive council meets once 
a week on Mondays from two- thirty to possibly five 
o’clock. Likewivse the “discussion units” meet once a 
week. For these unit meetings, the executive council, 
through a program committee, specifies certain topics to 
be discussed. In addition, any representative may bring 
up anything that he thin’ ' should be considered. Some- 
times the director of social activities, or the assistant di- 
rector, at the reciuest of the chairman, leads a discussion on 
some pha.^e of school activity that needs consideration. If 
necessary, the director, or assistant director, conducts the 
unit as a class in parliamentary procedure. The director 
of social activities and the assistant director are the faculty 
advisers of the executive council. The unit is probably an 
informal, necessary part of pupil participation in govern- 
ment in some stages of its growth in order to make the 
weekly executive council meetings and the monthly stu- 
dent council assembly meetings, liv^e up to the possibilities 
of such organizations. However, the query keeps coming 
to mind; if the home-rooms and home-room teachers were 
sufficiently guided, would these “division units” be 


1 8. In the eighteenth high school there are elected for 
each session of this school for girls, the following officers to 
serve until their successors are elected: a president, a re- 
corder, a secretary of the traffic department, a secretary of 
the social service department (in charge of pupil activities 
concerning the maintenance of courtesy, obedience and 
school property), a secretary of industry (in charge of 
pupil activities concerning punctuality, attendance and 
scholarship). The treasurer is a teacher appointed by the 
principal. Elach class (section) has three officers: captain 
(in general charge of the class and class affairs), lieutenant 
(second to captain, also hostess to visitors and in charge of 
housekeeping ventilation, and banking), and a recorder 
(in charge of attendance). Councils of each rank of officers 
meet once a month and are presided over by a member of 
the governing council. The legislature of each session con- 
sists of the councils of the three departments. Before a 
regulation becomes operative, it must receive a majority 
vote in the council of the department concerned, and the 
approval of the secretary of that department followed by 
the approval of the principal or of the dean. The govern- 
ing council meets once a month and is composed of the 
president, recorder, secretary of traffic, secretary of social 
service, secretary of industry, the editor of the weekly 
paper and the editor of the magazine and the e.\-members 
of governing councils. The distinctive variations of this 
plan from other plans analyzed lie in comparative depart- 
mental legislation and in group councils. 

19. The general organization of the nineteenth high 
school is composed of all pupils and teachers who pay dues 
of twenty-five cents a term. Membership in the “(i.().,” 
as the organization is called, exempts a pu|)il from any dues 
or initiation fees in any club, association, or society char- 
tered by the general organization except the senior class 


society. The affairs of the general organization are car- 
ried on by an executive council and a board of governors. 
The executive council is made up of six teachers and ae 
many students as there are forms. (Since this is a four- 
year high school there are eight forms.) In addition, there 
are three pupil officers elected for one term: the president, 
the vice president, and the secretary. The faculty mem- 
bers, appointed by the principal, represent the various ex- 
tra-curricular activities. The board of governors is made 
up of the principal, ex officio, the honorary president of 
the G.O., one teacher appointed by the principal, one 
teacher elected by the teachers* council and one pupil 
elected by the pupil members of the executive council. 
The honorary president, appointed by the principal, is a 
member of both the board of governors and the council, 
but has no vote in the latter body. The treasurer of the 
G.O. is appointed from the faculty by the board of gov- 
ernors but not from their own number. The council ap- 
propriates money, char' -s all clubs, associations and 
societies within the school and makes by-laws governing 
these organizations. The board of governors, of which the 
principal is chairman, approves or disapproves all resolu- 
tions of the executive council. It may be noted that the 
pupils are in the majority on the council and that the 
faculty members are in the majority on the board of gov- 
ernors. There are something over one hundred organiza- 
tions chartered by the G.O. and each one is supervised by 
one or more teachers. 

20. To present adequately the pupil participation in 
government of the twentieth high school would require 
quoting the greater part of a booklet of 102 pages, about 
45,000 words, published by the school. Presented in 
briefer space, not only details, but whole sections will be 
missing, and much of the flavor lost. However, it is posf 


ble to point out that this organization includes roll-call 
rooms, council, student body organization, cabinet, self- 
government, and a board of finance. ICach roll-call room 
has a teacher-adviser and elects a president, who is, cx 
officio, a member of the council, a secretary, a treasurer, 
and a reporter for the weekly paper, h'ach room also 
elects eligible lists for the respective self-government com- 
mittees and judiciary committees. The council is com- 
posed of some seventy-five roll-call room presidents, a rep- 
resentative elected by the teachers, the officers of the 
student body organization, some thirteen in number, and 
the principal. The council is the legislative body of the 
school. It elects the school historian, the managers of 
athletic and other school teams, and such officers as the 
constitution may require it to elect. It also provides for 
such committees as are contemplated by the constitution. 
The council meets weekly. “Self-government'’ supervises 
conduct on school grounds and in the building, luncheon 
lines, study halls (when desired), seating and order in 
assemblies, and the tardy desk. It also conducts trials by 
jury and imposes prescribed sentences through loss of 
merit credits for certain offenses. To carry on this work 
there are four committees: a boys' self-government com- 
mittee and a jury committee, and a girls’ self-gf)vernment 
committee and a jury committee. Cai)tains, managers, 
or presidents of the various organizations have seat and 
voice but no vote in the council. All [)ui)ils of the sc'hool 
irc members of the student body organization, 'fhis body 
has the following officers: president, boys’ \ ice president, 
girls’ vice president, secretary, treasurer, auditor, editor of 
schocjl paper, student body manager, [)resident of boys’ 
self-government committee, president of girls’ self-govern- 
ment mmmittee, girls’ judge, boys’ judge, and c<idet major. 
The treasurer and auditor are appointed by the principal; 


all others are elected by the student body organiza- 
tion. These officers, elected for one semester, form a 
cabinet, subject to the call of the president. All candi- 
dates have to qualify in scholarship, in merit points, and 
be approved by the vice-principal and registrar. The elec- 
tion of these officers takes place the last two weeks of each 

The board of finance controls the finances of the student 
body organization and the appropriation of money, and of 
fixing prices of admission for student body activities not 
covered by contracts, but is required to give a full account 
of all business transacted to the council at its next meeting. 
The manager of the student body organization is the pre- 
siding officer of this board. The members are: the prin- 
cipal of the school or his representative, the president, 
treasurer, auditor, a representative of the committee on 
inter-school relations, and a representative of the program 
committee. The inter-school relations committee, con- 
sisting of the president, a ’^oy and a girl appointed by the 
president, and two teachers appointed by the principal, 
investigates the eligibility of all representatives of the 
school in inter-scholastic activities. The program com- 
mittee, made up in the same way as the previous commit- 
tee, arranges programs for assembly and entertainments 
held under the auspices of the school. 

2 1 . A twenty-first high school has a type of orgaiiization 
quite different from any that have been discussed in this 
chapter. There is a boys' federation, a girls’ league, a 
student conduct board, and an athletic board. 

The active work of the boys’ federation is carried out 
through three departments: school service, personal serv- 
ice, and community ser\^ice. The school service department 
carries out all undertakings pertaining to the welfare of the 
school as a whole. It includes: rooters’ club, transportatior 


corps, fire squad, advertising, tickets, stage, ushering, and 
“news folding” committees. The personal service depart- 
ment carries on work pertaining to the welfare of the individ- 
ual pupil and includes: vocational, fellowship, scholarship, 
information, welfare, and two freshmen committees. The 
community service department carries on work relating 
to the welfare of any movement outside of school and 
includes grammar school relations, philanthropic, outside 
entertainment, and civic affairs committees. This boys’ 
federation has an executive council as an administrative 
body. It is composed of: officers, department heads, 
class representatives, club represen tat iv^es, and managers 
of recognized school activities. Its function is to coiirdi- 
nate activities and “to administer these activities under- 
taken in the interest of the entire boys* student body.” 

The girls’ league of this same school includes all the 
girls and works through four departments: personal effi- 
ciency, social service, vocational, and entertainment de- 
partments. In these four departments there are some 
forty squads or committees. The league has a central 
council as an executive body composed of all officers, chair- 
man of home-room representatives, heads of departments, 
and chairman of the dress regulation committee. 

The boys’ federation and the girls’ league appoint rep- 
resentatives to serve on a student board of control. This 
board is composed of a president, secretary, library com- 
missioner, traffic commissioner, and a convocation com- 
mittee. Under each commissioner there are deputies 
This board meets weekly to consider the cases of those who 
have broken its rules. This joint organization is essen- 
tially a disciplinary body. It does not serve as a central 
organization to charter clubs or direct the whole program 
of the school’s extra-curricular activities. For example, 
the athletic board, which awards all athletic emblems, is 


composed of the principal, vice-principal, coaches, cap- 
tains, and managers of teams, and four other pupils. 

This type of organization does not provide for a unified, 
whole school scheme of pupil participation in government 
along the lines of most of the councils discussed thus far. 
This significant difference really makes it an essentially 
different type. Critics of this type have sometimes in- 
sisted that the schools where it exists have gone at their 
work backwards in organizing boys and girls separately, 
and then, attempting a whole school organization rather 
than by developing first a strong, central, whole-school 
organization based on home-rooms followed by provisions 
for individual differences of boys and of girls. 

The prefect plan. In considering the various types of 
pupil participation in government, the scheme of school 
prefects, in its pure and in its modified American form, 
should be considered. The prefects may be appointed by 
the headmaster, or principal, to carry out laws made by the 
head of the school, or i efects may be elected by upper 
classes for the purpose of making and enforcing laws. 
With still further modification, there may be a “student 
council” composed of home-room representatives that 
acts as an advisory body to the prefects. In considering 
the prefect system in schools in England, the educationist, 
Mr. Caulfield Osborne, has pointed out: 

The rule of the prefects is oligarchical ; only a minority of the older 
children exercise responsibility, whereas in the recent experiments 
in self-government, power is given to a group of children as a whole. 
The duties of prefects, again, are administrative rather than legis- 
lative; the rules they enforce are for the most part not rules which 
they have made themselves, still less rules which have been made 
by them in cooperation wiili their fellows. They have not much 
more power of choice than non-commissioned officers in a regiment. 
They are chosen by and responsible to the headmaster, or house- 
master, instead of beine the '**ected servants of the community. 


The moti\c of their obedience springs largely from the personal tie 
between them and their adult superiors ^ 

In the United States, in the few schools where this 
scheme is found, the prefects are usually elected by the two 
upper classes, where, in the words of the head prefee t of 
one school, “All of the rules of student government are 
made and enforced by the prefects.” 

The scheme of electing prefects who make and enforce 
the laws is said by some of its advocates to be like our 
national go\ernmcnt in that the people of the United 
States elect rcpresentati\ es and seiuitors who legislate foi 
them. Howc\er, in an educative, school situation, there 
is a necessit) of enabling the pupil to educate himself by 
making «is main intelligent choices ,is possible, 1)\ shaiing 
in responsibilities willingK and uiulerst.indinglv assumed, 
b\ Of king in ia(reismgl\ large groups, .ind iiruler w'ise 
guid iiK n To (l(‘l(‘gcje the nuiking and enfouiiig of l.iws 
to a small gioiip of prefects does not seem to i)ro\ ide a 
favoiable opj)oitunit\ for the four ste[)s in the erlucatixe 
procc'-*. that ha\e been eniimeiated. d'o those who have 
the gre itt“st faith in the sobering inlluence of res[)onsibiIity 
williriglv .is'.umed, it is in m<in>, pK^b.ibly in most, cases <i 
real rev el. a ion of the constiuctive power of ^oulh to see 
how f.iithfully prefects devote themselves to tlieir work 
and how effective the> frertuently <iie in diieiting ihe be- 
hav ior of their associates. Along with the i)refe( t sc heme, as 
with almost any other scheme, there may be a development 
of f)ublic* opinion that (‘mi)hasi/es indiv idual, personal re- 
s[)onsibiIity for right ac'tion. However, the turning-over of 
law-making and law-enforc ing to a fractional per c ent of the 
I)upils seems to the writer a fairly sure way to miss much of 

• ()s\H>rnr, C II CHuIfjf'Ifl “ ICxpcrirrirnl'? in Sf‘If-Of>vprnifionl in Soroiidiry 
S , Lducationol Movements and Methods, p 17/. with an IiilnKluLtnin by John 



the educational value there is in wide pupil participation in 
democratic government. Paternalism, a benevolent des- 
potism, an aristocracy, or an oligarchy may, or may not, 
be a more efficient type of government than a democracy 
in getting certain things done. This question is not raised 
here. A democratic form of government is accepted, and 
I lie necessity of educating pupils by what they think and 
what they do is recognized. The delegating of all law- 
making in school to a small fairly permanent group can rob 
f)iil)ils of the opportunity of learning how to live in a de- 
mocracy by living in it. In the type of council that is rec- 
ommended in this chapter, the pupils of the school, with 
vMse, sympathetic guidance, share in the responsibility of 
directing the extra-curricular activities of the school. Dis- 
( ipline is only a small part of such direction. The big idea 
is for the individuals and the whole group working together 
and through chosen leaders, to work out, with guidance, 
( onstructive policies and to carry out these policies. In 
the execution of these po ‘ des some disciplinary measures 
.ire often necessary, but to focus the scheme of pupil par- 
ticipation in government on discipline is to miss the funda- 
mental, educative purpose of pupil participation in govern- 

What do pupils think of the home-room representative 
student council plan? Manifestly all pupil opinions can- 
not be summarized or quoted. However, the statement of 
one pupil may be cited in part and, at the same time, this 
excerpt may serve as a summary of some strong points of 
this plan At the first joint meeting of all the city high- 
school Siudent councils in Des Moines, Iowa, March 15, 
1826, David Jones, President of the Student Council, 
North High School, af^cr reviewing a former plan at North 
High School, said: 

The new plan that uas introduced at the beginning of this semes* 


ter is very much different. There is one home-room period a day, 
a longer one than before. It comes when every pupil enrolled in 
North, is in school. Because of the fact that North High pupils 
enter one home-room at the time of enrolling in school and stay 
there so long as they are members of the school, they have a very 
fine opportunity to get well acquainted with their home-room 
teacher and the other members of the home-room, and to develop 
a home-room spirit. The president of the home-room presides at 
these meetings and has sole charge of them. The attendance is 
taken by the secretary while those having business with the teacher 
may attend to it privately. Each day there is something special 
for the home-room to do and e\ery one has an opportunity to take 
some part in home-room acti\ ities at some time or other. Much of 
the work of the home-room is done through committees, 'fhere is 
one committee that is common to all of our home-rooms and that is 
the program or social committee. This committee plans a pro- 
gram of some kind to be gi\en during the home-room peiiod one 
day of every- week. On the program just the talent from the par- 
ticular room is used. This committee is also responsible for ar- 
ranging and carr\ing out home-r(X)m parties, the purpose of which 
is to get the \vh()le group better acquainted with each other. 

The Student Council meets e\ery Thursday. As a result, the 
home-room meeting e\ery Friday is given over to a discussion of 
the council of the day lx?fore. W hen a new problem or suggestion 
is brought up at the student council meeting, action is deferred 
until the matter has been presented in the home-room for discus- 
sion. If the people in the \arious home-rooms think the plan a 
wise one, the president takes back the report from his home-room 
to the council the following week and further action is then taken. 
So far this plan of solving our problems has worked with much 
success, and a great deal of enthusiasm has been shown by the 
pupils. This gives each pupil a chance to take part in the actual 
conduct of school affairs and to express his ideas and to make sug- 
gestions which are taken back to the council by the rej)resentati\es, 
rather than to accept passi\ely what the council has planned. 

When the new home-room plan was introduced, the idea of 
having various committee., in the home room have different kinds 
of work was suggested. Scjme splendid original kleas were brought 
out along this line. 5)ome of the important committees Ijeing used 
in our home-rorjms are those for citi/enshij), s( holarshij), news- 
pa[)cr, scraplxx>k, tardiness, publicity, and spelling. In the si*lec- 


tion of these committees as many different people are used as there 
are places, the idea being to put every one in the home-room on 
some committee so as to give each person something to do that he 
may ha\e an interest in his room other than just being a member. 
Many of the hcjme-rooms have aroused special interest by dividing 
themselves into groups or teams so that the contest idea may be 
carried out. Often rivalry exists in scholarship, participation in 
athletics, Parcnt-Tcacher Association memberships, spelling, good 
attendance and punctuality, etc. We really feel that because each 
member of North ^ligh is given a greater chance to participate in 
the activities of go\ernment, he will feel a greater responsibility for 
his own development and for the welfare of the school. 

A real need. The twenty-six schools may serve as ex- 
amples to indicate the almost endless variety of student 
councils. Many schools have taken a short cut toward 
efficiency by having a small council, or executive commit- 
tee, and strong central authority; other schools, while 
strong in central authority, provide for a wide distribution 
of leadership and of responsibility. Some principals ap- 
point all committees; other principals provide a favorable 
opportunity for pupils to .iiake intelligent choices. In an- 
alyzing plans for pupil participation in school control, the 
conflict of ideas of Hamilton and of Jefferson in respect to 
government are constantly brought to mind. The two 
outstanding ideas, however, are: first, the schools, through 
schemes of pupil participation in government, are sincerely 
attempting to enable pupils to become increasingly self- 
directive; second, the widespread experimentation that is 
now going on shows there is great interest and probably 
great vitality in this movement. There is at present a 
very real necessity that educators study the idea of pupil 
participation in government both in its general aspects and 
in the wide variety of expei imentation to the end that these 
educators, knowing tne field, develop really constructive 
thinking and planning on the part of all members of their 
own schools. 



If one has had little experience with student councils, it 
is quite possible that in just reading through this chapter 
one is somewhat da/ed by the variety of organization 
shown in the twenty-six councils analyzed. As was 
pointed out in the second paragraph of the present chapter, 
the councils could have been analyzed and grouped on 
three bases; on the basis of election, on the basis of form, 
on the basis of the penvers exercised. If the student were 
e.xpected to remember all the variations of tdl the dirterent 
councils presented, a rigorous classil'ication might ha\c 
been justified e\en if it did violence to the dat«i iruolved. 
The aim, however, has been, not memorization, but “to 
present in simple, ortleily fashion materitd that may be 
helpful to those rcho are concerned uitli or”(inizin<^ senior hi\ih 
school councils." The material has been presented for use 
by leaders in actual school situations. To accomplish the 
purpose just stated, it seemed best “to b(‘gin with a 
very simple t\pe of council and to advance to the more 
elaborate types, noting, by the way, the signilicanl \«iri.i- 
tions.” One might memorize everything in this chapter 
and really know nothing about student ('(nincnls in senior 
high schcxjls from a working, professional i)oint of view. 
An academic interest in student councils is of little v.due 
when it comes to doing whatever cjught tc; be done about 
the student-ccnincil idea in a real schoc^l. It is |)iobably 
true that no one of the twenty-six i)lans which have been 
)resented will be suited exactly to the school in which the 
tudent is particularl> interested. School counciU, as has 
l)een repeatedly stated, cannot be transplantc‘d. 'The idcM 
of pupil partic'ipatic)!! in gov'ernment must grow in .i school. 
.Some one iyt)e of counc il or some combination of types of 
councils presented in this chajjter may entd>le the school 
leaders, i)upils as well as teac heis, to guide a glowing c'oun- 
cil as to the form it shall take, the basis on which council 


members are to be elected, or the powers the council shall 
exercise. This chapter is to be professionally used rather 
than academically remembered. 


1. In what respects do prevailing types of councils in junior and 
in senior high schools differ? Are the types of councils in 
junior and in senior high schools tending to become more alike 
or more* different? I low do you explain your answer? 

2. On what bases do you classify councils? W’hy? 

3. What are the ad\antages and the disadvantages of the single- 
house t>pc of c<nincil'* Of the two-house type of council? 

4. Which do >011 prefer, the single or the two-house type of coun- 
cil I\m‘s the si/o of the school affect your answer? Why? 

5. What in your opinion are the strong and the weak points in 
couiu'il 4 in the single-house t\pe of council? 

6. Point out the strong points, if any, and likewise the weak 
points, if any, in each of the twenty-one councils analyzed in 
the two-house t\pe of council. In each case give the reasons 
for your answer. 

7. W hat types of councils or \ariations in types other than those 
presented in this chapter, . y(»u know or know about? 

8. In w^hat res[X'cts, if any, do you approve or disapprove of the 
prefect plan? On w'hat basis? 

9. What, if ain't hing, do you see of w'orth in the plan presented by 
l)a\id Jones? 

10. Should a senior high school have a student council? If so, 
outline in some detail the organization of the council you con- 
sider best for a specific school >011 have in mind. 

11. If you believe this school you ha\e in mind snoald have a coun- 
cil, how^ would you get it started? .After it is started, how 
w^ould vou plan to guide its de\elopment? 

^2. Princif^al X. Y. Z. has an opinion regarding student councils 
the opposite of the opinion you hold. However, he honestly 
wants lo understand your point of view'. He is too far away 
for you to talk to him and you are tex) busy to WTite a long letter. 
W'hat would you tell h*n to read? Is it important that he 
undertake your list of readings in any certain order? 

13. In what specilic ways does pupil participation in government 
pro\'ide, or fail to provide, a favorable opportunity for the 
development of the qualities of the good citizen? 

Chapter VIII 


How does a council work? There is a necessity of seeing 
the student council, or by whatever name the central or- 
ganization is known, and seeing it whole. If there is to be 
unity and coordinated action in the whole extra-curricular 
life of the school, there must be the development of one 
definite, unifying organization. This does not mean that 
the central organization will plan everything in detail. 
The principal and the teachers, as advisers in all pupil 
activities, in home-rooms, classes, clubs, boards, and in all 
committees, standing or temporary, will have freedom in 
which to do their work. The pupils in all the var>ing 
groups will have the opportunity and the necessity of 
planning, leading, following, and sharing in responsibility. 
Howe\er, if there is to be any real, working, unified attack 
on problems facing the whole school, the representatives of 
the whole school, after discussion with their fellows, must 
formulate whole school policies. Some radical thinkers in 
this field would have the pupils of every school start from 
a state of anarchy, and, seeing the chaos, realize the neces- 
sity of establishing order. Such a scheme may or may not 
have been necessary in some plan of a “Junior Republic”; 
that question is not raised here. However, the school, 
through the cobjierative effort of pupils and teachers, has 
built up certain successful ways for carrying on work with 
normal pupils. These ways, in some respec'ts traditions, 
good and less gocxl, must be organized, possibly reorgan- 
ized, so that the school as a whole works out a plan in ex- 
tra-curricular activities for cooperative thinking, feeling, 


and living. There must be one general planning, cobrdi- 
nating agency. Otherwise the possible power of the or- 
ganization is dissipated in the confusion of its parts. 

In this volume, although there are separate chapters on 
various extra-curricular activities, there is the constant 
aim of seeing every activity in relation to every other ac- 
tivity. In this chapter there is a definite attempt to see 
the relation of the council to the whole scheme of extra- 
curricular activ ities in the work the council does and in the 
way it docs it. 

The council represents the whole school. The principal, 
every teacher, and every pupil is represented in the council. 
The principal has in mind a constructive policy for the 
council just as he has for professional teachers' meetings or 
any other phase of the school's life. He realizes that the 
council will not run itself, and that enthusiasm over a new 
activity will disappear unless there is real work to do and 
unless this work is done under skillful guidance. Thus, 
the principal, through an ad* *ser, or advisers, of the coun- 
cil, appointed by himself, and through direct contact, 
guides the council. The council itself, with the help of the 
adviser, has a teacher on every council committee. The 
principal supervises the work of the council. It requires 
real skill to know when to advise and when to wait, how to 
advise just enough and not too much. The principal 
grants a charter to the council, authorizing it to meet and 
work. He has the veto power over all legislation. If he is 
a real leader, planning with his teachers and pupils, the 
best plan will probably prevail. The plan may not be the 
ultimate best plan, but it may be as big a step in advance 
as the group ( an take at that time. If this is the case, he 
does not have to veto the measure. Whenever the prin- 
cipal has to use the veto power, it may be an admission 
that the school has not yet succeeded in educating pupils 


to the point where they make wise decisions. Some prin- 
cipals are so careful that they do not let the council con- 
sider any measure until they themselves have approved it. 
Such spoon-feeding defeats the whole purpose of having a 
real council. It requires little skill on the part of principal 
or teacher to issue orders. It does require real leadership 
to arrange the whole situation so that pupils, from a drive 
within themselves, strive to do the wise thing for them- 
selves and for the whole school. 

The council represents every pupil. If the simple plan 
of council that has been recommended is followed, every 
home-room is represented in the council. ICvery special 
activity may be represented by its highest officer, who has 
the right to speak on any measure affecting his organiza- 
tion, but no right to vote. The home-room representati\e 
may receive instructions from his constituency. He dis- 
cusses whole school policies with them. 'Fhe principal 
directly, or through an adviser to home-room adv isers, sees 
to it that there is intelligent discussion in the home-room of 
all important measures. In coeducational high schools, 
there may be sfiecial organizations for boys or for girls, 
such as a boys’ federation or a girls’ league, but such or- 
ganizations derive their f)owers from the central organiza- 
tion. The primary organizations are home-rooms, classes, 
and, above all, the council. The council rcfiresents the 
whole school; it formulates policies, cocirdinates activities, 
legislates for the whole group. 

How does the council begin its work? d he council, 
formed of home-room representatives and its adv isers, does 
its work first of all in the formation of intelligent public 
opinion. In school this public opinion is often called sc hool 
spirit. Discussion in home-rooms and council, intelli- 
gently guided by advisers and pupil leaders, is the basis of 
starting this spirit. The attitude of the adv isers can build. 


or break, morale. Even in the relatively few disciplinary 
cases, there are really three important questions to put to 
the offender: What did you do? What, if anything, is 
wrong about it? If there is anything wrong, what are you 
going to do to straighten out the situation? Few need 
punishment. All need guidance. Discipline is funda 
mentally positive rather than negative. There is no place 
for flabby sentimentalism; clear-cut, straightforward, de- 
cisive action is demanded. The council machinery should 
be simple — just enough to get work properly done. 
There is no occasion for building a machine just to have a 
beautiful paper organization. 

The council should begin with concrete activities where 
definite success is possible. More difficult problems may 
be taken up as the pupils and teachers, working through 
home-rooms and council, gain the ability to handle them. 
This ability to work cooperatively, effectively, and in a 
democratic manner has to be learned, and, it may be 
added, this way of working 'oes not always come easily to 
the experienced parent, teacher, or principal. 

The council handles specific activities through standing 
and short-term committees. Too many standing com- 
mittees have a way of “reporting progress”; they are too 
often just standing committees. In high schools, and 
especially in junior high schools, much of the work can 
usucdly be done through short-term, special committees. 
PsyclK)logically, the attention-span is comparatively short. 
Appoint the committee for a specific job; guide the com- 
mittee so that the work is done quickly, effectively, and the 
committev* discharged with distinction. If for any reason 
the committee fails, discharge it, and appoint another, or 
let the matter drop for ? while. Do not let the committee 
die. In baseball parlance, the committee goes to bat, 
makes a hit, or strikes out. There is no indecision on the 


part of the umpire. In this case the council is the umpire. 

The council should be guided so that it learns how to 
work as does a good executive. An executive determines 
his worth, in part, by his ability to get other people to 
work. The tendency of some councils is often the same as 
that of a one-horse-power executive; they try to do every- 
thing themselves. Council members should be guided in 
learning how to get effective work done by a wide distribu 
tion of responsibility, supervised and checked-up, rather 
than by trying to do everything themselves. 

This distribution of work can be more effectively carried 
out when the council members are elected from, and are re- 
sponsible to, definite constituencies. In a senior high 
school the members of the council should be elected cer- 
tainly as often as every semester. In junior high schools 
it might be wise to elect members more often than twice a 
year. If some plan of election is worked out whereby all 
members of the council are not new members at the same 
time, it will make naturally for a continuity of construc- 
tive policy. The increasing tendency to elect council offi- 
cers near the end of one semester so that they are ready to 
start work at the very beginning of the new semester seems 
to be a wise policy. The same plan that has been used in 
electing athletic team captains at the close of a season can 
be followed wisely by student councils. It is hard to un- 
derstand why any school waits until the end of the first 
month of school in the autumn to get its council started. 
Many schools bridge this gap by having officers hold over 
until their successors are elected. The seniors, who usually 
hold the offices of president and vice president, are gone. 
The plan recommended of getting on the mark and getting 
set at the end of one semester and ready to go at the very 
first day of the new semester is being found a successful 
plan by an increasing number of schools. 


The council should be formally installed. Intellectual 
and emotional appeal can be united. Workers in demo- 
cratic society are sometimes inclined to lose sight of big- 
group activities and the power of dramatic appeal in which 
the whole group participates. There needs to be an in- 
stallation with what Elgar would probably call “pomp and 
circumstance.’* The William Penn High School for Girls, 
of Philadelphia, has been especially successful in inducting 
student council members into office. It is an honorable 
thing to hold office in William Penn High School for Girls, 
and although there are some three hundred officers, there is 
honor enough for all. As soon as possible after the election 
of officers, a morning assembly is given over to the cere- 
mony of their installation. The whole school assembles to 
see the long procession of officers enter. There are music 
and fluttering banners. The insignia on the school banner, 
the school seal, and the school motto are explained. The 
president of the senior class gives a statement of the aims 
of the Student Association. Pledges of office are adminis- 
tered by the principal, repeated by the president and chief 
judge, agreed to by the senate and court, and, finally, by 
all the other officers. The principal speaks briefly, and in 
conclusion calls on the whole school for a pledge of loyalty 
to their own Student Association. After the pledge is 
given, all sing the school song. For these girls there is a 
thrill in this installation that tends to make them w at to 
do everything they can for the Association and its work for 
me girls, and for the school. When the president and the 
senate take their pledge, which is an adaptation of the 
Ephebic O.ith, and when the chief judge and her associ- 
ates make their solemn promise after a modified Pennsyl- 
vania State form, there is an emotional as well as an in- 
tellectual recognition of the serious obligation and oppor- 
tunity inherent in this Student Association. For these 


girib, insistent needs in their work for themselves and for 
the school give opportunity for the emotional impetus to 
translate itself into habit-forming activities. 

The council should have a constitution. The charter 
granted by the principal, naturally, will be the basis of a 
constitution for the council. This constitution in most 
cases should develop gradually. There are some cases, 
such as that of the fifth high school in the preceding chap- 
ter, where a whole new constitution is necessary. How- 
ever, there is a tendency on the part of some schools to 
formulate a constitution tar beyond the working ability of 
both teachers and pupils. A constitution that springs full 
grown from the forehead of some mighty Jove may be 
beautiful to behold, but far beyond the ability of the school 
to live by. The constitution, as a rule, should be devel- 
oped step by step as the school, principal, and teachers as 
well as pupils, develop ability to participate in the direc- 
tion of extra-curricular activities. The council can and 
should take on new powers as it becomes able to exercise 
these prjwers intelligently. The council should live by the 
constitution, and amendments should be nicide to narrow 
or broaden it so as to make it a working constitution. 
Possibly one way to learn how to live by the constitution 
of one’s country is to live by the constitution of one’s stu- 
dent council. How much transfer there is no one knows, 
but the soundness of the training in citizenship in any 
school certainly would be open to question if its orators 
were extolling the Constitution of the United States and at 
the same time failing to live by the constitution in their 
own student council. The school should develop its stu- 
dent council constitution gradually, and having a consti- 
tution should work in accordance with it. 

What kinds of activities are carried on by student coun- 
cils? To determine the kinds of activities carried on bv 


student councils a committee of the author's graduate 
students — vSidney M. Bliss, Elsie A. Wendling, and 
Daniel G. Lee — analyzed the activities of sixty-eight 
student councils as shown by high-school handbooks.* 


Frequency in 

Activity 68 .Schools 

1. Publishes handbook 30 

2. Lunrliroom committee 21 

3. A-;s(*mbly committee 15 

4. Promotes general welfare 15 

5. Traffic committee 14 

6. Approves fiiicinces of organizations 13 

7. Establishes court 13 

<S. Library committee 13 

9. Charge and care of school equipment ir 

U). .Social and entertainment committee 1 1 

11. .Study hall committee II 

12. Athletic committee lO 

13. (irants charters to all organizations lo 

14. Initiates propositions lo 

15. Audits treasurers’ accounts 9 

16. Promotes scholarship 9 

17. Promotes good fellowship 9 

18. Publishes annual 9 

19. Appoints or api)roves appointment of committees 8 

20. Establishes laws and by-law's of all organizations 8 

21. Executes decisions 8 

22. General control of elections 8 

23. Legislates 8 

24. Publishes newspaper 8 

25. Takes care of attendance 7 

26. Auditorium committee 7 

27. (Guides new students 7 

28. Runs a store 7 

29. Publicity committee 7 

30. Locker committee 6 

31. I lousekeeping in lunch-room 6 

• In tabuIatinK the activities of student counciN, the committee followed carefully 
the wordinK mven in the handbooks. Thus, duplication, seeming or real, is in some 
measure accounted for. 


Frequency i> 

Activity 68 Schools 

32. Pays out money 6 

33. Looks after sanitation 6 

34. Calls meetings of election of executive council of G.O.. 5 

35. Acts as a clearing-house 5 

36. Supervises conduct in general 5 

37. Fire drills 5 

38. Discipline in class and assembly 5 

39. Membership tickets issued to G .0 5 

40. Receives money 5 

41. Takes charge of classes 5 

42. Awarding honors 4 

43. Maintains book exchange 4 

44. Establishes ground regulations 4 

45. Lost and Found Bureau 4 

46. Maintains ideals and standards 4 

47. Personal interests and efficiency 4 

48. Supervises sale of tickets and publications 4 

49. Supervises all organizations 4 

50. Approves resolutions of executive council 3 

51. Maintains a bank 3 

52. Citizenship committee 3 

53. Courtesy committee 3 

54. Finds employment 3 

55. Fosters spirit of good fellowship 3 

56. Information committee 3 

57. Invests funds 3 

58. Keeps halls quiet 3 

59. Legislates on conduct 3 

60. Management and control of athletics 3 

61. Philanthropic 3 

62. Service committee 3 

63. Activities committee 2 

64. Appoints faculty treasurer of G .0 2 

65. Budget committee 2 

66. Club committee 2 

67. Conducts field and May Day activities 2 

68. Controls point system 2 

69. Debate committee 2 

70. Eliminates smoking 2 

71. Fills vacancies in office 2 

72. General control of all activities 2 

73. Handles school problems as they arise 2 

74. Impeachment and removal from office 2 


Frbqubhcy in 

Activity 68 Schools 

75. Lists members of G .0 2 

76. Music committee 2 

77. Nominates senate members 2 

78. Provides for printing and multigraph 2 

79. Publishes monthly literary review 2 

80. Publishes term calendar 2 

81. Safety committee 2 

82. Takes care of seating in assembly 2 

83. Sponsors dances 2 

84. Sponsors motion-picture shows 2 

85. Student catch-up committee 2 

86. Art committee i 

87. Book committee i 

88. Book reviewers' committee I 

89. Supervises Christmas activities I 

90. Costume committee for special days I 

91. Department office committee I 

92. Door committee I 

93. Dramatics and oratory committee i 

94. Elects officers of paper I 

95. Examines all annual reports of all organizations I 

96. Excuse committee I 

97. Finances athletics I 

98. Finances orchestra I 

99. Inventory of pupil activity ei^-.ipnient i 

100. Keeps activity records i 

1 01. Lunch-room leave committee I 

102. Personal property committee i 

103. Promotes honesty I 

104. Publishes financial report 1 

105. Raises money by entertainments I 

106. Reporters’ committee I 

107. School supplies committee I 

108. Students board of control committee I 

109. Student body properties I 

no. Suggestion-box committee I 

111. Supervises ventilation between periods I 

1 12. Maintains a vocational department I 

1 13. Welcoming committee * 

It should be kept in mind that a student council may be 
carrying on many activities not listed in the handbook; 


also, that the statement of an activity in the handbook is 
no positive assurance that it is being practiced. Likewise, 
it should be noted that, although these sixty-eight hand- 
books were chosen at random from several hundred hand- 
books collected from nearly every state in the Union, these 
1 13 different activities may not be representative of the 
whole country. 

Classification of activities by function performed. This 
classification of activities may provide a more compre- 
hensive view than does the preceding frequency table. 


1. Athletics 

1. Athletic committee. 

2. Management and control of athletics. 

3. C(jnduct field day and May Day. 

4. Finance athletics. 

11. Disciplinary and judicial 

1. Eliminate smoking. 

2. Discipline in class and assembly. 

3. Keeping halls cpiiet. 

4. Court. 

5. Impeachment and removal from office. 

III. Exec lit ive — A d in i n i strut ive 

1. (ieneral control of elections. 

2. Executes decisions. 

3. Calls electing meetings. 

4. Super\ises all organizations established by General 

5. Appoints faculty treasurer of General Organization. 

6. Fills vacancies in oflicx*. 

7. Handles school problems. 

8. Keeps list of members of (ieneral Organization. 

9. Keeps activity rc*(f>rds. 

10. Inventory. 

11. Publicity committee. 

12. Printing and multigraphing. 


13. Sponsors motion pictures. 

14. Department office committee. 

15. Appoints yell leader. 

16. Elects officers of newspaper. 

IV. Financial 

1. Pays out money. 

2. Receives money. 

3. Sells tickets and publications. 

4. Bank committee. 

5. In\ests funds. 

6. Budget committee. 

7. Examines financial reports. 

8. Finances athletics. 

9 Finances orchestra. 

10. Publishes financial report. 

11. Raises money by entertainment. 

12. Appro\es finances of all organizations. 

13. Audits treasurer’s accounts. 

14. Appoints faculty treasurer of General Organization 

15. Issues membership tickets. 

V. Legislative 

1. Approves finances of all organizations. 

2. Cirants charters to all organizations. 

3 Initiates propositions. 

4. Appoints or appro\es appointment of committees. 
5 Forms laws or b> laws of organizations. 

6. Legislates on cfinduct. 

7. Appro\es resolutions of ExecutKe Council. 

8 Nominates senate members. 

9. Impeaches and removes from office, 

10. Controls point s>btem. 

11. General control of all activities. 

12. Manages and controls literary organizations. 

13. I egislates. 

14. Sponsors dances. 

VI. Directing activities 

1. Lunch room committee 

2. Assembly committee. 

3. Traffic committee. 

4. Library committee. 

5. Study hall committee. 


6 . Attendance committee. 

7. Locker committee. 

8. Housekeeping committee. 

9. Sanitation committee. 

10. Auditorium committee. 

11. Book exchange committee. 

12. Book committee. 

13. Book Reviewers* Committee 

14. Art committee. 

15. Takes charge of classes. 

16. Arranges seating in assembly. 

17. Christmas and costume committee 

18. Door committee. 

19. Excuse committee. 

20. Lunch-room leave committee. 

21. School supply committee. 

22. Student properties committee. 

23. Supervises ventilation between periods. 

24. Has charge and takes care of equipment. 

25. Establishes ground regulations. 

26. Conducts fire drills. 

27. Maintains school store. 

28. Supervises all activities. 

29. Philanthropic. 

30. Supervises debate, music, dramatics, and oratoiy 

31. Suggestion-box committee 
VI 1 . Promotes general welfare 

1. Citizenship. 

2. Courtesy. 

3. Fosters spirit of good fellowship. 

4. Maintains high ideals. 

5. Superv ises conduct in general. 

6. Acts as clearing-house between students and faculty. 

7. Promotes school spirit. 

8. Promotes eligibility and scholarship. 

9. Promotes honesty. 

10. Acts as student body of control. 

1 1 . Awards honors. 

VI 11 . Publications 

I . Publishes handbook. 


2. Publishes annual. 

3. Publishes newspaper. 

4. Publishes monthly literary magazine. 

5. Publishes term calendar. 

IX. Student welfare 

1. Social and entertainment committee. 

2. Guides new students. 

3. Maintains information booth. 

4. Maintains a service department. 

5. Welcoming committee. 

6. Runs an employment bureau. 

7. Locker committee. 

8. Student catch-up committee. 

9. Safety committee. 

10. Maintains a lost and found bureau. 

11. Personal interest and efficiency committee. 

12. Personal property committee. 

13. Vocational department. 

A study of the current practices of student councils 
brings clearly to mind the fact that, except that the final 
authority rests with the principal, there is no definite, 
common procedure as to orv.^nization, responsibility, or 
specific duties of student councils. At the same time the 
frequency table and the functional classification, presented 
here, call attention to the wide diversity of activities car- 
ried on by these student councils in public high schools. 

What should the student council do? It is understood 
that the faculty, and more specifically the principal, is re- 
sponsible for everything the school does. In the following 
statements of what the council does, or can do, when suffi- 
cient ability is developed, there is no idea of relieving the 
principal of responsibility. The purpose here is to bring 
together in brief statements what the whole school can do 
in working through the school’s representative body, that 
is, the council. It is the writer’s belief that the council is 
concerned with any activity affecting the extra-curricular 


life of the school. If this position regarding the principal’s 
responsibility and the scope of the council’s activity is 
accepted, the following statements seem to demand serious 


The council should: 

1. Charter all clubs and activities recognized by the school, in- 
cluding the athletic association and, if necessary, revoke 

2. Aid in working out a scheme of extra-curricular activities that 
will make reasonable pro\ ision for the individual dilTerences of 
all pupils. 

3. C(K)rdinate the acti\ities of all publications — newspaper, 
handbook, magazine and annual — through a Board of Pub- 

4. Promote and siipcr\ise all school parties and social affairs. 

5. Supervise the budget making and the finances of eeich organi- 
zation and of the extra-curricular activities of the whole school. 

6. Appoint the managers of all athletic and of all other school 

7. W ork out and enforce a scheme of school traffic in all its forms 
where\er it affects the life of the school. 

8. Share in determining eligibility for pupil partici[)ation in the 
various forms of extra-curricular actixities. 

(). I)e\elop a ])oint system for stimulating, guiding, and if neces- 
sary, limiting pupil participation in extra-curricular aetbities. 

10. Aid th(' school in kecjiing a permanent record of the extent and 
(]ualit>- c)f each pupil’s [larticipation in extra-curricular activi- 

11. Supervise all stud> halls that are in charge of pupils. 

12. Provide organized means of assisting new pujiils to orient 
themseKcs in the school. 

13. Establish and sufierxise the “Lost and Found Bureau.” 

14. Super\ise the content and care f)f all fniiiil lockers. 

15. .Share in planning school assemblies. 

16. .Superxise ushering and order in all pupil meetings, such as 
assemblies and athletic meets. 

17. Share in determining what is good form in public behavior in 
all places where the pupils are identified with the school. 

18. Share in supervising all school campaigns, including thrift and 


safety campaigns, that affect the extra-curricular life of the 

19. Through a committee on inter-school relations, welcome and 
supervise the entertainment of all visiting teams and share in 
supervising the relations with all other schools that arise in 
connection with extra-curricular activities. 

20. Determine the policy of awarding all school insignia and see 
that the policy is observed. 

21. Place major emphasis on constructive planning and right ways 
of acting rather than on punitive discipline. 

22 . Establish qualifications and provide eligible lists of jurors from 
every home-room in all cases where the council shares in dis- 
ciplinary measures through a school court. 

23. Keep, for the principal or his representative, an official date 
book wherein are entered all requests for meetings or for use of 
any part of the building or of school material. 

24. Provide a means for handling tardiness and absences in those 
schools where the council has developed the ability to take care 
of such problems. 

25. Supervise all elections. 

26. Carry on an educational, fact-telling, publicity campaign so as 
to keep all pupils and teachers informed and thus provide a 
basis for intelligent public oninion. 

This is not an exhaustive list of council activities, yet all 
the activities enumerated are carried on by some council. 
However, there are comparatively few councils that per- 
form all of these activities. To develop the ability and to 
find out the w^iys for carrying on such a variety of serious 
undertakings, requires intelligent guidance, an atmosphere 
of it-can-be-done, and usually more than one three- or 
four-year generation of pupils. 

What is the real purpose of a student council? Impor- 
tant as are the achievements in the ablest student councils, 
the work actually done is not the first consideration. The 
council carries on an activity with the aid of a teacher- 
adviser and a pupil committee. There may be a school 
somewhere in which every council committee is successful. 


Such a school would be easy “to run.” From the edu- 
cator’s point of view, it is neither ease nor a specific piece of 
work done that is of most importance. The real value lies 
in organizing this phase of the whole educational situation 
so that the pupils have a favorable opportunity to practice 
the qualities of the good citizen here and now with results 
satisfying to themselves. 

Progressive reconstruction. The student council, as the 
one representative organization of the whole school, should 
plan constructively, coordinate and unify the whole extra- 
curricular life of the school. The council begins its work 
by arranging the school situation so that there is a favor- 
able opportunity for the formation of intelligent public 
opinion and for the expression of this intelligent opinion in 
satisfying, concrete action. Initial activities must be 
successful. The intellectual and emotional appeal of a 
dramatic, dignified installation of the council can unify the 
whole school into a recognition of present and possible 
future success. On the basis of a charter granted by the 
principal, a constitution should be developed gradually. 
An analysis of council activities, both as to frequency and 
as to function, shows that, wisely or unwisely, councils are 
dealing with almost every pluise of extra-curricular activ- 
ity. As it develops, the council should come increasingly 
to deal with every phase of extra-curricular activities that 
provides an educational opportunity for the pupils and at 
the same time pro\ ides a favorable opportunity for the 
school progressively to reconstruct itself. 


1. In the high schools that you know best, wh«it is the scope of the 
student council’s work.' 

2. Compare the scope of these councils with the work of the coun- 
cil of Arts High School, Los Angeles, as set forth in the 


Life of Manual Arts, or the East Technical High School, Cleve- 
land, as contained in the handbook, Brown and Gold. 

3. Make a list of the activities of the councils in any six schools 
you know or that you can find out about from their constitu- 
tions. If there are wide variations, how do you account for 
them? Are they due to size of school? — to the underlying 
philosophy on which the school is based? — to the principal? 
Or what is the reason? 

4. Make a table of frequency of the powers of such councils as you 
ha\e oppc>-"^unity to study. What does the table you have 
made mean? 

5. To what extent and under what circumstances do you agree or 
disagree with the twenty-six statements made in this chapter 
as to what a student council should do? 

6. Make out your own statement as to what a student council 
should do in some one school with which you are well 

7. How should the council, in the school you ha\e had in mind in 
question six, get its work done? 

8. W hy is it necessary, or not necessary, for the council to unify 
and coordinate all extra-curricular acthities of the school? 

9. With what kinds of acti\ ities should a new council, as a general 
rule, begin its work? \\ In ^ 

10. How should teacher-ad\ isers for the \arious council commit- 
tees be selected? W hy? 

1 1 . W hat kinds of situations constitute fa\ orable opportunities for 
pupils to practice the qualities of the good citizen? 

12. What kinds of practice in school work, if any, are satisfying, 
here and now, to some particular pupils whom you know well? 
How do you explain this satisfjiction? 

13. V\ hat shall a school do with teachers who are unabh* or un- 
willing to work effectn ely in the kinds of activities discussed 
in this chapter? 

Chapter TX 

The assembly and pupil participation in government. The 

assembly is the “town meeting** of the school. Problems 
confronting the school are presented and discussed. Pub- 
lic opinion is formed, and in a democratic school, govern- 
ment is directly affected by this public opinion. The solv- 
ing of the problems confronting the high school can be an 
educative experience. Principals and teachers can, as a 
rule, solve these problems and solve them correctly, but in 
so doing they can rob the pupils of the attitude, the desire, 
and the ability that comes from sharing in the solution of 
their own and the school’s problems. When some impor- 
tant question affecting practice is to be met and decided, 
the time to carry on the educative campaign is before 
rather than after the decision has been reached. Even the 
wisest decision may be of little value if the pupils do not 
understand it well enough to live by it. The desire, the 
emotional attitude, and the ability to live by any decision 
is directly affected by one’s share in reaching this decision. 
The assembly, therefore, along with the home-room, the 
class organization, the student council, and the school 
newspaper, is vitally concerned with the formation of in- 
telligent, public opinion as a basis of government. 

What can the assembly do? Probably a statement of 
claims for the assembly which the reader can think through, 
and modify, accept, or reject, may help clarify the whole 
problem. There seems to be a growing belief that the 

1. Can aid in forming intelligent, public opinion. 

2. Can explore curricular and extra-curricular activities. 



3. Can integrate, unify, emotionally and intellectually, the work 
and whole life of the school. 

4. Can aid in creating new interests and widen and deepen exist- 
ing interests. 

5. Can increase appreciation of fine human action and of all fields 
of art. 

6. Can make courtesy more desired, and attainable in varying de- 

7. Can promote the understanding on which such activities as 
home-rooms, class organizations, student councils and clubs 
are based. 

8. Can increase the effectiveness of pupil officers and pupil coop- 
eration by public installation of all officers elected by the whole 

9. Can servo as an administrative device but this phase of assem- 
bly must not be overworked. 

10. Can scr\e as a means of analyzing failures and celebrating 

11. Can celebrate anniversaries so as to promote happiness and in- 
telligent understanding. 

12. Can ser\'e as a means of aiding the pupil in budgeting his time, 
the school in budgeting the time devoted to assembly. 

13. Can aid in promoting an intelligent budgeting of all extra- 
curricular finances. 

14. Can aid pupils in learning how to study. 

1 5. Can scr\ e as one means of welcoming newcomers — pupils and 

16. Can aid the work of the home-room in helping newcomers 
orient themscKcs quickly. 

17. Can dignify “Moving-Up Day” for all classes. 

18. Can serve as a place for real devotion. 

19. Can pro\ide wholesome entertainment and, more or less un- 
consciously, set standards of taste in entertainment and humor. 

20. Can provide a fa\’orable opportunity for the sharing of interest- 
ing experiences. 

21. Can aid in establishing an understanding contact of the indi- 
viduals of the school and of the whole school, and the com- 

22. Can furnish practice with satisfying results in audience behavior. 

23. Can provide in some degree for the individual to express him- 
self and for the school as a whole to express itself. 


24. Can aid in promoting the production and appreciation of good 

25. Can aid in promoting fciir play and good sportsmanship. 

26. Can aid in setting up and adniinisiering traffic regulations. 

27. Can aid in de\ eloping the attitude that makes for regularity 
and prompt attendance. 

28. Can aid in understanding, and thus promoting, elementary 
health habits. 

29. Can promote safety — prevent accidents. 

30. Can aid in developing the spirit and some of the technique of 
living in a clean building. 

31. Can promote intelligent use of the cafeteria or luncheon-room. 

32. Can focus public approval by awarding all school honors, or in- 
dividual, group, or whole school successes, so as to promote 
further effort by an increasing number of pupils. 

33. Can pro\ide a favorable opportunity for contact between the 
school and its alumni without stilling the school by its glorious 

34. Can furnish an ideal of procedure by which pupils can be 
guided in organizing other meetings now and in later life. 

35. Can furnish guidance for class assemblies when questions of in- 
terest to a particular class arc to be considered. 

36. Can ser\e as a means of preser\ing and further developing 
worthy school traditions. 

37. Can serve as one means of inaugurating new enterprises such 
as a board of pulilications to coordinate and guide all school 

38. Can serve as a means for discussing questions affecting the 
life of the school. 

39. Can promote a feeling of belonging, of success, of pride in the 

40. Can promote the mental and emotional attitude of whole 
school, group, and individual service to one’s associates, to 
one’s family, to the school, and to the community. 

Such aims, or claims, as are presented here may not be 
the best immediate aims for a particular school in a situa- 
tion peculiar to itself, but the fact remains that if, without 
waste of time or effort, the assembly is to realize its possi- 
bilities in the life of the school, these, or some such ques- 



tions as these, must engage the attention of the whole 
school. Likewise, all the members of the school, directly 
or through their representatives, must share in the care- 
ful, far-seeing planning that is necessary. 

Adverse criticisms of the assembly. Possibly no one has 
ever written an article maintaining that the assembly 
should be abolished, yet there has been much unfavorable 
criticism. Probably a few brief quotations may show some 
of the points of attack. These critics have said: 

(i) “In general practice it has no purpose or consistency”; (2) 
“It is not a planned structure”; (3) “It overlaps regular teaching 
periods”; (4) “It wastes time”; (5) “It is perfunctory and point- 
less”; (6) “The singing is usually poor and does not improve 
throughout the year”; (7) “ Many speakers arc forced on the school 
who neither have anything to say nor know how to say it. The 
talks do not bear on the common needs and problems of pupils”; 
(8) “The assembly is used to give a few pupils a chance to practice 
rhetoricals”; (9) “Time is taken up with announcements that few 
hear and none remember”; (10) “Most assemblies are ‘stucco,’ 
slapped on from the outside, and have little vital relation to the 
school ”; (i i) “ It is not an educ'^^^ional procedure at all but simply 
a traditional break in the day’s work”; (12) “It condemns itself in 
that it has reached a degree of futility necessitating compulsory 
attendance and stern discipline to preserve the external appearance 
of order”; (13) “The only happy person is the speaker who finds 
his joy in giving advice regardless of whether it is needed, wanted, 
or taken”; (14) “It wastes not only the pupils’ time but the tax- 
payers’ money”; (15) “It is positively injurious. Pupils are edu- 
cated by what they do and in assembly they have nothing to do 
and become increasingly restless, inattentive, and blas 4 ”; (16) 
“The whole method of the supervision of pupils’ conduct in enter- 
ing, remaining in, and leaving assembly fits the pupil for only one 
kind of audience behavior — that of a prisoner in an old-style 

Certainly after all these years of experience, if a positive 
case cannot be made out for the assembly, it ought to be 


Reasons for adverse criticisms. It should be noted that 
the sixteen statements that have been cited are criticisms 
of some types of practice, present or past, rather than of 
the possibilities inherent in the assembly situation. It is 
certainly true that some assemblies of the present, as well 
as of the past, are stereotyped, dull, lifeless performances. 
The early aim of assembly, or “chapel,” was on the one 
hand formally religious and on the other an administrative 
conv^enience. The program often consisted of the “Dox- 
ology. Scripture reading, hymn singing, prayer, (iloria, 
announcements, postlude.” The head of tlie school read 
the Scripture, announced the hymns, led the prayer, and 
made the announcements. The same program was fol- 
lowed every day and the “president,” or “master,” or 
principal did everything. Such a program, in time, be- 
came perfunctory. The plan inherited from the college 
became with little or no adjustment the plan of the acad- 
emy and then of the high school. 

Adverse criticism not applicable to all schools : the Cook 
County Normal. More than forty years ago at the Cook 
County Normal School, Chicago, Illinois, ('olonel Francis 
VV. Parker had given the name of the “Morning Exercise” 
to the daily assembly. It was different from the usual 
chapel service in that it was fundamentally social in pur- 
pose. Everybody was there; kindergarten, grades, normal 
students, faculty. “7Te opening hymn was for all; every 
one was expected to know and sing it. The reading was 
for ev^ery one, something full of inspiration, often a chapter 
from the Bible, or a beautiful, inspiring bit of poetry. The 
exercise which followed was short — never more than 
twenty minutes - usually it was the outcome of class work 
in literature, history or nature study, or in celebration of 
some festival day or historic event.” * 

• "The Morning P^xercise as a S(x,iaJizin^ Influence." Francis W. Parker School 
Year Book, vol. ii, June, 1913. P 7 - 



When the Francis W. Parker School was founded in 
Chicago in 1901, the teachers thought of the Morning Ex- 
ercise as being as essential to a school as the curriculum. 
The publication of the ‘'Morning Exercise as a Socializing 
Influence,” including as it does so much concrete material 
showing just what the pupils did, has probably been of 
greater influence than any other single publication in the 
development of the newer type of school assembly. For 
those who have not reiid this volume probably the follow- 
ing seventy-five selected titles may give a clearer idea of 
the source and of the character of this twenty-minute 
Morning Exercise, as presented by the pupils in the Francis 
W. Parker School, prior to 1913: 

1. Sketching nursery rh>incs before audiences; titles guessed by 
audience (art). 

2. The Little Flowers of St. Francis (literature). 

3. Scotch Ballads (music). 

4. Courtesy (town meeting). 

5. nramalization of Ivanhop (drama). 

6. Recorder, our school paper v hool project). 

7. Old-fashioned school (entertainment). 

8. Yellowstone Park (summer experience). 

9. Milk- A report of a \isit to a model dairy and to the City 
H«ill; ordinances regarding ])ure milk (chics). 

10. A summer trip to France (summer experience) 

11. The C'hinese re\ olution (current e^ ents). 

12. The ju\enile court (outside speaker). 

13. Thanksgixing Day (special day performance). 

14. The growing and marketing ol tea; most healthful way of pre- 
paring it — stereopticon (domestic science). 

15. C'oinparison of the Great Ice Sheet to this winter’s snow^ sheet 

16. History of pottery (handwork). 

17. School election day (ci\ics). 

18. Salt-mining (industries). 

19. Cctsar’s expedition into Britain (Latin). 

20. Practical applications of algebra and geometry (mathematics) 


21 . Letters from pupils in Germany (modern languages). 

22. Wireless telegraphy (science). 

23. Trip to Whiting — oil (excursion). 

24. Folk dances — German, Swedis!’, Norwegian, Bohemian 
(physical training). 

25. The camera club (school project). 

26. The Indians of Wisconsin (siimnier experience). 

27. Passing of classes through the halls (town meeting). 

28. Bonds — excursion to drainage canal; lunv such public works 
are paid for (ci\ics). 

29. The Fill) -Ninth Congress (current events). 

30. The Big Brother League (outside speaker). 

31. Lincoln’s Birthday (special da) performance). 

32. Sugar (domestic science). 

33. The Grand Can) on — stereopticon (gc()gra[)hy). 

34. Experiments to show effect of truss in bridge building (hand 
work ) . 

35. The Middle Ages (history). 

36. Manufacture of cement (industries). 

37. Cicero’s first and third orations against Catiline dramatized 

38. Field work in geometry (mathematics). 

39. Nurnberg — stereopticon (nuKlern languages). 

40. Manufacture of illuminating gas — experimental (science). 

41. Trip to a rug store (excursion). 

42. G)mnastics (ph)sical training). 

43. Block printing and stenciling (art). 

44. The Ancient Mariner (literature). 

45. Parker composers’ morning — pupils’ original compositions 

46. Dramatization of The Lady of the Lake (drama). 

47. Chemistr) of the air — experimental (science). 

48. French schools (modern languages). 

49. Surveying (mathematics). 

50. How Latin became the language of the world (Latin). 

51. Refining copper (industries). 

52. Mediterranean World, 450 B.c. — three exercises (history): 

a. Con\ersation of Athenian, Persian, Plio nician, and Egyp- 
tian, each praising his own country. 

b. Athenian shows wonders of Athens to Pha*nician, Persian, 
and Egyptian. 



c. Visit to Socrates’ prison; visitors overhear Crito pleading 
with Socrates to escape. 

53. Metal work and jewelry — history of; description of pupils’ 
work (handwork). 

54. Topographic maps — method of plotting; illustrated by field 
work done in Lincoln Park (geography). 

55. Shredded wheat (domestic science). 

56. Japanese art (art). 

57. Social service — an alumnus (outside speaker). 

58. Modern Greece (history). 

59. The Pmglish budget (current events). 

60. Sleight-of-hand performance (entertainment). 

61. Violin recital by pupil (music). 

62. Marcus Aurelius’ Medttatwrts (literature). 

63. As You Like It (drama). 

64. Memorial Day (special day performance). 

65. Immigration (ci\ics). 

66. Events of the day (current e\cnts). 

67. Visit to refinery and Kalo metal shop (handwork). 

68. Magna Charta (history). 

69. Hygiene; talk on digestion by faculty member (science). 

70. The Parthenon (art). 

71 Song recital by children (n ’sic) 

72. Dramatization of The Cricket on the Hearth (drama). 

73. The Humane Society (school project). 

74. The Trans-Siberian Railroad (geography). 

75. Child laljor (ci\ics). 

These seventy-five titles indicate that the assemblies 
developed largely from the curricular work of the school. 
As an extra-curricular activity, the assembly grew out of 
curricular work, and returned to it to enrich it. However, 
a list of titles cannot give the delightful flavor of these 
Morning Exercises. 

Somewhat on this point, Miss Flora J. Cooke, in present- 
ing the history of the Morning Exercise in the Francis W. 
Parker School, gives an interesting example. From a 
“town meeting” of the pupils, October, 1905, the teachers 
learned that the pupils were almost unanimous in consider^ 


ing the Morning Exercise the — “Pleasantest and most 
valuable part of the program, a precious thing worth al- 
most any sacrifice — “At the end of the meeting, the chil- 
dren elected from among themselves a committee to act 
with a like committee from the faculty in following out 
suggestions already made in this meeting and to plan 
further changes. As a result of the work of these com- 
mittees the following changes were made: 

Mornings are no longer assigned to teachers. Any person in the 
school, teacher or pupil, who wishes to gi\e an exercise, applies for 
time to the committee. Thus there is avoided the strain resulting 
from a “di\ ision” being forced to gi\e a morning exercise whether 
the work has rounded itself to completion or not. Moreover, the 
feeling that it is rather a privilege than a duty to help in an exercise 
is emphasized. Plans for disposing of the unclaimed mornings 
have been suggested, but nothing has been adopted, there 
is no present need, since all the exercises for two months ahead are 

taken As often as po.ssible, a theme of broad, general interest is 

chosen for prc.senlation, rather than one of limited appeal. 'I'o 
encourage general participation in the exercise, the committee posts 
every’ morning the topic of the succeeding morning. The nev'ly 
interested audience, the eager participants, the free discussion, the 
general cooperation in making the morning e.vercise period a \ al li- 
able and pleasant one, makes us all feel at last our exercises 
have taken the right trend — toward informal expres.sion — and 
that our great task is to guard them from becoming formalized. 

If the story of other schools had been written up to the 
date of the publication of the “Morning Exercise,” 1913, 
probably there would be much more evidence to show that 
the sixteen adverse criticisms that have been cited were not 
wholly correct. i; 

Current practice. In 1920, C. O. Davis reported a study 
he had made of the practices of individual schools compos- 
ing the North Central Association of Secondary ^Schools 
in training for citizenship. He found that 1164 schools 
used the assemblies for arousing sentiments of citizenship. 



Some light is thrown on the manner of conducting these 
assemblies when he points out that 1053 of these schools 
have prominent local citizens and out-of-town speakers to 
assist; 71 depend on students for speeches; 363 expect class- 
rooms to contribute in some way to the program. These 
1164 school principals had an opportunity to recognize the 
possibility of using the assembly to arouse feelings of 
patriotism. However, the investigator did not think that 
a thoroughly intelligent use of this opportunity was being 

In a study of the assemblies in 112 high schools in Kan- 
sas in 1923, E. E. Evans found that in all cases members of 
the faculty in turn arranged weekly programs. In 20 per 
cent of the cases, classes supervised by class sponsors were 
responsible for some programs and clubs were used for 
special programs.* 

In 1922, O. E, Long examined 82 high-school newspapers 
representing all parts of the country except New England. 
Of these 82 newspapers, 63 had one or more articles on as- 
sembly programs. There /ere 71 such articles in all, 
ranging in length from a paragraph to two columns. Of 
this group of 71 programs, students participated in 55. 
The division from the point of view of those who took part 
is as follows: 52 programs were conducted wholly by stu- 
dents, 3 programs by students and one or more visitors, 1 1 
programs by outside speakers or organizations, and 5 pro- 
grams by members of the faculty. Even if me keeps in 
mind that it is the more progressive high schools that have 
the high-school newspapers from which these data were 
taken, and that reporters and editors are seeking news of 
interest to their readers, one must recognize that both in 
the program and in the participants the high-school assem- 
bly was changing. 

■ Evans. E. E School Review, 31:282-86. 


Not only is it the exceptional state manual that has 
furnished any leadership for school assemblies, but school 
surveys as a rule have devoted little attention to this phase 
of school life. The Baltimore and Philadelphia Surveys, 
however, are exceptions to this general rule. The Phila- 
delphia Survey, 1922, for example, in fifty pages devoted 
to extra-curricular activities, includes eight pages on the 
assembly. Almost every variety of assembly was found 
in the eleven senior high schools of Philadelphia, including 
many that were interesting, instructive, thought-provok- 
ing, and emotionally satisfying. Possibly the constructive 
recommendations would apply to the high schools of some 
other cities. They were: 

That the educational importance of the asseinl)l> program he 
recognized by the whole school; that the assembly i)rogram be care- 
fully planned by a committee of faculty and pupils; that problems 
affecting the whole school be discussed in assembly b\' faculty and 
pupils; that assembly programs be de\uted to the installation of 
Senate or Student Association officers and to the aw.irding of all 
school honors; that assembly programs presented by faculty, pupils 
or outside speakers, explore for the pupils new fields of interest 
either within or outside of the curriculum; that emphasis in as- 
sembly programs be placed on pupil participation rather than on 
the direct acti\ity of the principal, faculty, or outside speakers; 
that classroom work of general importance to the whole school 
have a place in the assembly programs; that assembly programs 
for Special Days should be presented by pupils rather than by out- 
side speakers; that assembly music, singing especi.illy, receive 
more attention; that the practice of having pupils give declama- 
tions or orations at each assembly be discontinued; that assem- 
blies begin and end on time. 

In current practice there is a definite trend away from 
having a daily assembly, but as yet there is no general 
agreement as to how often assemblies should he held. Re- 
plies to a questionnaire from U2 high schools in Kansas, 
1923, to which reference has already been made, showed 



that 51 schools have one assembly a week, 33 schools have 
two assemblies; 8 schools three assemblies, and ii schools 
five assemblies a week. Of these schools, 50 were listed as 
having assemblies in the morning and li in the afternoon. 
The medium length of the assembly period was 30 minutes, 
with longer periods in schools having but one a week. Of 
95 principals, 53 arranged their own programs. Of the re- 
maining 42, almost one half of the principals served as 
chairman of the faculty committees which arranged all 
programs. In a few instances the student body was re- 
presented on these committees. C. 0 . Davis found in his 
study of 1164 schools in 1920 that, out of 1135 reporting 
on this item, 33 schools had the assembly daily, 155 schools 
two or three times a week, 520 schools regularly once a 
week, and 427 at irregular times. 

In 1826, at Northwestern University, Miss Mary L. 
Thompson, in a Master’s Thesis entitled “A Study of 
the High School General Assembly Period Practices 
Throughout the States of the North Central Association,” 
studied the assembly in 232 *igh schools. In the schools 
having an assembly one or more times a week, 65.5 per 
cent had assembly once a week, 17 per cent twice, 6 per 
cent three times, 0.8 per cent four times, and 10.7 per cent 
five times a week. The average time per week devoted to 
assembly was 49 minutes. The same year, 1326, at Colo- 
rado State Teachers College, Pans D. Remy, in a Master’s 
Thesis entitled “A Study of High School Assemblies,” dis- 
covered that of the 134 schools studied, representing 
schools in 40 states, 63 per cent had assembly once a week, 
17.4 per cent twice, 10.5 per cent three times, 4.3 per cent 
four times, and, likewise, 4.3 per cent five times a week. 
The time devoted to assembly was about that found by 
Miss Thompson, or, to be more exact, 34.4 per cent of the 
127 schools for which there are data on this point, spent 40 


minutes a week in assembly, 28 per cent 50 minutes, 22.4 
per cent 30 minutes, 16 per cent more than 50 minutes and 
4 per cent 20 minutes. The most common practice, there- 
fore, seems to be, one assembly a ^eek, lasting about one 
full recitation period. 

The objectives of the assembly as reported to Miss 
Thompson and to Mr. Remy, were exceedingly wide- 
spread. The fifteen objectives found most often by Miss 
Thompson in the order of their frequency are: cultivation of 
school spirit, 105; general information, 72; inspiration, 37; 
development of poise and self-control before an audience, 
32; recreation, 30; entertainment, 24; motivation of extra- 
curricular actixities, 19; moral training, 16; development 
of appreciation, 13; cultivation of high ideals of citizenship, 
II ; development of leadership, 10; some acquaintance 
with business and everyday activities, 9; vocational guid- 
ance, 8; direction of public opinion, 7; training in self-ex- 
pression, 6. In this list public opinion and school spirit 
are probably very closely related. The purpose of the 
general information assemblies is probably the unifying 
and integrating of the school. It seems, therefore, that 
the purposes of the assembly considered most important 
in these 232 schools studied are in accord with the purposes 
of the assembly most emphasized in this chapter. 

Relation of theory and practice. As is the case in many 
phases of high school work, the practice has outrun the 
general statement, or, at least, the acceptance of any 
theory underlying and guiding it. There is frequently a 
statement by some educators that educational theory is 
ten or twenty years ahead of practice. In many respects, 
so far as assemblies are concerned, the reverse of this state- 
ment is more nearly true. The fact is that as the school 
has become a social organization, the assembly has 
changed. However, since the old-fashioned assembly was 



fimily entrenched, required little or no planning and prep- 
aration, and since some high school principals, of the past 
at least, enjoyed giving advice and had great faith in the 
efficacy of this advice, this ancient type of perfunctory 
assembly tended to perpetuate itself. Some such reasons 
as are presented here, and others similar to them, probably 
account for the continuance of the old type of assembly 
long after many other high school practices had fallen into 
line with the more progressive educational thought. 

Change, however, is not necessarily progress. The 
passing of the old style “Chapel” into the newer “Assem- 
bly” has often been attended by a condition that might be 
called chaotic. Theoraculai and benevolently despotic type 
of leader does not always ha\e the ability to lead in a dem- 
ocratic situation, and some of the enthusiastic “demo- 
crats” have not done the “groundwork” necessary to en- 
sure both freedom and efheiency. 

Some claims of the assembly considered. Manifestly, 
all of the foity claims made for the assembly in an earlier 
part of this chapter cannot discussed and illustrated. 
Instead, six of these claims will be considered: the assem- 
bly as a means of guiding the formation of intelligent pub- 
lic opinion, of exploration, of integration, of deepening in- 
terests, of developing appreciations, and as a means of 
celebrating special days. 

The assembly as a means of forming intelligent public 
opinion. Since all people, and especially the young, are 
greatly influenced by the approval or disapproval of their 
fellows, the participation of the whole school, teachers and 
pupils, in a conscious effort to form intelligent public opin- 
ion, is of great importance in educating citizens. The 
assembly is one place to form this opinion. Many high- 
school pioblems that depend largely on public opinion de- 
mand the united effort of the whole group for their solu- 


tion: What is the attitude of the whole school, pupils as 
well as teachers, on the matter of scholarship? What re- 
sponsibilities shall the pupils with their advisers assume in 
the direction of extra-curricular activities? W'hat has th( 
school done in the past to merit the estimation in which ii 
is now held by the community? What are the resources of 
the school at the present time to aid it in improving; on its 
own pre\ ious record? What is the school’s spirit of sports- 
manship for its own teams, its rooters, and for the reception 
of visiting teams? What is the relation of the individual 
pupils and of the whole school to the community? What 
is the school’s attitude toward care of the building, toward 
punctuality and regular attendance? How shall the school 
receive its visitors to the building or to individual classes? 
How shall the pupils care for their individual or the school’s 
property? What is the school’s attitude toward clubs and 
athletic teams — shall there be clubs and teams for every 
one or shall there be just three debaters and a “varsity** 
football team? These are, of course, just a few of the 
more general problems that the whole school must solve. 

The whole problem of public opinion in school is inti- 
mately associated with school spirit. School spirit with 
its emotional intensity shows its real self in every action of 
every pupil and every teacher in carrying on the day*s 
work every day. There is a place for great emotional and 
intellectual exaltation in a great celebration. To arouse 
the emotions and not provide a favorable opportunity for 
their intelligent expression is a crime of the first magnitude. 
However, the school that has a united public opinion, 
school spirit, only when it goes out to lick its ancient rival, 
cannot be said to have real school spirit. This spirit, in 
the idealism of youth, can be almost as pervasiv^e as the 
charity immortalized in the thirteenth chapter of Paul’s 
letter to the Corinthians. 



Many schools have guided public opinion through the 
assembly. Seven brief, simple illustrations may add a 
concreteness to the theory that has been presented. 

Whenever schools give up the silent, single-file passing 
in the halls in favor of a freer and more educative proced- 
ure, public opinion becomes of real importance. Esther 
Lee McVay gives this example from Morey Junior High 
School, Denver: 

It became \ery evident to both pupils and faculty that there was 
need of traffic regulations in the halls. In order to ensure the 
cooperation of all, the “ Keep to the Right” campaign was launched 
in assembly by the 9A class. A program was given where right and 
wrong traffic regulations were dramatized on the stage by “Mr. 
Good Citizen” and “Mr. Bad Citizen.” Speeches were made by 
the meml3ers of the class explaining civic traffic laws and their im- 
jHirtance to public safety and order. The class marched in, bear 
ing banneis with “Keep to the Right” printed on them. Plans 
were de\ eloped for orderly and rapid passing out of assembly, each 
section assigned to a particular exit, and “traffic officers” ap- 
pointed. Standards were made for each corner and intersection of 
passages in the corridors w ith the slogan printed on them. Follow- 
ing the as&embl> , the matter was vaken up in the individual home- 
rooms where each group considered some specific way to aid in 
promoting the campaign The plan worked out so successfully 
that the very few who did deem it smart to violate the plans soon 
joined the majority. The motto, “Keep to the Right,” grew to 
extend beyond mere traffic laws and came to mean Right in all 
school conduct. 

Good citizenship in traffic is not limited, however, tO the 
school building and grounds. Minnie May Sweets of the 
Central High School, Tulsa, Oklahoma, presents another 
traffic problem: 

Aim: To teach the observance of the traffic laws of the city. 
Materials needed: Two or four children’s automobiles large enough 
to be driven by small freshmen boys. Program: Talk — Safety- 
First and the city traffic laws presented by a student. Demon- 
stration of correct and incorrect methods of driving an automobile 


by freshmen boys. Examples: (a) right turn: (i) incorrect method; 
(2) correct method; (b) left turn: (1) incorrect method; (2) correct 
method. Repetition of correct methods. Conclusion: An expla- 
nation of the city traffic laws by a cit » traffic oflicer. As many of 
our students drive their own cars to school, and the majority drive 
at some time, this program was both timely and effective. 

Good housekeeping is a real problem with most people 
and especially in situations where large numbers come to- 
gether. Katherine Burton, of Martinsville, Indiana, tells 
how a ‘‘clean-up” campaign in a junior-senior high school 
of eight hundred pupils was started in assembly by a pub- 
lic speaking class. 

A group of students dramatized housekeeping conditions found 
in careless high schools. The points stressed were carelessness 
with regard to papers, condition of lockers, lea\ing books out of 
place, and study tables in disorderly condition. Tin's scene was to 
depict conditions in “Any School — Old Sl\le.” The second 
scene was laid in Martins\ille High School where another group of 
students appeared. 'Phey weie dressed ne.illy and .ipi)ropriatcly, 
and pictured for us the care w’hi( h M.H.S. students used in keeping 
the paper off the floor, the study tables straight and lUMt, the lock- 
ers, which could be seen outside the door in the ('orridor, in perfect 
condition. The result w'as that the next week in assembly the 
Junior High Schoc^I challenged the .Senior High to .1 “clean-up” 
campaign which lasted for six wH*eks, and the effects remained 
throughout the >ear. 

It is possible for an assembly program, properly de- 
veloped, to affect school attendance. At least Charles E. 
Skinner, from a wide experience, selects this example: 

The records of a certain high &( hool showed absence and 
tardiness became so great that the morale ot the school was be- 
coming greatly affected. The principal a|)pealed to the students 
to come to school every day and to be there on time. His talk in 
the as.sembly on “punctuality” did not improve conditions greatly. 
The matter was discu.s.sed in faculty meeting and the home-room 
teachers made an appeal to the members of their home-rooms but 
the habit of coming late and remaining out of school seemed to 



grow. Finally it was decided to enlist a committee of five students 
to try its hand. The work was carefully planned by the committee 
and approved by the principal. The school’s record for tardiness 
and absence for the year was secured and the records of three other 
schools similar in si/c in the state were obtained. One assembly 
period was de\’otod to a report of the committee. One of the mem- 
bers of the committee took for his subject, “A Comparison of Rec- 
ords.” He showed that the home school was by far the poorest of 
all in the matter of attendance and tardiness. The second speaker 
took for his subject, “Why Play the (iame so Poorly?” This 
speaker made it that staying out of school or coming to school 
late was chiefly a habit which was not only a waste of time, but a 
thing that was affecting the good standing of the school. The 
third speaker took for his subject, “Let’s (lO.” He made some 
timely suggestions for improving the conditions and closed by 
securing a pledge from all the students to make a supreme effort to 
put their school at the toj) of the list in attendance and punctuality. 
In a short time tlie principal found that it was not necessary to 
worrv’ about attendance and tardiness. Public sentiment had done 
the work. 

Human nature is such that even in “Democracy’s High 
wSchool’’ not every’ group is alway’s welcomed by all the 
school. Here is an example, as reported by one teacher, 
of a group achieving school recognition by an assembly 
program : 

The most striking instance of using the assembly as a means of 
creating public opinion that has come under my notice was an 
attempt to establish an Industrial (iroup as an integral part of the 
school. The class was made up of the riff-raff’ of that sectior of the 
city. They w ere bad fiien, and gloried in their shanv‘. There was 
a strong feeling of irritation among the students that these boys 
had to have a room in their building. There were some hero- 
worshipers, however, who were for imitating the big fellows. Two 
semesters passed and the situation grew w’orse. The third semes- 
ter, a woman of w ide vision and rare technique w’as given the class 
as a home-room for academic work three hours a day. Her first 
move w^as to instill a desire or the part of the boys to become a re- 
spected unit of the school. After this w^as accomplished, the next 
was to cause them to be accepted as such. One part in this process 


of change in status was the presentation of a play called, “Getting 
the Job," in which was shown the advantages of attending and of 
completing the Industrial Course. The plot was a class product, 
the dialogue more realistic than any teacher could have written, 
and the presentation enthusiastic. It was well received, and left a 
most favorable impression. This was vinly one factor, but it was a 
big factor in the establishment of good feeling. For the first time 
the Industrial Group appeared in a favorable light, worthy of 
respect; a respect w’hich has steadily grown. They were no 
longer outsiders. 

The bewildering fascination of frocks, and especially ex- 
pensive ones at commencement time, has troubled pupils, 
parents, and teachers. This example of the influence of an 
assembly program on the subject is related by Bertha A. 
Merrill, of Massachusetts: 

(irowing extravagance and errors in taste, coupled with a long 

depression in local industries forced the faculty of the High 

.School to consider \va>s and means of limiting the graduation ex- 
penses of the individual students. In conjunction with the local 
merchants, a fashion show was staged during a senior assembly. 
The models were members of the senior class — tall, short, thin, 
and not so thin. The dre.sses were simple, all-white frocks, suitable 
for graduation dresses but also appropriate for street, dinner, or 
church wear. .Appropriate styles of hair-dressing, footwear, and 
so forth were also demonstrated. A fashion expert, attractive 
both in manner and style, gave a talk on “(xx^d Taste in Dress,” 
using the living models to illustrate her remarks. Two days later 
the girls held a meeting and voted to wTar dresses similar to those 
shown ; white shoes and stockings, no elaborate head decorations or 
strings of beads — in short, to follow the styles demonstrated. 

The diversity of designs in seals, rings, pins, pennants, 
and flags in the same school has led some schools to work 
for a more simple scheme. Principal C. H. Threlkeld cites 
the following instance of building public sentiment in the 
North High School, Des Moines, Iowa, regarding a school 
design in which the assembly played a part: 



Some three years ago the student council conceived the idea of 
developing a standard emblem for the school that would be dis- 
tinctive as representing North High School. It was to be used in 
making a school flag, as a seal for the use of the school on all official 
papers such as certification of credits, and as a design for the pins 
and rings for graduates. The procedure involved two definite 
factors: (i) The commitment of the student body, through the ex- 
ercise of their voting power, to the idea of establishing a standard 
design; (2) The development and adoption of the design itself 
Naturally, the development of public sentiment in the school in 
favor of a standard design as explained in ( i ) abov e was the matter 
of first concern. The council decided to work this out through the 
assembly. It was decided to appoint two members of the council 
to give the arguments for the adoption of the design and two mem- 
bers to present the arguments against such a procedure. These 
four people appeared before the assembly in a debate. The ques- 
tion was then opened for discussion for any one in the student body 
who wanted to participate. The vote N\as taken afterwards in the 
home-rooms. The proposition lost by a small majority. The 
following year another attempt was made with essentially the 
same general educational plan. The student body gave an over- 

helming majority in favor of the adoption of the design. 

The development of the emblem itself was then put in the hands 
of a student committee with a ioculty adviser. The members of 
the committee >vorked out some ideas of their own and asked con- 
tributions from the students and commercial houses. The final 
design was eventually chosen, adopted by the student council, and 
approv ed by the student body in assembly. The students are now 
linking up their life with this distinctive design and have centered 
their school spirit and loyalty around the North High Seal. 

The conscious forming of intelligent public opinion may 
be carried further by these assemblies devoted to transact- 
ing the school’s business, especially its extra-curricular 
business. Here may be the campaigns and the culmina- 
tions of school elections, the installation of student officers, 
the awarding of insignia or of any form of special recog- 
nition. The assembly may take on the form of a town 
meeting to consider the needs of the school, initiate and 



carry out plans for improving the internal life of the school, 
or promoting better relationships with outside groups. 
These assemblies that plan action for the whole group are 
usually devoted to backing up the team that is to meet the 
ancient rival. Such an assembly points the way to action. 
The combative spirit of this same group can through as- 
sembly periods strive for the honor of the school in elimi- 
nating abuses or promoting school virtues new or ancient. 
The assembly may aid in tuning-up the whole school. 
The united efforts of pupils and teachers to promote the 
school’s best interests, to sing their best songs, to produce 
or listen to their best plays, or debates, to learn what vari- 
ous departments of the school are doing, furnish the bases 
of public opinion. Even to hear indi\idiials or a group 
present worth-while ideas, which they understand intel- 
lectually and emotionally and believe in, is in itself a tun- 
ing-up process for the hearers and of still greater value to 
the more active participants. W'hen an assembly com- 
mittee, composed of teachers and pupils in active cooper- 
ation with the whole school, has planned and directed the 
presentation of an assembly program, the mental attitude 
and mood of the schocjl at the close of an assembly is not an 

Practically everything that is done in the high school is, 
somewhere in the course of its development, dependent on 
public opinion in the school. Public opinion, as every one 
knows, is variable, fickle, sometimes blind, but always 
powerful. It is the business of the school to guide the 
formation of intelligent public opinion in discussion in 
home-room, class meeting, student ccnincil, in school pub- 
lications, especially in the newspaper, and in assembly. It 
is likewise necessary that every member of the school shall 
feel the privilege and the responsil)ility of developing in- 
telligent public opinion. To this end a knowledge of thf 
real facts about the school are necessary. 



The assembly as a means of exploring various phases of 
school life. Many assembly programs can explore new 
fields of interest for a majority of the pupils. In an as- 
sembly program carried on mainly by its pupils, each de- 
partment of the school should reveal the possibilities of 
that department for the whole school. Many pupils say 
they will, or will not, elect Art, Music, or Biology, when 
they know very little about the work in these courses. 
How can they choose wisely that which they do not know? 
The seventy-five titles of assemblies in the Francis W. 
Parker School, to which reference has already been made, 
give some idea of this type of exploration. 

The principal, or members of the faculty, or the pupils, or 
speakers fiom the outside, may explore to the school some 
phase of the city’s life, its industry, art, or music in such a 
way as to lead the pupils to desire to know more of these 
important fields. Representatives of the trades, of differ- 
ent lines of business, 01 professions may explore these activ- 
ities so that pupils may think of them more intelligently 
and with more respect. Foi *er pupils may return from 
college and so speak that more of the pupils will strive to 
continue their education after they leave high school. 
Musicians within and without the school may explore and 
present some phase of music so attractively that pupils 
will want better music. However, if outside speakers are 
to be used, they can, as a rule, be of service only when they 
lid in inaugurating some movement that is to be followed 
up or in helping to develop some phase of a movement al- 
ready under wa> . 

Another way of exploring new fields of interest for pupils 
lies in having the v arious school clubs give an account of 
some of their excursions or present some of their activities 
as an assembly program, borne art club could tell a story 
of a trip to a picture gallery, to the forest, prairie, or sea- 


shore, so that nearly every pupil would want not only to 
go, but to go with eyes that see. By presenting an assem- 
bly program consisting of selections from O. Henry, Bret 
Harte, or Howard Pyle, a short-story club could start a 
run on the library. One high-school class presented as an 
assembly program a series of tableaus showing the charac- 
ters in their favorite novels: Maggie Tulliver and the Gyp- 
sies from 'Fhe Mill on the Floss, Wordsworth’s Highland 
Lass, Tennyson’s Guinevere and her Maidens, Beatrix 
from Henry Esmond, Becky Sharpe from Vanity Fair, 
Miss Pyncheon from The House of the Seven Gables, and 
the Lorelei. Another school even gave instruction in 
table manners very effectively in silhouette. Another 
school had, on October 7th, as an assembly program, a 
tribute to autumn. The tribute was three poems, and 
music from Chopin and Godard. The poems read by three 
pupils were, Keats’s Ode to Autumn, Thoreau’s Autumn 
Tints, and Noyes’s The Burning Bough, The selections 
probably could have been better read by some imported 
reader or the music better played by some concert pianist, 
but the educative value and the whole spirit of the assem- 
bly would have been different. 

It may be helpful to show still further by brief illustra- 
tions how many other schools, widely separated, have ex- 
plored the work of the school in the assembly hour. 

How are these programs developed? One always sees 
the finished product. Perhaps a peep behind the scenes in 
a small mining town in the Southwest may be helpful. 
The teacher tells the story: 

The principal, himself, an English teacher, had just encouraged 
his group, the qA’s, to give a Lincoln’s Day program, so our group, 
the qB’s, were burning with emulation. Washington was to be the 
theme. They drew up a tentative program; their teachers assem- 
bled all available books; and the English hour became a research 



laboiatory. They apportioned among themselves the biographical 
material — the background of Washington’s family, Washington’s 
boy life, Washington the soldier, Washington the farmer, etc. 
They exercised forbearance in the face of an inadequate book sup- 
ply, and developed a technique for insuring that no book was ever 
idle. Each research topic was worked up by a committee of two or 
three, pooling their judgment and their apostrophes and commas. 

The committee picked out one of its number to read the finished 
product; the others took part in the public program by reading a 
poem or some special appreciation of Washington, or by serving in 
the chorus that led the assembly in such songs as “Mount Vernon 
Bells.” The group that did the work derived the most benefit from 
that assembly. But they had worked with deadly earnestness; 
they had found out a hundred traits about Washington that the 
history text never mentioned; they had built up a program that 
would bear comparison with that of the 9A class; and the air of 
mastery they brought to the platform awed the mining-camp youth 
into an uncomfortable sense of respect, almost of rev erence. What 
they did appreciate was the apparent sincerity and attitude of 
those big boys and girls, who had nev^er before seemed in such dead 
earnest alx)ut any school matters; they admired the unusual dic- 
tion and clearness of speaking; and they absorbed the idea, I think, 
that here was an American who co* M come unscathed even through 

But the group who prepared the program! They demonstrEted 
that they could work intensively and to the point. They learned 
to cooperate as I hadn’t known them to do before — Italian, Manx, 
Mexican, Lithuanian, and all that high-strung group of youngsters 
whose common school memories went back only a year or two. 
They learned to evaluate material — I remember one committee 
calling me to their table, and the chairman saying in horror: “ ^ 00k 
at this — it says Washington’s mother smoked a pipe* Shall we 
put that in.^ ” “ You’re the committee,” I said. They considered; 
then, “I guess we’ll leave that out. Maybe it’s all right — but 
perhaps the seventh grade wouldn’t understand.” 

It may be tliat these boys and girls did not get a perfect 
conception of Washington, but by their earnest effort to 
present him to their associates, they were helping them- 
selves to an understanding of the man and his time, and 


developing a basis of patriotic devotion. At the same time 
they were rendering a service to their associates that no 
one else could render. If one may so express it, the Father 
of His Country did make good in this mining town with 
some of the newer Americans. 

If one recognizes the fact that there is a tendency for 
country boys and girls to present in their assembly program 
e\er\ thing except an interpretation of their immediate en- 
vironment, the following program, described by Katherine 
Burton, is of real importance. The classes in vocational 
education presented this program; 

The stage \\as set \\ ith a display oi apples and other fruits, \ ege- 
tahles, melons, grain, sewing, and niilliiurv. Ribbons, won at the 
Indiana State hair the i)re\ioiis w(ek, were placed on the exhibits. 
In a prominent plac e there was a displav ol medals and cups won at 
the same time. Those whose e^xhibits were taken to the Fair ex- 
plain brietU win and how the exhibits were prepared and how they 
ranked in the contest. In this wav thcv showed us the preparation 
made in class work. Then our apple judging team ga\ e us .i dem- 
onstration of its work b> judging the fruit on displa>. This was 
followed b\ a similar demonstratKiii b\ the garment judging team. 
At this time the department of \’o(ation*il Kdiuation prescMited to 
the schcKjl the trophies won and these were accepted b> the Prin- 

Probably all pupils recognize that music is a vital part of 
high school work and joy but all pupils and teachers do not 
always recognize what the school is doing or can do in 
music. The South High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 
presented in a musical assembly, the boys’ glee club, the 
girls’ glee club, the mixed chorus, the orchestra, the string 
quartette, and the hand. P. S. Chum, in commenting on 
the results of this assembly and the previous work that 
made it possible, says: 

The excellence of the program rendered stimulated public opin- 
ion in the worthwhileness of gcxxl music, as shown by the ra|)t at- 



tention as well as by the comments of pupils afterward. It created 
a desire on the part of pupils to become members of the different 
organizations; musical instructors were besieged by pupils desiring 
to join some musical organization. 

Many schools have explored the class work done in 
modern foreign languages. Those who have succeeded 
best have probably proceeded along somewhat the same 
lines as did Senn High School, Chicago. The author is in- 
debted to Laura E. Christman, a faculty member of the 
assembly corrimittee, for the following account of two 
plays : 

One of our star assemblies came as a result of a desire to help the 
general body of students gain something of the atmosphere of 
PTench and Spanish culture which one can get from the enthusias- 
tic study of the language. The P'rench and Spanish clubs offered 
scenes Irom the ph^s, L'Abbe Comtantifi and Castillos de Torres 
Nobles. Know ing our audience and its needs, w^e w'cre doubtful as 
to con\crsations in foreign languages, but b> careful rehearsing and 
adapting w^^ secured a maximum of atmosphere and action with 
the (oin er.sation and had the sati ^action of presenting an assem- 
bly to the junior chiss and a balcony of French and Spanish stu- 
dents with wonderful attention by the audience and praise from 
c\ery onewho saw it, including the principal. This was the pro- 
gram in det.iil 

1. Assembly called to order by the class president, 

and first speaker introduced. (40 seconds) 

2. The story of L'Abbi Constantin and interesting de- 
tails of scenes to follow. (3 minuses) 

3. Scene from L'Ahhr Constantin (^4 minutes) 

4. Introduction of speaker for Spanish play (40 seconds) 

5. Story of Castillos de Torres Nobles and interesting 

details of scene to follow. (3 minutes) 

6. Scene trom Castillos de Torres Nobles. (16 minutes) 

7. Dismissal. 

The point of view of the pupils in working up this pro- 
gram at Senn is shown by a statement of Mary Wheeler, 
student chairman of the Assembly Committee: 


It is the desire of the Assembly Committee to present assemblies 
which are interesting to the students, worth while, and, if possible, 
consisting of student talents — with outside speakers only occa- 
sionally. We consider that an assembly should give the class a 
consciousness of itself, as a whole, and should give it a feeling of 
unity by presenting a program w'hich is an e.\perience the members 
share together. 

In the more obvious field of the school newspaper many 
pupils have comparatively little appreciation of the work, 
or the method of work, involved in getting out of the school 
newspaper. The high school at Sault Ste. Marie, Michi- 
gan, undertook to solve this problem in an assembly pro- 
gram. Foss Elwyn gives this account: 

V^ery few students in the Sault Ste. Marie High School under- 
stood the various processes in\olved in getting out a copy of the 
Su-IIigh, the school paper, so the staff, headed by the faculty ad- 
\iser, dramatized all of the work before the entire student body 
during one of the assembly periods. The editor, business manager, 
reporters, etc., were the characters in the play and evcrvthing from 
the buying of the stock to putting the i)aper into the hands of the 
students was shown. This dramatization had se\ eral gocxl results. 
It increased the interest of the entire student body in the paper and 
thus added to the number of subscriptions. It caused se\eral to 
apply for positions as reporters on the staff. It showed the stu- 
dents that the Su-IIxgh was their paper and ga\e them some appre- 
ciation of the work of the \arious persons who put out the issues. 

“Men,** so Franklin had the idea, “must be taught as if 
you taught them not.” Probably the word “men” in- 
cluded girls as well as boys. Certainly many mistakes are 
made, including those in taste, simply because people do 
not know any better. When the mistakes are directly 
condemned, the one making the mistake must defend 
himself or admit the error. Such admissions do not come 
easily to youth. The seniors in the Fifth Avenue High 
School of Pittsburgh probably have had some such idea as 
this in mind, for, according to Janet M. Crawford, they 



hold an assembly at the beginning of each semester for the 
entering class. The president of the student cooperative 
government explains the organization by means of which 
pupils participate in the government of the school. Pupils 
in art, music, and other courses discuss the courses from 
the pupils’ point of view. Representatives of school clubs 
describe the activities of the various groups. 

Assemblies may help explore interesting reading for 
those with a special interest in a particular field and at the 
same time for those who have but a general interest in that 
field. Many schools have given poetry assemblies present- 
ing seasonal poems, poems for particular occasions, original 
poems, favorite poems, or poems that some group thinks 
everybody might enjoy. Finals in school contests may be 
held as assembly programs and thus give all the schools a 
chance to profit by the explorations of some of the school’s 
ablest members. Pupil campaigns and elections of whole- 
school inteiest can explore immediate problems on which 
the school must act. The work of the school nurse may be 
dramatized in such a manner a® to pave the way for intelli- 
gent action and appreciation. There have been programs 
of camping activities by Scouts and by others who have 
been in camp the previous summer that have promoted an 
interest in the outdoor activities that camping makes pos- 
sible. An assembly program on what various pupils had 
done in school vacation led, in one case at least, to a ex- 
ploration that made for a more intelligent use by some 
pupils of the school vacation the following summer. Prob- 
ably in no field is exploration more necessary than in the 
field of wholesome fun. All in all, school assemblies can 
be ‘‘too educational.” As Percival Chubb puts it in his 
introduction to School Festivals and Plays: 

The assembly must have liveliness and snap, picturesqueness and 
laughter, motion and color. Amusing stories told and acted are an 


essential necessity for the full development of the mind. There is 
a wealth of entertaining talent among teachers and pupils which 
should he capitalized for making scho(jl the alluring place which it 
ought to be. 

All of these desired and necessary qualities in assembly 
programs can exist if leaders of ability devote themselves 
to the exploration of the real problems and possibilities of 
the high school, but the pupils’ point of view must be kept 
in mind. 

The assembly can aid in the integration of the school. 

As a result of the development of an intelligent public 
opinion based on a real exploration of the school, there can 
develop a real school unity. The pupils are divided into 
classes according to their academic adv'anccment; further 
divided by their curricular; and still further by their reci- 
tation groups and extra-curricular interests. How can 
unity prevail when there is, of necessity, almost an infinite 
variety of individual differences? The assembly can aid 
in developing desired unity by stressing factors and in- 
terests common to all; by singing together; by programs 
that explore for pupils and teachers the interests and activ- 
ities of the various phases of the school’s life; by the sup- 
port of the school’s representatives in inter-school contests; 
by assembly programs in which representatives of the 
whole school participate. The assembly may bring to the 
pupils and teachers, by knowledge, by spirit, and by habit, 
the consciousness of a new-found unity of the social group. 
Each pupil and teacher may get a view, not only of his 
privileges, but of his resf)onsibilities for the interest and 
happiness of the whcjle group, and he may, through success- 
ful participation, form the habit of contributing his .small 
best for the good of the group. The development of an 
assembly program along any of the possible lines of a real 
assembly — forty of which were listed in an earlier part of 


this chapter — can make for a common body of knowledge 
that tends to integrate and unify the school. The work- 
ing-out of these programs, as one means of solving school 
problems, tends to develop an emotional attitude that 
makes for unity of feeling as well as an intellectual appre- 
ciation of common factors in the life of the school. 

Assembly may serve to widen or deepen interests. A 
nature-study club, in an assembly report on a field trip, 
may provide a situation may get a new interest 
in flowers, birds and bugs, winds, rivers and trees, moun- 
tains, plains, or the open sky. New interests are caught 
and usually caught from people. 

'Fhe library club, with the assistance of the librarian, in 
one school gave a program of the routine work of the li- 
brary, of the physical use and misuse of books, that 
widened and deepened the interest and appreciation of in- 
di\Idual responsibility for library activities. Some of the 
worst offenders somehow caught better library manners. 

The Tower Hill School,* '^’ilmington, Delaware, had a 
book assembly so good that it must be quoted. During 
Book W'eek the senior Paiglish class gave an assembly play 
in which books discarded to an old cellar came to life and 
discussed themseKes and their readers. The play ran 
somewhat as follows: 

Setting — Enormous packing-box in a corner of the cellar. 

Maid enters and throws an armful of books into tlie box. 

Maid exits. After a moment Dictionary and Legend of Sleepy 
Hollow cree[) slowly out of the bo.x and to the front of the stage. 
Other books follow slowly. 

Legc7td of Sleepv JlolPnj — Consigned to the Salvation Army! 
Well, ni be Ichabod Craned! 

Dictionary — The enormity of the indignity is a preposterous out- 


Peter Rabbit — I want my mommie! 

Tish — Tish, Tish, Tish! Tush, Tush, Tush! You’re no worse off 
than the rest of us. 

Ccesar — Thou, child of the past ten years, dost thou dare to speak 
thus of indignities to thyself, when thou seest the pillar of Ro- 
man literature battered and cast aside.^ Dei Immortales! 

Macbeth — Naught’s had, all’s spent. 

Ivanhce — My lady, we are not alone in our misery. Behold yon 
group of our suffering kindred. They have been more g^ic^'ously 
abused than either you or I. 

Pilgrim's Progress — Yea, \'erily, my beloved brethren and sisters, 
we have been martyrs to the same unspeakable atrocities. 

Coesar — Behold, aspicite, ego sum divisus in partes tres. My 
pages are marred with a callous boy’s crude conception of a gal- 
lant warrior. Oh, that degenerate sophomore who hurled me 
violently down the ventilator and who left me lying in the damp 
subterranean regions of Tower Hill School. And all l)ecause(iallia 
est omnis divisa in piirtes tres. Mehercule! 

Chorus — Poor Ca'sar ! 

Palgrave — The boy and girl who first owned me 
W’ere taught to love true ix)etry. 

I was their golden Treasury. 

But — 

Dictionary — Alas, my existence w'as of miserable neglect. No one 
has ever entertained any conception of my inestimable value. If 
only humanity would realize that in ignoring my proffered aid it 
forces itself to remain in a state of totally unnecessary illiteracy. 
Why, daily, men wrangle amongst themsehes as to the pronun- 
ciation of words, and I long to aid them. With their tongues, do 
they murder the names of the ancients, while all the time I have, 
in my latter pages, a complete list of cognomens of antkiuity 
with the correct pronunciation of each. Many a time and oft 
have I seen some recipient moron puzzling over such an abbrevi- 
ation as “i,” “e,” or “etc.,” while I lay within reaching distanc e. 
Yet, when scjme one does muster up energy to seek enlightenment 
betwixt my pages, he is fairly staggered by two small dots over 
an “o” or an abbreviated crescent over an “e.” Bah 1 it is a race 
of simpletons, and it does not deser\'e enlightenment! 

Peter Rabbit — Look at me and you can see that I’ve been used loo 
much. Tommy loved me and meant to be kind to me, but, oh, 
he was too careless. One day, when he left me out on the front 



porch, his little puppy dog got hold of me and chewed my pages, 
and I’ve never been the same since. 

Chorus — Poor little Peter! 

Ichabod Crane — You should be thankful you were not dogeared 
and battered. Why, the brutal youth who used me at school had 
no more consideration for my feelings than 

Ccesar — Yes, school children are terrible. 

Macbeth — How unfortunate! I was respected and revered — but 
disused. My pages arc yellowed with the long years in which I 
stood on the same shelf hoping every second that some one would 
take me out and read me. 

Pilgrim's Progress — I, too, have been sadly neglected. Although 
I have done much good in the world, and am respected for it. 
alas, of late, Pilgrim’s Progress has been laid away, for the pres- 
ent generation will have none of me. 

Ttsh — Tish, Tish, Tish! Tush, Tush, Tush’ Laid away on the 
shelf ^ See here, child, I’v e been laid away under a mattress and 
a mighty hard mattress it was, too. You don’t know what it 
feels like to be mistreated. 

Ivanhoe — My griev ances seem as naught compared to the hideous 
treatment which has befallen you, my comrades I realize now 
that I was fortunate indeed to escape with my only complaint — 
the fact that my readers hav me\ itably skipped over the in- 
comparable literary descriptions which lie between my covers. 

Palgrave — I fear me we hav e all seen better days. 

And all hav e been treated in much kinder ways. 

Dictionary — Desist from your futile complaints and stimulate 
your auditory nerves to receive my harangue. We can in no 
way bench t by complaining among ourselves as to who has en- 
dured the worst treatment. 

Macbeth — By the pricking of my thumbs 
An inspiration this way comes. 

Dictionary — Let us make an appeal to the persecutors themselves. 
They are not obdurate people, only thoughtless. 

Palgrave — Our Dictionary’s words are great, 

Act quickly ere it be too late. 

Dictionary — Come, fellow-sufferers. {All advance to front of 
stage ) Friends, faculty, pupils, iend me your ears. You see us, 
a totally dilapidated pile of old literature. Your own thought- 
lessness is responsible for our present condition. Why do you 
treat us, who are your greatest teachers, with such slight con- 


sideration? We know that deep in your hearts you care for ur 
and respect us, and we filead that our wretchedness and misery 
may in the future move you to take e\ery step for the preserva- 
tion and welfare of your l>ooks. AcceiU my deep appreciation of 
your most kind attention. 

Carsar — Dei Immortales! Here conies the man from the Salva- 
tion Army to take us away. Retreat to th\’ barracks in orderly 
array. Hack in line, Peter Rabbit, and keep \(>ur ears at the 
proper angle. 


The assembly can aid in developing appreciations. 
There can be a fostering of an appreciation of the necessity 
of basing conclusions on facts, of seeing the other fellow’s 
point of view, of recognizing the desirability of such regu- 
lations, in scliool and out, as make for present and future 
living; and appreciation of the arts - not simply fine arts, 
but all the arts whereliy man lives. Dr. H. M. Swartz has 
pointed out a clear example of an assembly that was called 
to consider plans for further organizing and directing the 
social hour, and other high school social functions in one 

The president of the council announced the piirjiose of the as- 
•jcmhly. The conditioiih under which die hour .ind other 
parties could he carrit*d on wa^ presented b\ llie junior cl.iss presi- 
dent. The res[X)nsil)ility of pupils in se(‘ing tli.ii soi ial projirieties 
were underst(KKi and ohserx ed was discussed b\’ the pri'sident of the 
senior class. The rin.inci<il side (lie di‘ and nece.ssity 
of limiting exjx' -- [)res<*nted h\’ the treasurer of the coun- 
cil. Recommend.itions of the stuflent council and directions for 
further discussion in the home-rooms, including the \oting to 
accept, mfxiify, or rejert the council's recommendations w’ere of- 
fered by the council jiresident. Results: A keener a[)precia( ion by 
the pupils of what to flo and how' to do it as expre.s.sed in a construe 
ti\e pejlicy which they h<id a real part in making. 

The Tower Hill School devoted an assembly to the pres- 
entation of class work that traced and illustrated the art 



of writing in some ten different stages since the cave man 
built his cairn. The same school, along with many others, 
has presented “living pictures “ as a means of appreciating 
famous paintings. Tower Hill was especially fortunate in 
being able to present the work of seven well-known artists 
who live in Wilmington and most of whom were present at 
the assembly. Lillian Allen, in working out assembly pro- 
grams for rural schools in Montgomery County, Alabama, 
found that the following pictures made an interesting pro- 
gram: Whistler’s “Mother,” “The Angelus,” “The End 
of the Day,” “The Gleaners,” “The Age of Innocence,” 
“The Sower,” “The Song of the Lark,” “Priscilla,” “The 
Boy and the Rabbit.” 

Appreciation may be developed so that individual worth 
triumphs over racial consciousness. Take this example 
cited by O. E. Long: 

III ihe spring of 1920 in the McKinley High School in Honolulu, 
there was the usual election of ofheers. Nineteen races were rep- 
re.sentcd in the student l>od\-. Onc-third of the number were 
Japanese; another third were Chinese. There was a large group of 
Koreans. 1 n the world at large there was much antagonism among 
these peoples. vShantung .vas on the front page of cver>’ news- 
paper, the plight of Korea was e\erywhere discussed. Yet in the 
elci'iion, a Kore<in student sponsored a young man of Japanese an- 
cestry for the position of president of the student body, and in the 
election it was found that fully two thirds of the Chinese students 
voted for him. 

The school assembly can produce a real democracy. 
Such a democracy is based on appreciation — an appre- 
ciation sometimes more in evidence in youth than in age. 

The assembly period is used by many schools for the in- 
stallation of all-school officers, but some schools do not 
give this ceremony the dignity and intellectual earnestness 
it deserves. The William Penn High School for Girls, 
Philadelphia, as was pointed out in the chapter on the 


Council at Work, uses an assembly period for the serious 
business of installing school officers. 

Special days. The assembly period may be used to 
celebrate special days in the life of the school, community, 
state, or nation. There are so many special days and 
special weeks that the school cannot undertake to celebrate 
them all. Intelligent selection must be made as to what 
special days or weeks will be celebrated. If every aggres- 
sive minority could have its w'ay, the school assembly 
would be devoted to a score of special weeks, and a still 
greater number of special days. Such celebrations as do 
exist should grow out of the life of the school. 

The people of the United States have some great days, 
such as: Armistice Day, Thanksgiving, Christmas, the 
birthdays of Lincoln and Washington, Arbor Day, Memo- 
rial Day, Commencement Day. There are many men and 
women in science, in literature, in patriotic and in human 
service within and outside of the nation worthy of ad- 
miration and devotion. There are great ideals, such as re- 
ligious freedom, equal opportunity for all, government of 
the people, by the people, and for the people. How are 
these great days and great ideals commemorated in the 

The observations of our great days are frequently triv- 
ial, often perfunctory. There is often little of intellectual 
content, of beauty, of emotional earnestness, or of spiritual 
exaltation. Thanksgiving celebration is too often a farce 
with a few ridiculously made-up Indians and comedy Pil- 
grim Fathers. An outside speaker, frequently one who 
knows little more than he learned long ago in the eighth 
grade, attempts to talk about the Father of His Country. 
This nation does stand for great ideals, but no one who 
attends our usual school celebration of what ought to l)e 
Great Days would ever suspect it. So frequently the pro- 



gram is dull, the pupils are bored, and the teachers take 
refuge in the back seats. 

In so far as possible the pupils themselves should share 
in the planning, in the development, and in the presenta- 
tion of the program. Teachers as well as pupils should 
participate. So many of us teachers are so self-conscious, 
so tongue-tied, such bundles of inhibitions, that often we 
should be utterly miserable in attempting to do ourselves 
what we should like our pupils to do. 

There is with us a firm belief that pupils are educated 
by what they do; that it is not what the teacher gives, but 
what the pupil gets that counts. So strong is this belief 
that the ideas presented by F. H. Hayward in England in 
1919 and 1920 would not be easily accepted. In the 
Spiritual Foundations of Reconstruction y he pleads for 
“a national school liturgy of the Bible, literature, music, 
and ceremoniar’ in “a system of school celebrations, in- 
tended as improvements on the existent Empire Day, 
Shakespeare Day, and Saint David’s Day Celebrations, 
and as vast extensions of the principle they embody.** 
The teachers, as a ruh aided by ‘‘representatives of all 
sects, parties, professions, movements, etc., are to present 
the material.” ‘‘Day after day the child would hear the 
best portions of the Bible read impressively as well as other 
splendid passages of poetry and prose; he would be famil- 
iarized with several hundred of the choicest pieces of music; 
once a week (say) he would witness or take part in a cele- 
bration, ceremonial, or piece of pageant»*y in honor of a 
great personage (Saint Paul, Alfred the Great, Joan of Arc, 
Saint Francis, (jcorge Washington) or a great idea (the 
League of Nations, France, Agriculture, Science, Free- 
dom).” This idea was elaborated, refined and further 
developed in a “First” and in a “Second Book of Schoo! 
Celebrations** in 1920. Here is a real idea worked out 


with much concrete material. The pupils in this plan are 
too passi\’e for American schools. One does not have to 
accept the plan Mr. Hayward has worked out, but every 
one interested in school assemblies should think through 
the ideas presented in these three volumes. 

Something of the same idea Hayward has presented 
has Ix^en worked out in this country. Miss Mattoon and 
Miss liragdon, in their Services for the Open, have de- 
veloped this idea for summer cam[)s. Several schools in 
developing celebrations for our ( Days have con- 
sciously or unconsciously hit on something of the Hayward 
plan. Take this celebration of Memorial Day, I 8 - 25 , in 
the Central High School, Tulsa, Oklahoma. In the order 
of ceremony in the printed program, Part One Wtis de\oted 
to the “Tulsa High School W'orld W'ar Roll of Honor,” 
in which the names of some one hundred and fifty men 
were listed. Following the invocation by an invited 
clergyman and patriotic selections by the high-schcxjl 
band, l^art Two of the program was as follows 

P.ARF n 


Joe ('.\rson 

“Greater lo\e h.idi no ru.m than this, that 
he lay down his life for his friends.” 

They are not wlu) li\e 
In hearts th(‘y lea\e behind 
In those whom they h.i\e blessed 
They live .i^ain. 

And shall li\e through the years 
Kternal life aiul grow 
Faeh flay more lieantihil 
As rime dec lares their gfKKl, 

Forgets the rest and f)roves 
Their immortality. 


Girls’ Glee Club George Oscar Bowen, Director 

America the Beautiful 
Tribute to the Soldiers 

Bugle Call 

Reading Calvin Tinn^y 

The Blue and the Gray, by F. M. Finch 

Solo George Oscar Bowen 

There is no Death 

Responsive Reading (all standing) 

1. “Come, let us gi\e thought to those of ours, whether they lie 
under the lilies of Flanders, in ocean’s vast depths, in allied or 
our own dear land, who at the call of their countr\’s going 
forth, left all who wxre near and dear, endured hardness, faced 
danger, <ind finally passed out of the sight of man by the path 
of duty, tlhit we might enjo\ the fruits of freedom as under- 
stood l)> Americans.” — Tulsa Joe Carson Post No. i. 

2. “ us s(‘e to it that their names and deeds be not forgotten 
1)> tho^e w'ho come after.” 

1. “How sleep the l)ra\e who sink to rest 
By all their country’s wishes blest! 

When spring with dewy fingers cold 
Returns to dc'c k tlu'ir allowed mold, 

She shall there dress a sweeter sod 

Than Fancy's feet ha\e e\er trod.” — Collins. 

2. “(aKl of our ftithers, known of old, 

Lord of our far-liung battle-line 
Beneath whose .iwlul luind we hold 
Dominion o\er i)alin and pine, 

Lord ( iod of Hosts, be with us yet 

Lest we forget - lest we forget!” — Kipling. 

1. “Pre^er\<‘ u-^ from the arrogance of prosperity.” 

2. “ Kxtend among us true and useful knowledge.” 

1. “Keep the Tnited States in Thy Holy protection.” 

2. “ Incline the hearts of thv citizens to culti\ ate a spirit of sub- 
ordination and obedience to government.” — Washington. 


Oath of Allegiance: 

“I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America 
and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation, indivisible, 
with Liberty and Justice for all.’* 

1. “Our government rests upon religion It is from that source 
that we derive our reverence for truth and justice, for e(|uality 
and liberty and for the rights of mankind — unless the people 
believe in these principles they cannot believe in our govern- 
ment.” — President Coolidge. 

2. “Incline the hearts of thy citizens to cultivate a brotherly 
affection and love for one another.” 

1. “Dispose us all to do justly, to lo\c mercy, and to demean 
ourselves with that charit\ , humility .ind p.u ific temper which 
w’ere the characteristics of the I)i\ine Autlior of our blessec 
religion, and without a humble imitation of whose example in 
these things we can ne\er hope to be a happy nation.” — 
George Wasliington. 

2. “The hopes of mankind cannot be kept ali\ c l)> words merely, 
by constitutions and doctrines ol right and codes of liberty.” 

1. “The object of demtxrracy is to transmute into the life and 
action of society the self-denial and self-sacritu e of heroic 
men and women willing to make their li\es .in embodiment of 
right and scr\ice and enlightened purpose.” — \\\K>drow’ 

2. “The go<xl citizen must in the first plate recogni/c what he 
owes his fellow citizen.” 

1. “If he is worthy to live in a free republic, he must ki'cy) before 
his eyes his duty to his nation, of which he forms ,l part.” 
— Theodore Rcx)se\elt. 

2. “Our fathers brcjught forth on this continent .i new n.ition, 
conceived in liberty and dedicated to the j)ioi)( )--iti(in that all 
men are created eijual. 

1. “It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the task re- 
maining l)€fore us — that fnmi these honored we t.ike 
renewed devotion to the cause for whii h thev g.ive the last 
full measure of devotion — that w'e here highl> resolve that 
these dead shall not have died in vain. 

2. “That this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of 
freedom ; 



1. “And that government of the people, by the people, for the 
people shall not perish from the earth. “ — Lincoln. 

2. “ Remove not the ancient land-mark which thy fathers have 
set." — Proverbs 22:28. 

Glee Club Response. 

To thee, O country, great and free 
With trusting hearts we cling; 

Our \oices tuned by joyous love. 

Thy power and praises sing. 

Upon thy mighty, faithful heart 
We lay our burdens down, 

Thou art the only friend 

Who feels their weight without a frown. 

For thee we daily work and strive. 

To thee w'e give our love; 

For thee w’ith ferv'or deep wc pray, 

To Him who dwells alcove. 

0 ( lod, protect our native land. 

Let Peace, its ruler be. 

And let hei glory light 

1 lie way to make the whole world free! 

Anna Eichberg Lane. 

Reading: ‘Vision of the Past and Future” Mark Ballard 

Resp^>nse. (Girls’ Cdee Club: 

Our fatheiV God, to Thee, 

Author of liberty ! 

To Thee wx sing; 

Long may our land be bright 
With fieedom’s holy light; 

Protect us by thy might. 

Great God, our King. 


Day is done, gone the sun, 

hVom the lake, from the hills, from the sky 

All is well, safely rest, God is nigh! 


This Memorial Day at Tulsa combined participation of 
the entire school in the expression of worth-while ideas. 
Music, in varied form, used again and again, heightened 
the emotional content. This assembly was really a 
planned structure. Here is intellectual recognition of the 
ideal of service, beauty, emotional earnestness, and prob- 
ably spiritual exaltation. The situation was favorable for 
ever>^ one to participate. Should there be a more wide- 
spread development of this type of assembly? 

The assembly can aid in administrative routine. There 
can be announcements, reports of committees of faculty 
or pupils, of interest to the whole school, directions from 
the othce, or from the student council, and discussion of 
whole-school questions, in a town-meeting ty[)e of assem- 
bly. While announcements may f)e made by the i)rincipal 
or teachers, by a pupil representative of the group most 
concerned, or by the reading of the daily or weekly calendar 
of events, an increasing number of schools ha\e all an- 
nouncements mimeographed in the d.iily bulletin sent to 
all home-rooms. 'I'his daily bulletin plan makes for efli- 
ciency and skives time. In schools where such a plan t)re- 
vails, there may still be s<mie very few announc<*ments to 
l^e made in assembly — the more skillful the administra- 
tor, the fewer. Campaigns or rallies may be in.iugurated 
in assembly and carricfl on in the hf)me-rooms, or started 
in the home-rooms or elsewhere, and brought to a climax 
in assembly. Problems involving whole-school iK)licy 
may profit by planned yet free discussion in assembly. 
While this town-meeting assembly is f)robably the most 
difficult of all types — difficult to ensure real discussion 
and economy of time — it can be of real worth if discussion 
has previously I^een developed in home-rooms. In any 
case, it requires wise planning. 

Outside speakers. Assembly speakers may occasionally 



be drawn from outside the school. Such speakers can 
sometimes help to solve common problems of pupils, or set 
standards or correct misbeliefs. Such outsiders wisely 
selected and properly “primed” can, of course, bring new 
material, or possibly a new point of view, or a new tech- 
nique. This is quite true of artists, especially musicians, 
but outside speakers should not be brought in unless the 
subjec t-matter is in a definite, planned way connected with 
the work going on in the school, or unless the topic and the 
way it is presented will be of immediate value in giving a 
new direction to some phase cjf schcjol life. Many speak- 
ers, in \(K'ati()nal guidance, for example, have exceedingly 
worth-while in<iterial, but not all of them have the ability 
to present it so high school pupils get it. High school 
principals and teachers should be relieved of the pressure 
from the outside to let e\ery famous visitor who comes to 
town speak in assemiily. ('ertainly every speech that is to 
be made in assembly should be gone over with the chair- 
man of the committc'e in advance. The introduction of 
the right outside speaker, at the opportune time, can be of 
real service, but too often 'he utilization of an outside 
speaker is just a la/y way of neglecting an educational 

Music. In [)lanning assemblies the music, naturally, 
must be taken into account. Some schools that give 
academic credit for work in the orchestra schedule orches- 
tra reliearsal the jx'ritxl just befc^re the assembly. By such 
a plan the musicians are in place, ready to play for assem- 
bly, and everybody’s time is conserved. According to the 
mistaken zeal of some song leaders, the assembly is just 
another tc^iching pericxl. In senior high schools where it is 
possible, it may be wise to have the assembly seated so as 
to promote part singing — basses, tenors, sopranos, altos 
grouped together. Song slides thrown on a screen may en- 


sure a good singing position, a united effort, and economy 
of time. Not every song leader, however, has the tech- 
nique for using slides. In any event, there can and should 
be magnificent singing of worth-while music. In the 
Philadelphia Survey, the present writer said: 

The assembly music, especially the sinking, is the most impor- 
tant single assembly activity. Such leadership should be gi\ en that 
the pupils not only sing but are proud of how well they can sing. 
Well selected standard songs and hymns should be committed to 
memory, and sung st) w'cll that the whole school looks forward 
eagerly not only to the special assembly “sings” but to this part of 
every assembly program. In the singing e\er\ memlier of the 
school can participate. The aim t)f the music is to furnish enjoy- 
ment, cultivate musical taste, wake up, unify, and ins|)ire the 
whole group. The song leader can bring the groiij) into the right 
mood to appreciate the other parts of the assembK program and to 
begin or continue their day’s work. The orchesii\i, original corn- 
fxrsitions, solos by pupils or outdde artists, may aid in elevating 
taste and e.xploring new beauties in tone or interi)reialion or (‘ntire 
new fields of music, but the great morale building is the singing of 
the whole group. It is the singing school that makes for the 
happy school. Singing should l>c the one e\cnt that is a |)art of 
every assembly 

Planning assemblies. Only a few of the two-score 
purposes of the assembly enumerated have been discussed 
in any detail. However, if the theory presented and the 
illustrations chosen are thought through, the reader can 
go on working out the detailed theory and supplying the 
illustrations for himself. 

If the school exists to educate the pupils, it is wise to 
enable the pupils to share in the educative expxiricnce of 
developing and presenting assembly programs. It seems 
to be an intelligent and an increasingly widely accepted 
plan to have an assembly committee, composed of teachers 
and pupil representatives of the student council, to guide 
the development and presentation of assembly programs 



Any home-room, class, club, principal, teacher, or pupil 
activity can request this committee for a place on the 
assembly program. The committee, after determining the 
interest, worth, and timeliness of the proposed program 
and its readiness for presentation, can grant or deny the 
request. It is the business of such a committee to work 
out a constructive plan for assemblies. In home-room, in 
class meetings, in the council, in faculty meetings, this 
constructive plan will be discussed and probably modified. 
In the end, the committee has the privilege and duty of 
promoting the development and presentation of assembly 
programs that carry out the constructive policy adopted. 

Because of its possibilities, the assembly can be a vital 
part of any plan of pupil participation in government. 
In some cases, the assembly has not yet adjusted itself 
effectively to the social aims of education and to efficient 
school administration. However, in many schools, by a 
cooperative effort of principals, teachers, and pupils, the 
assembly is a constructiv'e part of the socializing process. 


1. part ran the assembly play in pupil participation in 
gi)\ iM nineni 

2. Ot the fortv thiiins made for the assembly in this chapter, 
\\hi( h ones do >011 accept? — reject? — modify? What addi- 
tional claims (h) >ou make? 

3. Of the sixteen acherse criticisms of the assembly cited in this 
chapter, which are true, partly true, untrue, of the high school 
you know best? 

4. Historically, by what steps has the roll call or chapel become 
the |)resent school assembly? 

5. In w' wavs, if at .ill, did the “Morning Exercises” of the 
hVancis W. Parker School have a socializing influence? 

6. What is cuirent practice as to the source of assembly programs 
in the high school you know best? Hinv does this practice 
compare with that cited by Davis, by Long, and by Evans? 


7. In whtit respects do the reconiniendations of the assembly in 
the School .S/mry, Philadelphia, lit the school >011 know best? 

8. How niiiLh does an assemblv cost in total number ot hours of 
piijiil's time*’ — ol teacher’s salar> ^ —of building; construc- 

9 How frKiucntK, if .it all, should there be tin tisscmbU ^ 

'O In addition to the seven illustrations in this ti\t. what ex- 
amples lan voii cite ot the asst mbit's par tu ip itin^^ in the 
formation ot jiiiblu opinion 

11 In what wavs e in the assomblv aid in e\pl(»rink’ tin school to 
iislU'' Can voii cite extimples utlur tlian ihost m this text, 
that help VOII think throii^;h this ph ist ot the asstinhU ^ 

12 How dots I silu>ol beeomt intei;r.iie(H W put t.ui the 
as^cinblv plav '* 

13 H )vv imp<»rtant is this ‘ broidenin^ ind ileepemne; of in- 
tl^st'^ durinc hi^h SI honl V « ars** Whit pul it anv i in the 
hichsclnx^l i''^cml)lv ptrtorm*' 

14 \re hi^h school pupils trim d mindtd'' Shouhl tin si hool at 
ti nijU to develop ipprt 1 1 it loiis *’ It so how ^ In whit w.ivs, 
It inv t an tlie as^ mblv aid 

15 W h It spot 1 il (1 IV s ^iioiild th( St hool ( eh br iti ^ W h it pt rsons 

or lilt ni Its >h ill dtttrmuu tlu'-t divs-* on wliit bisis-* 

How, in u tord uu e w ith vour th( or \ ot the isstmblv sh ill the 
divsschitid be tehiiritid'’ 

• H) I ndt r V li It t u t unist UK I it , it .ill should innouni t nu nts be 
m idi in i-'^tmllv^ W ho si <»uld m.ike them '' \\ liv " 

17 I iKhrwhat ( in uriist uk < s sh»)iild < utside spe.iker- bt invmd 
i ik( f>irt in the isstmblv pro^rim'* 

IH Whit Is V our tin (jrv ot tht .issemblv*' 

10 What or^ ini/.ition i', desirable to c.irrv out the theor> of th 
asscmbl) \ou aectpt*' 

Chapter X 

Three questions. In dealing with clubs, three questions 
present themselves: What are present conditions? What 
is a desirable state of affairs? How is this desired state of 
affairs to be realized? To express the idea differently: 
Where are we? Where do we want to go? How are we 
going to get there? 

What kinds of clubs exist in high schools? Probably 
every one, as a result of the presence or absence of some 
kind of a working philosophy of education, has some 
theory regarding what to do or not to do in respect to 
clubs in a particular high school. However, if one is to 
think out a really constructive program and develop it, 
one must take into account the present state of affairs. 
To answer the question, What kinds of clubs exist in high 
sc hools.'^ four studies are considered here in getting at least 
a partial answer to this queotion: a study of handbooks, 
non-athlelic i)ui^il activities, broadening and finding 
ccjurses, and the clubs in one junior high school. 

Clubs listed in high school handbooks. A survey of the 
kinds of clubs listed in one hundred senior high school 
handbooks, chosen at random, resulted in a list of 1372 
clubs. It was possible to classify these clubs under twenty- 
eight headings. 

The committee of the author’s students who clasvsified 
these 1372 clubs started with no preconceived classification 
in mind, but grouped the clubs in the general divisions 
into which they seemed, by an account of their activities, to 
fall. As may be noted in order of frequency, beginning 
with the highest, they are languages, music, athletics, 


Kind op Club Nuiibbk 

Agriculture 8 

Art 57 

Athletics ii6 

Classical 13 

Commercial 31 

Debating 67 

Dramatic 67 

Games 15 

Home Economics 34 

Honorary 31 

Journalism 18 

Languages 192 

I^iterary 78 

Mathematics 19 

Kind op Club Number 

Mechanics 6 

Military 15 

Music 174 

Photography 13 

Publu. Speaking 7 

Radio 39 

Religious i 

School Service 40 

Social 32 

Social Science 56 

Social Welfare 115 

Science 104 

Stamps 12 

WHMtional 9 

social welfare, and so 011. Forms of [lupil participation in 
government w'ere not considered as clubs. In ten years 
from now this order will probably be greatly changed. 
Many forms of musical activity, for e.xample, are tending 
to become a part of curricular activities. Music is grow ing 
into the curriculum. In accordance with the theory that 
wherever posi>ible extra-curricular activities should grow 
out of curricular activities, language clubs wall probably 
become more frequent. Thus, it may be seen, two ditTer- 
ent tendencies, but not necessarily conflicting tendencies, 
are evident in any study of clubs at the present time. 

Non-athletic pupil activities. Kohrliachs study of 
Non- Athletic Activities in Secondary Schools,' as reported 
in I825» has resulted, s(3 far as the field studied is con- 
cerned, in the most complete enumeration and analysis 
.hat has I^een made. This Doctor’s d'hesis is based on 
Rohrbach’s personal study of (a) 134 scluiols (73 senior 
high, 27 junior high schools, 34 private s('hools); {b) ques- 
tionnaire returns from 127 junior high schools in 83 cities 
in 32 states; {c) 6721 pupil replies from 48 .schools (30 

• Rohrliarh, 0 A VV. Son-Athletic Student Acinthes tn .Secondary Schools. W'esl- 
brook Publisliing Cotn[>any. I'hiUidclphia. 



senior high schools, 8 junior high schools, and 10 private 
schools) . From this study the present author has set down 
the following classification of non-athletic pupil activities: 


1 . Language and Literary Activities 

A. Knglish clubs for the study of the written or printed 

(i) Story-telling clubs; (2) authors, clubs; (3) writing 

(4) clubs for culti\ating an appreciation of literature; 

(5) contemporary literature clubs; (6) English clubs for 
the critical study of literature. 

B. Oral English Clubs: 

(i) Public speaking, (2) forum; (3) debating; (4) drama- 
tics; (a) dramatic production, (^) dramatic obscr\ation. 

C. Foreign Languages and Literature Clubs: 

(1) Ancient languages — Latin, tireek, Hebret\, Viking; 
(2) modern languages — French, Spanish, Italian, 
Ciernian, Scandina\ ian. 

II. Science Clubs 

A. Pure science: 

Mathematics club — not to be confused with applied 
mathematics club, trigonometry, Helleno-Mathetce and 
rithmomachie clubs. 

B. A|iplied science acti\itics: 

(1) (a) General science; (b) biology and nature-study 
clubs, including such clubs as Audubon and Agassiz 
societies, bird, naturalists, ^\ild lloN\cr, tree, astron- 
omy, and geology clubs; (c) agriculture, inLiuding 
pig, poultry, calf, sheep, colt, stock-judging, garden, 
corn, and other clubs; (d) applied mathematics, in- 
cluding sur\ eying clubs; (e) chemistry clubs; (/) 
physics clubs. 

(2) Social science clubs: (a) History' — including United 
States, ancient, medie\al, and modern history, Eng- 
lish history, economic history, histor> of art, 01 
music, or architecture, or any phase of these di\ isions 


of history; (6) biography clubs; (r) historic shrines 
clubs, including Know Your City, Historic Research, 
Historical Building, and Quaint Homes Clubs; (d) 
Historic dramatization clubs; (c) Civics clubs — 
school civics and patriotic civic clubs. 

III. Art Activities: 

A. Fine arts: 

(1) Auditory Arts Activities: (a) orchestra, {b) band, (c) 
glee clubs, (d) sch(X)l chorus, (c) music a[)preciation 

(2) Visual Arts Acti\ities: art, sketch, art collectors, 
camera, cartoon, tK)ster. art ai)[)reci.ition, .esthetic 
dancing. als<^ art collectors and clubs and 
designing clubs. 

B. Mechanic arts acti\ities: 

(i) drawing; (2) l)lue-[)rinting; (3) printing; 
(4) shot) clubs — including car[)entr\. wood-turning, 
cabinet-making, forging, and metal-working (lubs. 

C. Commercial acti\ities: 

(l) Business corres|)ondence dubs; (2) stenographic and 
typing clubs; (3) olhce pr.u tice clubs-- including 
the scluKil bank; (4) market clubs; (5) the ( ommercial 
clubs of two i\pes — lor lho>e with, and for those 
without, ('ommercial ir.iining. 

IV. Home- Making Activities: 

A. (I) N(x*rllework (lubs, siu h as embroider), cro( het and 
knitting clubs; (2) milliner) clubs, (3) sewing ('ircles; 
(4) fashion clubs; (5 ) home nursing ( lubs; U)) cooking 
clubs, including camp c'ooking; (7) rural j)rojects 
clubs such as gardening, poultry, canning, preserv- 
ing. (lair)ing clubs; {H) te.xtile and rc'ed-traft clubs. 

V. Student Fartictpation in the Management and Control of the 


A. ('(K)i)eraii\e administrative councils or associations. 

B. Adjunc t administrative and advisory activities: 

fi) Home-rcK)m: (2) monitorial stall ; (3) g.irden aides; 
(4) repair dubs; ^5; senior guides, big brothers, big 
sisters, pijpil class s[X)nsors; (6J Hi-\'; (7) Ixxjslcr 
clubs; (H) bulletin lx>ard. 

C. Assembly. 

D. Class organizations. 



E. Local welfare activities: 

(i) Boys’ club; (2) Boys' and girls’ leagues; (3) student 
aid clubs; (4) first-aid clubs. 

VI. Honor Organizaltom: 

(i) Phi Beta Sigma Society; (2) Cum Laude Society; (3) 
Oasis Society; (4) Arista Society; (5) Mimerian Society; 
(6) Pro Mcrito Society; (7) Ephoebian Society; (8) Na- 
tional Honor Society; (9) Local Honor Societies — 
T.N.T. Club, Torch Society, Order of the Daisy, leaders’ 

VII. Welfare and Social Activities: 

A. Welfare act i\ it i(‘s. 

(i) Bo> Scouts of America; (2) Girl Scouts; (3) Junior 
Reel Cross, (4) Camp Fire (jirls; (5) College settlement 
Clubs, (6) Social Workers’ Club, (7) Hospital Auxiliary; 

(H) (lift ('liibs. 

B. Religious and moral training acti\ities: 

(i) (lirl Reser\es, (2) Hi-Tri Club; (3) Junior V.W.C.A. 
Club; (4) \l\-\ Club. 

C. Scxial intercourse acti\ ities: 

(i) Parties and d.incc's, (2) Dc Molay Club; (3) college 
clubs, (4) fraternities; (5) eticiuette clubs. 

VIII. Vmlawitied Adivttics: 

A. Miscellaneous Cliiba: 

(i) He.ilth clubs; (2) wdKing clubs; (3) tra\el clubs; (4) 
Know \ our C'itv, or Vour Country, clubs; (5) guidance 
or success clubs; (6) recreation clubs. 

B. Publications. 

(I) Handbook; (2) .\nnual; (3) Magazine; (4) school 
ncwsj)apers, (5) school and departmental bulletins. 

If athletic clubs are omitted and forms of pupil p)ritici- 
pation in government are considered as clubs, this classifi- 
cation by Rohrbach of existing kinds of clubs under eight 
headings, goes a long way toward answering the question, 
What kinds of pupil activities exist in secondary schools? 

Activities in relation to broadening and finding courses 
in the junior high school. Dt. H. B. Bruner, ‘ in an ex- 


periment carried on at Okmulgee, Oklahoma, included 
some sixty to eighty of these activities or clubs in the 
school each year. Such clubs were included as: agri- 
culture, ancient history, art history, banking, Batik, bird, 
Burbank, camp-cooking, carto<3ning, catering, city san- 
itation, costume, courtesy, current history, debating for 
boys, debating for girls, dramatic, fancy work, first aid, 
floriculture, football, geometric design, going-to-college, 
g\'m pyramid and tumbling for boys, gym club for girls 
(games, folk-dancing, and drills), handiwork, home econom- 
ics, industrial, interior decoration, keeping fit (one club for 
boys, another for girls), Kodak, library methods. Little 
Theater, magazine, marketing, mathematics (for games 
and recreation), movie (showing educational and instruc- 
tive pictures), mythology, needlework, novel (reading and 
discussing novels of particular interest to girls), Oklahoma 
folk-lore, oral reading, patriotic. The Spirit Stokers (han- 
dling public functions of the sc1kh)I), p<K*try, [)rinting, })ub- 
lic s{)eaking, radio, reading, reed basketry for boys, social 
service, srh(K)l advertising, science play, scrapbook, short 
story, s(X'iology (including excursions to points of interest 
in the city >, teachers’ training (for pupils who intend to be 
teachers), tennis, travel, stars (astronomy), writers, wood- 
craft and archery for boys. In addition there were Boy 
Scouts and Camp Fire Girls and Hi Girl Reserves groups, 
beginners’ band, beginners’ orchestras, glee clubs (one for 
boys, another for girls), double quartet (one for l)oys, an- 
other for girls). Excelsior and Ciceronian literary societies, 
and the student council. 

There was a desire in some cases to grow the clu!) out of a 
curricular activity. For e.xample, activity in the VVofxl- 
craft and Archery Club for Boys, consisted of: the study 
and history of archery; the material used in the construc- 
tion of bows and arrows; the actual construction of bows 



and arrows; a contest in archery in which the winner re- 
ceived his bows and arrows as his prize while other mem- 
bers of the club had to pay for material used. 

In estimating the worth of these activities Dr. Bruner 

Through these activities, excursions may be taken into many 
fields which would otherwise be untouched, because of the limited 
time at the pupil's disposal. Coming as they do at a period espe- 
ciall> set aside for them, when no regular classes are in session, they 
are open to e\er> pupil in the high school.. Quite often teachers 
ha\e asked to be permitted to offer acti\ities in fields other than 
their ovv 11 'I'his practice has led to true leisure-time enjoyment on 
the part of both the instructor and the pupil. 

Dr. l^runcr, after carrying on the experiment for five 
>(‘ars, concluded that for enrichment purposes the so- 
called acti\itieb were of eciual importance with the broad- 
ening and finding courses. 

Clubs in one junior high school : departmental sponsoring. 

Sli.ill each department of the school assume responsibility 
foi growing dubs out of the work of that department or 
.shall there be a sponsor-as-yo’’ -please policy? In thinking 
through this problem, the successful practice in one school 
may be of some ser\ ice. 

In the Holmes Junior High School of Philadelphia, a co- 
educational school of seventeen hundred pupils in I824, 
and a faculty of fifty teachers, the following plan was car- 
ried out in classifying the seventy-eight clubs in the 
rchool : * 

I CluliM Spon^retl by the English Department (i&) 

A (1) Iht* Nautilus (the school 

( 4 ) 





(2) Reporters 

(3) S«.ribblers 


Junior Salesmen 

B Guidance Clubs 

(7) I Success Club 


2 Publicity Club 

• Thomas-TincUl. E V . and Meyem. J D. Junior High School Life, pp 192-281 
By permission of The Macmillan Company, publishers. 


C. Public Sp«akinii and Dramatic Clubs 

(9) I Public Speaking Club 

(10) i Debating Club 

(11) j Junior Dramatic Club 

D Cultural Clubs 

(14) i Sn)ry Hour Club 

(15) j ShakesptMre Club 

(16) 3 Mythology Club 

(12) 4 Senior Dramatic Club 

(13) 5 Scenario ('lub 

(17) 4 Library Club 

(18) 5 Book Lxivers 

II Clubs sponsored by Foreign language Department Ij) 

(19) I Spanish Club (.20) 2 Kreiu h Club (,2 1 ) 3 l^itiii Club 

III Clubs sp<^m8ored by Science Department 

(22) I Junittr ('heiiiHiry 

(23) 2 Senior t'heini>«try 

(24) 1 PraciuMl nou<eh«>M 

(25) 4 Krnest Thompson S<*ton 
(2b) 5 Birtl ( lub 

(27) 6 Wild Flower 

(28) 7 A'^tronoiners 


(2g) 8 ( lub of Appheil Mechanics 

(30) g ('.eology 

(ti) 10 Kno\^ Vour ('ity 

(12) II Travel 

( ( 0 12 I’osiagi* ‘>iamp 

i ( t) ( o'ogr.iphic 

(15) 14 ( »eogt.ii>hu* Research 

IV Clubs sp<insnred b> Deparimenls of SkuI Studies '0 

(3b) I C'lvi Publicity ( tg> j Hisit>ru Pilgrimage 

(37) 2 Hisioru Res^-anh < pi) j; Inventors 

(38) 3 Contemjxirary 

Clubs sp^miKired by the Department < 

(41) I Club Ilf Apiilir.l Mathematics 

(42) 2 Business ( ' irrespondenre 

(43) 3 Junior Finaiuters 

(44) 4 Mathemalu-il \SrinLIe«i 

>f Mathemalii's (7) 

'ti) S Junior Ortiee PraiT ice 

( if>) b ( hess 

( 37 ) 7 M.ithematical Recreation 

VI Clubs stv.ns^»red b> Art Department (s) 

(4>^' I Vrt and Sketi h ( Si ) 

(4b; 2 Handit raft (S2) 

( 50) 3 Art C'rjl|e< tnrs 

4 Camera 

5 Poster and C' >mmercial Art 

VII Clubs spons-irfvl by Musir Department (3) 

( 53 ) I Mu^iic Xpiireciation (SS) 3 dee ('lub 

(54 ) 2 ScIvkjI Orchestra 

VIII Clubs sponvjred by Department of Mechanu al Arts fb) 

(56) I Repair (Sg) 3 S hool Ivjuiiiment 

( 57 ) 2 Blue Print bo) s Oiti 

(58) 3 Air Craft (bi) b Radio 

IX. Clubs sponv>red by the Home Economics Depart nirni (s) 

(62) I Luncheon (bS) 4 Little Mothers 

(6j) 2 .Marketing and Serving (bb) 5 Holmes Sweet Shop 

(64) 3 ('amp Cookery 

X. Qubt sponsored by Department Of Domestic Arts (4) 

(67) I Household Textile Club (69) 3 Millinery 

( 6 5) 2. DrcMmakers (70) 4 Art Needle Work 



XI Clubs sponsored by the Department of Physical Education (6) 

(71) I Dancing (74) 4 Seasonal Games 

i]2) 2 Hiking (75) 5 Leaders 

(7 J) J Swimming (76) 6 First Aid 

XII Clubs providing Social and Ethical Training (2) 

(77) I Ktirjucttc (78) 2 Willing Workers 

In these seventy-eight different clubs in the Holmes 
Junior High School it may be pointed out that seventy-six 
clubs are sponsored directly by eleven departments of the 
school, 'rhe largest number of clubs, eighteen, is spon- 
sored by the haiglish Department. Probably to one who 
has in mind the monopoly once held in the club field by the 
old-style liteniry society, the most striking new feature is 
the f.ict that sixteen of the clubs are sponsored by the 
Science Department. It is true that Know Your City 
Club may not belong to the Science Department as pecul- 
iarl> as the Air Craft and Camp Cookery belong, respec- 
ti\elv, to the 1 )epartments of Mechanical Arts and of Home 
Kconornics 1lie aim here, however, is to bring out the 
list of clubs and by what department each is sponsored. 

The extra-curricular in one school becomes curricular in 
another. While the two clas..ifications of clubs in high 
schools and the sponsorship and lists of clubs in two junior 
high schools have been given, neither these nor any other 
lists can indicate, adeciuately, the wavering line of demar- 
cation between curricular and extra-curricular activities. 
In one school the orchestra is extra-curricular, while in the 
Lakeview High School, Chicago, it is a curricular actnity 
and meets regularly five times a week. The school news- 
paper is still an extra-curricular activity in many schools; 
yet in the South High School, Cleveland, and in scores of 
other senior high schools, it is a curricular, accredited ac- 
tivity. Dramatic activities in some schools are extra- 
curricular, evTii achieving a dizzy height of folly in the tra- 
ditional senior play. In oilier schools dramatic activities 


are a regular part of the accredited offerings of the English 
Department. Athletic teams and contests are older than 
Departments of Physical Education and as yet may, or 
may not, constitute a part of the program of physical edu- 
cation. The point here is not to attempt to indicate what 
should be done, but to point out that what is extra-cur- 
ricular in one school may be curricular in another. In 
fact, practically everything that is now curricular in the 
senior high school was at one time extra-curricular. 

What activities may become curricular? Some schools, 
such as the senior high school at Tulsa, Oklahoma, have 
placed great emphasis on curricularizing extra-curricular 
activities. In that school getting out the senior class 
annual is a curricular activity. It may be that in time in 
all schools such activities as debating, dramatics, school 
publications, glee clul)s, orchestras, and athletics will be- 
come curricular. The trend is in that direction. It is 
difficult, however, to see how' such an activity as the stu- 
dent council or the assembly can ever become a curricular 
activity. It may be that to curricularize all activities is an 
invitation to pioneering youth to move out to a new fron- 
tier and establish a new line (jf activities. The end is not 
yet, and no one knows to wdiat extent the high schools of 
the future may include, or be based on, what is now con- 
sidered a legitimate activity of the school, but not in- 
cluded in the regular curricula. 

Clubs and literary societies. C'lubs and the older liter- 
ary societies i)resent .some definite contrasts in such phases 
of their work as pro\ ision for individual differences of 
pupils, in membership, and in constructive school policy. 
The recognition (A these contrasts in present club organi- 
zation and the older literary society is necessary if one is to 
appreciate the direction in which the club phase of extra 
curricular activities is moving. 


The literary society was, and in some schools still is, a 
kind of omnibus type of present club activities. It makes, 
and has made, possibly unconsciously, some provision for 
individual differences by including in one organization a 
wide range of activities, such as recitations, declamations, 
impromptu speeches, orations, essays, debating, dramatics, 
book reviews, “a paper,” music, and so on. The literary 
society, as the name implies, was devoted to “literary” 
effort — to some form of talking, writing, or interpreting. 
The club scheme, especially in the larger junior and senior 
high schools, attempts to provide for individual differences 
by a wide variety of clubs, w'ith each club devoted to a 
particular activity. One has only to think through the 
wide range of present club acti\ ities to recognize that many 
of them are not, and in the nature of the case cannot be, in- 
cluded even in the “omnibus type” of the older literary 
society program. For example, the wide range of clubs 
that grow out of the present enriched science curriculum do 
not fit into the idea of a literary society. In working out 
the club idea there is a conscious attempt to provide a 
situation wherein every phase of curricular life in a pro- 
gressive school can express itself, in part, in a club activity. 

In respect to membership, the literary society deter- 
mined its membership usually by the vote of its members 
and in many cases had such elements of the fraternity as 
rushing, pledging, and secret balloting. On becoming a 
member, one remained a member for his life in the institu- 
tion. “Once a Philomathean always a Philomathean ” 
was a familiar slogan. It is not at all necessary to have a 
(ireek name for an old-style literary society or club to de- 
velop many of the undesirable characteristics of a high- 
school fraternity. The literary society, in its rivalry with 
the few similar organizations in the same school, was usu- 
ally as large as its members could make it. According t( 


the club scheme, a pupil can join the club of his choice or, 
by meeting such fairly definite objective requirements as 
the nature of the club recjuires, such as certain abilities in 
French, or certain knowledge of birils, or certain scholar- 
ship requirements, or not belonging to too many other 
clubs. If there are too many applicants for one partic- 
ular club, additional sectio*''? of the club, each with a teach- 
er-adviser, are formed, so as to keep the club about the 
size of the usual class in the school. Thus, at one time in 
the South Philadelphia High School for (lirls there were 
eight sections of the Know Philadelphia Ulub. In order 
that clubs may be exploratory of pupils’ interests and 
abilities, the polic\' usihilly advocated [irovides a favorable 
op[)ortunity for pui)ils to change clubs every semester or at 
least every year. In arranging the situation so that it is 
favorable to the pupils’ being interested in the activity for 
W’hich the club exists rather than possibly being interested 
in a social clique, some scIkk^Is, es[)e('ially girls’ schools, 
have arranged that pupils shall belong to two clubs at the 
same time. This is accomplished by having the clubs 
meet every two weeks. Thus, a pupil may belong to the 
Poster (dub, which meets the sixth periixl the first and 
third Wednesdays, and the Modern Poetry ('lub, which 
meets the sixth period on the second and fourth Wednes- 

In constructive policy, where the club idea prevails, the 
school attempts, without coercion, to provide a club for 
every pupil and to see that every pupil, even the most 
diffident, finds his or her place in a club. The literary 
srxriety usually included only a fxn tion of the school. The 
schocjl often had no constructive polic y for non -members. 
Clubs, as a rule, are chartered by some central organiza- 
tion, usually the student council, and charters may be, and 
sometimes are, revoked if the club fails to live up in a rea' 



sonable degree to its declared purposes. The present tend- 
ency is for the school to provide for club meetings in the 
regular daily schedule. The literary society met after 
school or in the evening. The club has a teacher-adviser; 
the literary society usually had honorary faculty members 
who did little or no constructive work. W here the club 
idea prevails, practically every teacher is adviser for some 
club. By lia\ ing every club chartered, the school provides 
a legitimate way, through the student council, by which a 
rcpresentiUiv c group {)f pupils and teachers decides 
whether the proposed club can render a service to its mem- 
bers and to the s('hool. If the school does not provide a 
means of chartering pupil oiganizations, it is providing a 
fav'orablc opportunity for the kind of situation that pro^ 
duced the high-school fraternity. At the present time, if 
generous exception be made, the junior high school, and, to 
a somewhat less extent, the senior high school, has a con- 
structive politv for cn<ibling a puj)il, along lines of sound, 
joyous, ediKMtive adventure, to belong to a club of his 
\’ery’ own.” 

In ()bser\ing the contrasts iii provision for individual 
differences, inembeiship, and the school’s constructive 
policy’, one is imj)ressed with the fact that the club move- 
ment is coming in, that t!ie literary society’, w’ith some 
not.ible exceptions, is dying out, and that schools are or- 
ganizing, in some cases o\ er-organizing, to profit by what- 
ever of educ.itional value there is, 01 can be, in the dev iop- 
inent of s( hool ( lubs. The laisscz-fairc altitude t)f many of 
the older schools permitted some helpful extra-curricular 
ideas to muddle through. The literary’ society was one of 
these I'he school with a whole-school constructive 
policy for organizing and guiding the club life of the school 
aims to provide so fai as possible for the individual differ- 
ences of all tlie pupils on a sound educative basis. 


Too much organization is possible. In getting away 
from the historic laissez-faire attitude of the school regard- 
ing club activities, some aggressive leaders would go to the 
opposite extreme. Some of these enthusiastic believers in 
the club idea, with possibly an over-strong administrative 
tendency, want to prescribe everything for clubs and re- 
quire membership of every pupil. There is the possibility 
of a real danger here in over-organization. Some things 
cannot be decreed. The attainment of that cardinal prin- 
ciple, the intelligent use of leisure time, seems to require a 
freedom to choose in a situation offering a variety of stim- 
ulating, satisfying possibilities rather than to be bound by 
too much prescription. “Junior citizenship,” as Glass 
puts it, “requires the unremitting, sympathetic, and un- 
obtrusive control of the faculty”; yet, if there is to 1^ 
growth, the pupil must have freedom to choose. 

Clubs and the weekly schedule. Shall clubs as a phase 
of the school’s extra-curricular activities, l>e recognized as 
a part of the regular weekly schedule? Together wath the 
home-room and the assembly, they belong in the activities 
period. While it is usually desirable to have the assembly 
and the home-room perunl in the earlier part of the day, 
there are certain advantages in having the clubs meet in 
the last regular pericxl of the day. By meeting the last 
period, clubs with their advisers may go on excursions or 
continue their activities for a longer jKTiod according to the 
will of the group. As more American schools come to 
learn, as many foreign schools have already learned, the 
possibilities in the school excursion, the emphasis on this 
excursion phase of club activity will certainly increase. In 
any event, if the school rec ognizes clubs, and if the ends to 
be attained by club activity are sound educationally, they 
deserve a place, as Cilass has pointed out, “as an integral of 
the program of studies and of the schedule of cla.sses.”* 



Against the plan of having clubs meet in a regular school 
period, some definite objections may be raised. Where the 
whole school is organized so that all pupils are in their club 
meetings indoors, or on their club excursions at the same 
time, and where a pupil can belong to only one or two clubs, 
the element of a particular pupil’s conscious choice may be 
too limited. It may, as one principal, who has in mind 
forcing pupils to belong to clubs, points out, “Take away 
fiom the pupil, who perhaps needs it most, a study period 
per week. To him it might seem like compulsory play.” 
This same principal adds, “In our school the club scheme 
adds materially to our organization difficulties, for there 
are forty fewer rooms per week in which to distribute the 
same number of teaching periods.” It may also be added 
that it compels the schools to use as advisers teachers who 
are not natural leaders, and that it adds an hour a week to 
their schedule. Other objections may be raised, but an 
increasing number of schools believe that, in spite of the 
high cost of spending possibly one thirtieth or more of the 
school week in clubs, the advantages outweigh the dis- 
advantages, and that a real ciub program, partly at least 
in school time, is intrinsically sound.* 

How are clubs included in the regular daily schedule? 
The accompanying chart shows how the Roosevelt Junior 
High School, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, schedules its 
club meetings. 

As the chart of this Roosev^elt Junior High School sh )ws, 
there is a regular daily activities’ period. In this period 
there are two club periods per week. One group of clubs 
meets on Monday and another on Wednesday, with the re- 
sult that each pupil can belong to two clubs and that a 
teacher is adviser of two clubs. Many other schools might 

* For an intrrefltins discussion of the activities period with arguments chiefly 
against it. sec Blackburn. Laura. Our High School Clubs, pp 2j-i9 





Mono i 15 to i 45 


\V i-D I 1$ to 1 45 





Director of Activities 




4 irst Aid 


-M t 

Liirl Re^r\e 

X lure 


0> ml 

I umblin^ 

1 umbling 



Rid bLin^i 


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be cited that ha\e only one c Iiih [>eri(Kl in the weekly sched- 
ule, wjme of w'hich pnj\ ide U)r the same club to meet on 
alternate w'ceks. Terr\ found twenty-six sdviols, or 
approximately thirt> jx-r tent of the junior hi^h schools he 
studied, provided for the meetinj^s of [)ractically all organi- 
zations, except athletic te.iriis, during the regular school 
day. According t(; his classification only five of these were 
small schools, while twenty-one were medium or large 



schools. Somewhat more than fifty per cent of the eighty- 
two schools he studied had practically all meetings of pupil 
organizations after school.* Some senior high schools are 
in accord with the plan of Tulsa, Oklahoma, whereby all 
extra-curricular activities have been given a “specific 
period assignment in either the departmental or the school 
schedule of recitations.” The facts remain that, when all 
sizes of high schools are considered, the majority of them, 
and especially of the senior high schools, do not yet have 
a fully develof)ed constructive plan for high school clubs 
and that a majority of schools arc not yet in accord with 
the plan of having clubs meet in school time. However, 
in nearly all of the larger junior high schools clubs meet 
in regular school time; in the larger senior high schools at 
least the trend is in the same direction. Organization 
of the right kind and in right amount, can make for 

Summary of current tendencies. C'urrent practice, as 
has been f)ointed out, is emphasizing, increasingly, a wide 
variety of clubs, s|)()n sored by ^he school as a whole or by 
the various departments of the school. This wide variety 
of clubs, each dc\oted to a particular activity, is in sharp 
contrast to the older, omnibus tvpe of literary society. 
Likewise, the school is tending to abandon its laissez-faire 
policy and develop a constructive club program. Current 
practice in a majority of the larger junior high schools, and 
to a somewhat less extent in the senior high ‘^^'hool , is 
demonstrating a way, not necessarily the way, of providing 
for clubs wholly or in part in the regular school day or 
week. C'lubs as a phase of the school’s extra-curricular 
activities are coming to be recognized as an “integral part 
of the program of studies and of the schedule of classes.” 


Clubs: Section 2. Some theory. What some schools 
are doing in respect to clubs has been pointed out. Two 
main questions remain for discussion: first, On what edu- 
cational theory is this club idea ba ^ed? And second, How 
is this theory to be made effective? Education is based on 
wants and the business of education is to help individuals 
improve their wants and improve their ability to satisfy 
these higher wants. 

Why do clubs exist? One reason for the existence for 
clubs is that schools arrange a favorable oi)|K)rtunity for 
their satisfying existence and guidance. Possibly there is 
a more fundamental reason. 

The instinctive tendency in high-school pupils that re- 
sults in so many kinds of clubs is perfectly natural. Re- 
gardless of the wishes of teachers or parents, clubs or gangs 
will exist. The gregarious instinct that is so strong in 
pupils of high sch(Kjl age not only brings them together, 
but makes them want to belong to some club of their own. 
The same instinct that fills the adult world with clubs and 
organizations, fraternal and, is alive with all its 
freshness and intensity in the mind and heart of youth. 

What will the educator do with this instinctive tend- 
ency? It is maintained here that it is the business of 
parents and teachers to guide this tendency so that pupils 
will want to belong to clubs more and more worth while. 
It follows that it is the business of the sch(K>l through its 
organization, through faculty advisers, and through the 
creating of favorable public opinion, to make both desirable 
and possible those clubs that are satisfying to boys and 
girls and increasingly worth while from an educational 
point of view. This instinctive tendency for club activity 
may be developed that pupils in their freer as5<K:iations 
learn how to work together and how to use their time in- 
telligently. Interests started in the clubs or outside of 



them may be used to worthy educational ends. Through 
these activities there may be training in the formation of 
right habits, in standards of taste, training in a right direct 
tion of the emotions, in gaining worth-while knowledge, 
and learning how to work with people. There may be 
hard work and wholesome fun so combined that the pupils, 
perhaps without knowing it, get a keener insight into the 
real joy of living. High schools must train for joy in 
achievement; joy in the solution of problems, social or 
mathematical. Pupils like hard work if there is joy and 
adventure in it and if the adult leader works with them; 
they hate easy, soft work if it is dull and stupid. There 
must be /est, power, /eal in this mixture of work and play 
called life. A club for every pupil with a faculty-adviser 
for every club can be one way of working toward this end. 

Organizations outside of the school are learning how to 
work with this ( lub tendency of youth. Even the enumer- 
ation of these organizations would fill several pages. The 
tendency to fomi a club is fundamentally concerned in the 
development of the Boy Scout of America, with its 629,- 
6<)4 Hoy Scouts, not including Cubs or officials, with the 
200,307 (iirl Scouts and the 202,980 Camp Fire Girls.' 
There is a real need for such agencies as are here enumer- 
ated by name, but the work of these organizations is to 
supplement, not to carry on, the work of the school. In 
comparison with outside organizations, schools have been 
slow to recognize the educational possibilities of voluntary 
club activities. 

The school needs a constructive policy. In some high 
schools, and especially in some older high schools, there is 
no whole-school planning for the utilization of the pupils’ 
instinctive tendency to form voluntary’ groups. Some 
principals either have not recognized and studied the 


question, or at least have done nothing about it. Clubs 
spring up, listen to lectures and die, or by happy chance, 
secure a wise adviser who guides and stimulates the pupils 
so that they carry on activities inteiesting and worth while 
for youth. So oftcii there is no whole-school planning to 
get all teachers and all pupils into worth-while, construc- 
tive activities; rather there is sometimes a repressive, in- 
hibitory attitude. Where teachers, as advisers, and pupils 
are working together, as they can, there is a tendency to 
develop such Cf)<)[)erative, constructive work that the 
whole spirit of the school makes for order and hel[ifulness. 
In addition to such ('(xiperative activities as home-rooms, 
class organizations, student councils, and socialized re- 
citations, a constriK ti\e scheme of club organization, in 
which there is *i club for e\ery f)upil and <i real adviser for 
every* club, is simf)I\' one more means of pn>\’iding in a 
happy, helpful way for the indi\idual dilTerences of all 
pupils. If, with ediuMtioUtd [)rofit and economy of time, 
every put)il and every teacher is to sh.ire in the benefits of 
a club program, there must be a ('onstrudive policy de- 
veloped by the whole s('hool. 

No constructive policy What happens? A study of 
the baffling problem of the sc hool fraternity would be help- 
ful here. Howe\er, it must be noted that, by f.iiling to 
work with youth’s desire for a club, sc liools ha\e not only 
neglec ted ari educMtional op[K)rtunity, but, in maru* cases, 
have become in\filv(‘d in serious difficulty, for example, 
the rise and develo|)ment in the last half-century of the 
secondary-sclu)ol fraternity has been due, in a very large 
measure, to the fact that the school has not had a con- 
struc tive, wc^rking social program. There has been a long 
social and legal struggle on the i)art of public schools 
against secret, f ireek-letter fraternities in public high 
schfxds. It is a perfectly natural tendency for a \x)y to 



desire to be with a group of congenial spirits; to have a 
ritual, a ceremony, a series of secret signs and grips, 
whereby one boy may know another as well in mischief as 
in deeds of \alor. The trouble is that boys of this age, 
working in secret and unguided, often do not develop a 
w'orth-w'hilc i)rogram suited to their needs, but work in 
opposition to the democratic ideas that ought to prevail in 
the scIkjoI. 'rhcy may waste their time on an empty, and 
sometimes on a fcjolish or e\en vicious, program. It is the 
business of the educator, not to attempt to kill off the in- 
stinct that produces fraternities, but to modify it so that, 
with satisfying results, it develops into worth-while demo- 
cratic group activities. Social groups, like-minded in their 
interests, guided by <i wise older person, whf) guides just 
enough, but not too much, is a possible solution of the 
fraternity problem. This s(dution has often been demon- 
str.Ued, and is now' being demonstrated in many high 
schools that are guiding their pupiU in active participation 
in the whole progr«im of extra-curricular activities. Where 
there is a club for e\ery pupil oid a wise faculty member 
for every ( lub, high sc hool fraternities and sororities tend 
to ai)proac'h the \anishing point, laitrenched tradition, 
however, is h.ird to oxercome. 

Many pupils and teachers have hobbies. The school, 
in organizing and [)lanning the work of its clubs, needs to 
recognize the liobbies of pupils and teachers. The hobby 
may or may not ha\e much value, either immed«ate or de- 
ferred, but, in .inv case, it does represent a present interest. 
In getting »i pupil from w’here he is to where he ought to bi , 
the beginning must be made with him w’here he is. In 
practically all cases he is already interested either in lead- 
ing or following. In club, as in regular class, it is the 
school’s business to get the p’lpil into a situation where he 
can succeed, where sometimes he can lead, and where at 


other times he must follow. The pupil sometimes wants 
to spend all his time on his hobby, and, since regular les- 
sons interfere, comes to hate his regular school work. It is 
necessary for the club itself to guide the member so that 
his interests are well balanced. With the laissez-faire plan 
that exists in some high schools, such directing of the pupil 
is impossible. 

The pupil’s point of view in developing a club program 
must be kept in mind. Clubs, to be real clubs, have, on 
the part of their membervS, so much of idealism, enthusiasm, 
earnestness, and loyalty that these organizations can be 
neither decreed nor forced. They must Ix^ de\ eloped. In 
their development, the pupils’ point of view must be the 
starting-point; as educators, teachers must so arrange the 
situation and so guide that the pupil will get from where he 
is still farther along toward where he ought to be. In the 
freer association of the clubs, this idea applies w'ith even 
more force than in the usual, regular organizations dealing 
with academic subject-matter. In one girls’ high school 
where the clubs met the last period every Wednesflay 
afternoon, one club meml>er gave seven reasons for ap- 
proving this plan of club meetings: 

1. “ Until we had clubs in the sixth fHTiod, many girls could not 
lx; mentIxTs Ixcause the\ had to work after s(h(M>l.” 

2. “C'lubs develop) the s^xial side of (nir natures — we really get 

3. “We f(jrm new friendships.” 

4. “We Ixcome broader in our views when working in our clubs. 
We st*e the other side of the c|ueslion.” 

5. “We lx;Iic\e by having a broad generous spirit will come a 
greater desire to help the community.” 

6. “If it were not for the clubs, many girls might lx:comc e.\- 
treme individualists.” 

7. “We obtain recreation from our clubs. Ciirls need play just 
as much as they need work.” 



The pupil’s and the teacher’s points of view are undoubtedly 
sometimes quite different, but not so different as their 
vocabularies sometimes indicate. In the teacher’s vocab- 
ulary, number seven above would probably become, 
“Clubs provide an opportunity for training in the intelli- 
gent use of leisure.” The meaning, however, is essentially 
the same. 

Are clubs just harmless? Some writers have considered 
clubs as a means of harmless activity. Some clubs have 
been and are vicious. To get them up to the plane of 
hcirmlessness is some improvement. Relatively such an 
cH'romplishment might be called good, but it is a good that 
IS the enemy of the best. To consider a club as just harm- 
less is to damn it with even less than faint praise. Since to 
accomplish the purposes for which clubs exist, they must 
be voluntary; they must, at the same time, be interesting 
and worth while from the pupils’ point of v lew. Clubs can 
help the pupil find new friends and learn how to be a friend 
by liv ing in such a relation with at least some of his fellows. 
The pupil wishes to ha^e a g ^d time, to have fun and 
more fun. The club can help the member through satis- 
f\ing acti\ity to have fun on a higher plane, possibly in 
some art club, for example, to attain what the psychologist 
tails impersonal jovs. The club can, and, where a wise, 
constructive school policy prevails, usually does, sup- 
plement the possible range of the pupil’s exploratory ac- 
tivities. In fact, the broadening and finding influence of 
many club activities, while beneficial to the pupil, has 
helped the school to do the pioneering necessary prior to 
introducing many of the present elective and required 
courses. To call a required “remedial,” “make-up,” or 
“preventive” subject-matter class, a club, is not at all in 
line with the idea of a club hl presented in this chapter. 
Clubs do not exist primarily as a means of mastering sub- 


ject-matter. It is true that mastery of subject-matter has 
resulted, in some cases, with almost unbelievable success, 
but such mastery is not the primary aim in the mind of a 
club member and sliould not be (^f *irst importance in the 
mind of the adviser. If some such ends as these enumer- 
ated here can be attained, instead ot bein^ “just harmless,” 
clubs are one mcan^ of real education. 

In club activity there can be a favorable opportunity for 

1. I’o learyi hcnv to work together. Whether pupils recog- 
nize it or not, b\- work in their clubs they soon learn they 
must work toirethcr or there will be no club. There is op- 
portunity for initiative, for leading or selec ting a leader to 
folh^w. There is a rich reward in the .ipprowil of one's 
asso<'iates for responsibility assumed and for making; 

and there i^ a re<il stinu in failure. One must (ooperate or 
pet out. 

2. l o explore firw fields of interest. Pupils do ex[)lore 
fields of interest, and fortunately these liekls of explora- 
ticHis may le«id to higher fields of interest. One “Just-So 
('lub“ «utended a meeting of the Drama l.eapue, and, as 
one of the pirls said, “We were so impressed with the per- 
sonality of the .Shakesperean actor who spoke that we went 
to hear him in The Merdiant of Venue.'' A Recreation 
Club attendefl the annual exhibition at the Ac'ademy of 
Fine Arts, and the secretary wrote in the club minutes, 
“ W'e had a most splendid time, for we were our own critics.” 
A Mathematics (lub of boys took a hike, so the club 
minutes say, “tf) see pofimetrical forms of nature.” A 
group of j)U[)iIs who were going to a performanc e of Drink- 
water’s Ahrnhnni Linrnln read, together with their adviser, 
poems about Lincoln, and decided they liked best Edwin 
Markham's Lincoln, A .Mon of the People. I'hcir judg- 
ment may or may not lx* right, but they were thinking, 
evaluating; they read with a purj)ose. 



Historically the school, consciously or unconsciously, 
has been exploring through club activity such fields as 
dramatics, debating, music, athletics, and the school news- 
paper. So far as the high school is concerned, the activi- 
ties just cited have grown up, largely, outside of the high- 
school curriculum. Now these acti\ities are either a part 
of, or coming to be included in, the regular program of 
studies. If one considers the development of the past 
twenty-five years, it seems quite clear that the high school, 
without consc'ious intent, has been experimenting in these 
five fields, with the result that new materials have been 
added to the currK'ulum. At present, as every profession- 
ally alert high-sc hool leader knows, many phases of new 
materials in reguhuly accepted subjects, as well as several 
subjects almost entiielv new, are being considered as more 
or less worthy of a i)lace in the curriculum. If the school 
will consciously and ciitically experiment with proposed 
new m.iterials and subjects, intelligent curriculum growth 
is assured. 'Fhe school clubs, without academic credit, 
furnish one fa\oiable lield for ‘Experimentation. There is 
at present a kind of faith, not oasecl on ciitical evaluation 
of results, that clubs do supplement the accepted curricu- 
lum. Ilowe\er, with some notable exceptions, the club 
acti\itic's have not consciously been used as a means of experimentation. 

3. 1 0 explore himself. The work of a club may aid in 
exploring the pupil to himself. In the Captain LawT nee 
Club of boat-builders, one boy, whose chief interest had 
been in woiking with ideas, found he liked to do skilled 
work with his hands. In an Automobile Mechanics Club, 
a gill, who h id been fairly stunned by what seemed to be 
the buzzing confusion of the family car, came to be keenly 
interested in gas engines anc^ electric batteries. A boy, 
who prided himself on being “hard-boiled,” by some 


chance found himself in a Modern Poetry Club, and found, 
as he afterwards expressed it, “poetr>' wasn’t half bad.** 
A frontier boy, who believed all cooking was, as he said, 
“squaw’s work,’’ found keen delight in a boys’ cooking 
club. Another boy in a Biography Club found, in the 
many-sided richness and demcx'iatic faith of Thomas 
Jefferson, his ideal for life. K.xamples do not prove the 
case, but the fact is that pupils need somewhere in their 
school experience some varied organizetl opix)rliinities to 
follow their ow'ii interests. Membership in clubs is one 
way of helping pupils to find themselves. 

4. To interpret. The club experiences may lead to in- 
terpretation of wdiat one know's possibly onh in words. It 
is plain that an engineering club, after Ixing di\ided into 
small groups and taken through the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, had a clearer idea of what they had studied; a 
girls’ club on a hike to the Navy Yard said they saw “ships 
galore,’’ and were quite sincere when they recorded later 
in the club minutes, “We had reason to lx proud of our 
Navy.” A group that visited Indeixndence Hall thought 
they had a new inqxtus in their love of country. In their 
account of the trip, one pupil wrote, “Here we siiw and 
touched with our hands that sacred relic of American lib- 
erty — the 1 x 11 of ’76,’’ A Philadelphi«i girl, on a club ex- 
cursion along the Wissahickon, after being stung by nettles, 
said, in the school paper, “This made me think of that little 
fairy story in which the girl had to make seven shirts for 
her swan brothers by crushing nettles. 1 pity her now be- 
cause I know what pain nettles c«iuse.“ 

The club and curiosity. Technic|ue and organization 
are imp<jrtant, but even more important is the spirit in 
which club work is carried on. Little children entering the 
school may lx full of curiosity; they often ask questions 
about everything. The little fellow is afraid the aeroplane 



that he watches cut across the evening sunset will bump 
into the sky. Fresh from the story of the perils of '‘Little 
Black Sambo/* he replies to some parental reproval with 
“Please, Mr. Tiger, don’t eat me up.** Many little folks 
have, as Kipling expresses it, “ ten million serving men who 
get no rest at all — one million hows, two million wheres, 
and seven million whys.’* These little people in a kind of 
trailing cloud of intellectual curiosity become pupils in the 
school. In the earlier grades it is “good form’* to ask 
questions, but by the time they really are mastering the 
“fundamental processes,” their curiosity in the classroom 
is largely gone; they are dumb as oysters. Teachers, being 
human, get wearied with questions; pupils, learning to 
conform, tell each other to “shut up.’’ If there is to be 
growth, curiosity must be kept alive. Pupils, guided 
enough, but not too much, must learn for themselves. 
Teachers must ha\e faith in the educational value of the 
pupil’s own activity, his own drive. He must have a 
favorable chance to be curious about something — if pos- 
sible about something worth ' *iile to him now and later. 
Help him just enough, but not too much and at just the 
right times, but let him have the joy of his own discovered 
answer. He must not be robbed of his ardent curiosity by 
having some pedagogical fire-extinguisher with a ready- 
made solution put out his flame. All of this is true in class 
and, if possible, even more true in club. 

The club and the sponsor. Acting as an adviser can 
help keep a teacher human, or to humanize those teachers 
who for some terrifving reason have lost the magic touch 
that enables them to know the heart of youth. Every 
principal and supervisor has an opportunity to know how 
some teachers, many of them long in service, have, through 
the routine of the classroom oi somehow, lost the joy they 
once had in teaching. Such teachers have come to the 

28 o 


point where they teach sul^ject-matter instead of teaching 
pupils. Again there may he a specialist, young or old, who 
is interested in the scientific classification of knowledge and 
in the imposing of this classification on pupils rather than 
in leading pupils through experience to organize knowledge 
for themselves, and at the same time, know and appreciate 
what others have done. If these teachers can, through 
force of public opinion or for any worthy, appealing reason, 
he got to act as the advisers of pupils’ clubs, they may be- 
come better teachers by catching the point of view of 

Sponsors. Some teachers, either by original nature, or 
l)ecause of a t\ t)e of long practice, or becMUse of a bossy, 
unmellowed youth. ha\e an egotism that m.ikes them 
want to do all the thinking and pKinning for ,i club. I'o 
succeed as «i club ad\iser such a teacher has to put away 
such “childi'^h things” and “grow u[).” 'I'liis necessary 
growth niiike^ <i belter cla^->room teac her as well as a bet- 
ter club ad\ i'^er. 'I'h(‘ one who said that club work was as 
necess*iry for the teacher as for the iiujiil m.iy have been 
more nearly ccjrrecl than is usually admitted. 

The club and the curriculum. .\ thesis projiosed 
throughout this study is that where\er possible extr.i- 
curricuhir activities .should grow out of curricular activ- 
ities and return to them to enric h them. As has been 
abundrintly clemc)n>trat(‘d, there may be two high schools, 
or two cc)lleges, on the s<ime caniiius; one set up by the 
faculty, anothc‘r set up by the students. In suc h c\ises the 
scIickjI si*t up by the fac ulty c'onsists of c'our.s(‘s, whic h, if 
[)assed by stuclent-., Ic-ad to gradu.ition. I'he school set up 
by the students is made \\\} c hielly of extra-c urric activ- 
itie*!. There may be sc hools in whic h the work pi escribed, 
l)oth in subjec t-matter and in methcxl, is so remote from 
present interests c;f the [)Upils that it is imjKissible for the 



extra-curricular activities to grow out of the curricular re- 
quirements. The more nearly, however, the school comes 
to dealing with what Dewey calls “life-situations,” the 
more possible it is for there to be one school instead of two 
schools on the same campus. In accordance with the thesis 
advanced here, the club wherever possible will grow out 
of the class activity. The mathematics club, of whatever 
kind, ideally will follow some interest disco\ered in class, 
beyond the bounds of the curriculum. Athletics, intra- 
mural or intcr-scholaslic, wall be a part of and grow out of 
curricular work in physical educaticm and will be directed 
by the Department of Physical Kducation. The dramatic 
club may be a part of or at least grow out of curricular 
work in such courses as exist in Knglish or French. Music 
cl 111 )s will be a part of and an outgrow th of curricular work 
in music. 'Fhere may be perfectly justifiable reasons for a 
club that cannot grow out of the curriculum as it exists at 
present in a particular school. The \'ery purpose of the 
club activity m.iy be to supplement curricular offerings. 
As was pointed out in comie Mon with the “Broadening 
and Finding C'ourses,” the club may exist as a means of 
exploration. Howe\er, ivliercvcr extra-curricular 

activities should grtnv out of curricular actixities. In 
some ixvfect scIkjoI, somelmie, somewhere, the wavering 
line of demarcation between curricular and extra-curricular 
activities may vanish entirely. In such a case if human 
nature remains what it is - and it does not seem to ch..iige 
rapidly - pupils probably will still go beyond the curricu- 
lum and organize a club of their “very own.” In any 
event, there is a present necessity of the school’s planning 
for and coordinating the whole educative experience of its 

Clubs : Section 3. Developing a club program. In view 
of current practice and in accord with the theory advanced 


in this chapter, how shall a club program be wisely de- 
veloped? In a new school, or in a school in which little has 
been done, the plan will probably differ materially from 
the one to be followed where there are already many, per- 
haps too many, activities, and reorganization is the aim. 
In all of these situations there are many common elements. 

Professional teachers’ meetings. The first step is a 
study by the faculty under the leadership of the principal 
of what is, what ought to l>e, and how that which is desired 
can be developed. The faculty for purposes of study may 
work partly as a large group and partly as a series of com- 
mittees. For example, there have been in some cases such 
committees as those on aims of club work, current practice, 
methods of organization, extent of participation desired, 
method of developing club programs of activity, method of 
check-up and suj)ervision, and so on. The principal 
should be responsible for organization of his faculty, for 
bibliographies and other materials, and for guidance of all 
committees. Through faculty discussion, two ends may 
be achieved: education of the faculty through this self- 
activity and tlie development of a plan of action. 

These faculty discussions may result in certain well- 
understood conclusions. Vor example, the faculty with 
the leadership of the principal may decide that an activi- 
ties period is desirable so that clubs wholly, or in part, may 
be included in the regular scheduled activities of each 
week. Such a decision may involve a consideration of the 
home-room and the assembly schedule, as well as the de- 
termination of the day or days, the place, and the time of 
day that clubs should meet. Likewise, the faculty may 
come to recognize that, so far as [K>ssible, pupil interests 
must I)e considered and that clubs should represent the 
active interests pupils have or will have when discovered 
to them. To meet the immediate situation, however, 



sponsors’ interests must also be considered. Therefore, the 
first step, after the preliminary, exploratory study, is for 
the principal, or his representative, to work with the teach- 
ers to find what club each teacher is anxious or willing, as 
the case may be, to advise. With a list of possible clubs 
and an adviser for each one appointed, each adviser for the 
club that he or she is to advise can prepare a brief, definite 
statement of the probable, or at least the possible, activi- 
ties of the club. 

The right pupil in the right club. The list of possible 
clubs, with the brief explanation, the name of the adviser 
of the club, and the number of the room where the club 
will meet, can be mimeographed and distributed to each 
pupil in e\ery home-room. In the home-room period the 
teacher-adviser of each home-room should direct the pupils 
in discussing the plan of club organization and the offer- 
ings as ref)resented in the mimeographed sheet so that the 
plan is understood, and that pupils, through this explora- 
tion, shall make a wise choice of a club. Further explora- 
tion can be provided for by se ing aside a definite period 
in which all pupils go to the club of their first choice for ten 
minutes to meet with the adviser and discuss what the club 
can and probably will do. During a second ten-minute 
period, the pupils can go to the club of their second choice, 
and in still another ten-minute period to the club of their 
third choice. At the end of thirty minutes, when the 
pupils are back in their home-rooms, if they arc provided 
with a ballot on which to write their name, grade, and 
home-room, they record their first, second, and thiid 
choices and give the reasons for each one. From these 
ballots the club lists can be made up. As a result, on the 
basis of first choices, some clubs may have too many mem- 
bers and others too few. Some clubs, therefore, may or- 
ganize additional sections and some clubs may be dropped. 


In some cases pupils may be requested for that semester to 
po into the club of their second choice. However, if at all 
possible let the pupil have the club of his first choice. An- 
other plan, somewhat slower to carry out, but in some 
cases more elTective, permits the pupils, after the explora- 
tory period, to enroll in the club of their first choice until 
that club is tilled and, failing to get into it, go to the club of 
their secoml choice. In a school where chibs ha\e been 
established for sonu' time, groups of [)iipils will probably 
petitiim to have some particular club established. All 
clubs should be chartered by the student council 'The 
petition for a char ti'r will include the name of the club, the 
ad\iser. the li^t of charter member^, and the proposed 
pn'igiMin of acti\itie'>, .Vot only the princip.d or the di- 
rector of all c'lub a('ti\ ities, but pupil nu‘mb(‘r> of the c'oun- 
cil m.i\' be chargc'd with the* rc‘''pon-.ibilit\ of \i^iting the 
club> to c'cnuirMtiilate the ('liib on its line work, to offer 
suggestion^ for* impr(»\ ement . or, in (‘\trtme cast's, to in- 
spect the ( lub to see if its c barter should be re\oked. 'The 
clubs, along with e\ery other extra-curricular .icti\it\ in 
the school, should be chartered b\ the one central org.ini- 
zation — the student council. There should be no hesi- 
tancy, if the case demands it, in revoking a club charter. 
There is, c;f ccnirse, constant nec*essity for the supervision 
of the work done in c lubs. This responsibility must rest on 
some one p.irticailar person, the jirinc'ipal, or some one as a 
(iirectcjr of activities who directly represents him. d'he 
freedom of club activities reciuires a peculiarly skillful 
supervision. Under the direc tion of this su|)ervisor, there 
should \)C near the end of the semester an evaluation of 
what has fx,*en done and a reworking of [dans for the suc- 
reerJing M in(*s(er. .\s soon as a club scheme of organiza- 
tic^n becomes fixed and smooth-running, it is probably 



Restudying the club program. In a school in which 
there arc already many extra-curricular activities, possibly 
too many, a restudy of the club situation may begin with 
a self-survey. 1 n order to get such a survey on a fact basis, 
certain definite steps seem necessary. 

1. A check-list including every extra-curricular activity 
can be prepared. In mimeographed form this list can be 
submitted to every pupil in the school. Each pupil will 
check every activity to which he or she belongs. Where 
these data »ire tabulated, they will show the membership of 
each activity and the number of activities to which each 
puinl belongs. In any such study there are usually two 
.-surprises: the large number of activities to which a few 
pupils belong, and frecpiently the large number of pupils 
ihat have little or no f)art in the activities. 

2. A list of every oiTice to which pupils may be elected 
can be pre|)ared and each pupil can check the office, or 
offices, which he or she holds. These data will show the 
distribution of positions of elective leadership. If the 
school not developed a {X)' system, a few able pupils 
usually hold nearly all the offices. 

The chief ollicer of each club can report on the type 
and ch.irac'tei of the work of his or her organization. A 
blank form is necessary here in order that the data from 
various clubs mas be comjxirable. 

4. All of the teacheis can check the list of activities 
showing the activities for which they are sponsc.r or with 
which thev are in any way connected. The analysis of 
these data wall show , of course, the distribution of sponsor- 
ship. I'mther, either on the same or an additional sheet 
the sptmsors of various activities can point out what they 
themselves as sponsors do and at the same time evaluate 
from their point of view the worth of the activity which 
they' sponsor. 


5. The principal can state the policy of the school re- 
garding pupil activities, how sponsors are appointed or 
chosen, how pupils are guided, stimulated, or limited in 
activity memberships, and so on. 

The self-survey just outlined should be carried on chiefly 
by the student council under the guidance of the faculty. 
Pupils, by participating in such a study of themselves, 
their fellows, and the school, can come to recognize what 
the problems really are. With this knowledge in mind, they 
can share in the educative experience of aiding in the de- 
velopment of a better system of extra-curricular activities. 
One result is apt to be better provision for the individual 
differences of pupils in club offerings. Usually such a 
study results in the wider distribution of office-holding 
and of sponsoring. A few pupils and teachers cease to be 
so overw'orked and a greater number share in the education 
that comes from leadership. More leaders are discovered 
or developed.* 

All schools know and control the number of studies a 
pupil may take during a semester. However, except for a 
comparatively few schools, where there are well-developed 
point systems and accurate records of pupil activities, 
schools do not know the extent to which pupils are partic- 
ipating in the school's extra-curricular activities. A few 
able pupils may be in far too many activities. They may 
be exploited by teacher-sponsors. Some able leaders, by 
their own ambition and by the insistence of teachers, may 
assume so many positions of leadership that they have a 
wholly unbalanced program. Many times they do not do 
their extra-curricular work as well as they could if they 
undertook fewer responsibilities, and sometimes such pu- 
pils fail really, or comparatively, in their academic work. 


The school needs to find out the facts as a first step in re- 
studying its whole program of activities. 

How does a club begin work? After the membership is 
determined, the adviser secured, the time and place of 
meeting determined, how does a club get down to work? 
The time-honored custom of working out a constitution 
and laboring on the mechanics is probably wrong. Many 
of the most successful clubs begin with activity. One 
kodak club at the first meeting planned an exhibit of the 
previous work of its members and at the second meeting 
held its exhibition. A committee invited each member to 
bring in what he considered the best picture he had ever 
snapped. In this case each member had a picture “ hung” 
by the committee-jury. The program consisted of each 
member’s telling the circumstances under which he took 
his picture and in what respects he considered it good. 
There was a vigorous, and in the main a helpful, discussion 
that led in subsequent meetings to a planned consideration 
of nearly all the questions that these young “artists” 
wished to have answered. Subsequent exhibitions of the 
members were on “action pictures,” “still life,” nature 
pictures, pictures and series of pictures that told a story, 
and so on. The pictures of a particular type, clipped from 
magazines and newspapers, furnished other exhibitions. 
A photographer who had had unusual success in flashlight 
photographs of wild animals furnished a thrill. Each ex- 
hibit was managed by a separate committee. One com- 
mittee gained the title of being “high-brow” by planning 
and carrying out a trip for the whole club to a picture 
gallery to study certain pictures. 

A club needs to have some definite aims and a plan of 
work in the beginning. On this basis membership is de- 
termined and on this basis the club is chartered by the 
council. However, in the inauguration of a club the philo- 


sophical statement of its aims in constitutional phraseology 
is relatively unimportant. 

A stepping-up program. There should be progressive 
steps of advancement in club activities. The leaders of 
such organizations as Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and Camp 
Fire Girls have long recognized the value of a stepping-up 
plan. The Scout who (lualilies and passes the tenderfoot 
requirements is at once in touch with boys who are working 
to become second- or first-class Scouts, and beyond these 
steps there is the leading on to the ranks of “star,” “life,” 
and “eagle.” Most school clubs have not made use of 
this highly motivated plan. One bird club, however, used 
the stepping-up ide^i in this fashion: All those who gained 
admission to the club had to identify ten birils. With 
these identifications made, the new member became a 
“sparrow.” As soon as he had built a bird-house and had 
got a bird to nest in it, he became a “wren.” In addition 
to passing these two steps and knowing the feeding and 
nesting habits and songs of ten birds, and being able to 
identify them in llight, he became a “warbler,” and so on 
up the scale. Such a plan may, of course, be abused. 
Such emphasi:. may be placed on the ranks that club mem- 
bers care little for what is learned, or for the joy of the 
learning: to have the distinction of achieving the rank may 
become the real satisfaction. 'Fhere need not be, however, 
such emphasis [)laced on the ranks as to spoil the worth of 
such a leading-on program. 

Club names. Cdub names should have an appeal to the 
imagination. One school, as the author has previously 
pointed out,* has a group of boys who are messengers, but 
in their own minds they are not just messengers, for they 
are members of what they call the “ Pony Express.” Out- 



side of school with a woman teacher old in years, young in 
spirit, they take hikes, play ‘‘prisoners’ base,” perform 
deeds of daring, and, in their imagination, have hair- 
breadth escapes. In school they curb their style some- 
what, but no message entrusted to this Pony Express was 
ever intercepted, lost, or delayed. In a series of recreation 
clubs in another school,* the whole group was known as the 
“American Eaglets.” The lowest group was known as 
“eggs.” If an “egg” had certain information and could 
perform certain activities, he was declared a “good egg” 
and hatched into a “ fledgling” ; with additional knowledge 
and performance, he became a “ flyer,” first with one wing, 
then with two wings: and finally, with further knowledge 
and performance, he beaime a “great hunter,” first with 
one claw, then with two claws. The boys and their lead- 
ers working ccxiperatively developed the program. They 
were continuously making and remaking it: it never be- 
came a finished, completed program. Much of the inter- 
est, and certainly a definite part of the value, was in the 
boys’ inventing, planning, accepting and rejecting, and in 
carrying out a program P^^y understood. The names and 
the ste|)ping-up scheme aid help motivate the activity. 

Supervision, fhe freedom of club activities requires a 
peculiarly skillful supervision. There is whole-school 
planning for clubs st^ as to provide for individual differences 
and for intelligent choosing of clubs by both teacher-spon- 
sors and pupils. Ulubs are chartered by the whole-school 
council. Actually, the sponsor makes or breaks the club. 
All super\ision should be for the purpose of helping the 
sponsor. The principal or director of all clubs, or both, 
can helj) club advisers find material, focus public approval 
on helpful, successful achievement, getting sponsors and 

■Smith, C F. and FrotwcU, Elbert K “Horace Mann Studies in Elementary 
Education", Teachers College Record, 22:12 20 January, 1921. 


members of the poorer clubs to visit the better ones. This 
supervisor can be a real creator in other people of worth- 
while things to do and better ways of doing them. There 
is a necessity to guide enthusiasm resulting from success- 
ful achievement. Pupil members of the council as well as 
the supervisor may be charged with the responsibility of 
visiting the club, to congratulate it on its fine work, to dis- 
cover to the club ways of improvement, and in extreme 
cases to inspect the club to see if the council should consider 
revoking the club’s charter. If the case demands it, there 
should be no hesitancy in revoking a club charter. Wise 
guidance — the right kind, at the right time, in the right 
amount — should make such drastic action unnecessary. 
It cannot be too often repeated that, as soon as a club 
scheme of organization or activity becomes fixed and static, 
it is probably dead. 

Ten tests for a school club. Ten tentative tests arc pro- 
posed as one means of thinking through the activities of a 
school club: 

1. Common interest: The club is composed f)f a group of pujiils 
of about the same level of achie\ emeiit in resi)ect to the ,icti\ ity 
of tlie club, who volunt«irily join the club because of a common 
interest in the activity to be carried on. 

2. The common interest may grow out of any one of three possible 

a. Crow out of the curriculum: The common interest may be dis- 
cov'cred in the curriculum, and it may be of such a nature 
that this particular group desire to follow it beyond the 
bounds of the curriculum as the curriculum now exists. 
Wherever possible the club should grow out of the curricu- 
lum. Classroom teaching that enables pui)ils to discover 
worth-while interests is a real basis of club activity. 

b. Exploration and experiment: The club may explore a promis- 
ing field of activity that has not yet become a part of the 
curriculum. In this field the teacher-sponsor and the pupils 
may experiment with materials profitable to the pupils here 



and now, and which, after necessary try-outs, may become a 
part of the accepted curriculum, 
c. Permanently outside the curriculum: The club may be based 
on a common interest of pupils that is and probably will re- 
main outside of the curriculum. The curriculum should be 
founded on pupil interests, but the curriculum does not 
necessarily include all the pupils’ worth-while interests. 

The taught and tested curriculum of the school does not, 
never has, and probably never will include all of the worthy 
interests that pupils have and that can make for worth- 
while knowledge, skills, and appreciations, and for intelligent 
use of leisure now and in later li\ ing. 

3. Size of the club: The club is large enough to provide a situation 
whereby there is group stimulus, and yet the club is small 
enough to necessitate constant, continuing participation by 
the members either as individuals or as members of small 
groups within the larger group. 

4. Active participation: This \oluntary group is composed of 
pupils of about the same ability in respect to the activity of the 
club who are actively finding out what to do, planning how to 
do it, and doing it. Non-participation automatically eliminates 
a member from the group. The club is for workers. Intelli- 
gent follow'ership is recognized; leadership is adequately 
distributed and responsibility willingly and effectively assumed. 

The comparatively pa--*ve listener may receive some benefit 
or even “catch” an active interest by belonging to the club. 
However, since it is impossible to belong to many clubs at the 
same time, the pupil probably is achieving most in exploring 
both his own capacities and major fields of possible acti\ity 
and in developing his knowledge, skills, and appreciations by 
belonging to a club in which he has a definite, active interest. 

5. A :>tepping-up program: The club program provides for succes- 
sive steps in achievement wdth appropriate recognition at each 
step. This plan of motivation requires that the members’ 
attention-span be taken into consideration, and consequently 
that the “steps,” especially the first and the second ones, shall 
be large enough to challenge the individual, but not so great as 
to discourage him. 

All pupils will not advance in the successive steps; some 
pupils will find worth-while, satisfying activity in a lateral 
spread of the leading-on interest. However, the club should 


expect most meml^ers to proceed in successive, advancing 
steps in achievement. 

6. Satisfaction: The club is composed of a group, the members of 
which find satisfaction primarily in the acti\ity of the club 
rather than in a showing-olY exhibition to non-members. 

7. Pupil membership: The school in its scheme of organization and 
administration of clubs provides for a club member, who finds 
he is no longer interested in the field of the club’s acti\ity, to 
transfer in an honorable and dignified manner to another and a 
desired field. 

8. The club\ relation to the school: The school is attempting to fit 
its puiiils to li\e in a democratic society and to make demo- 
cratic society a fir pLu'e in which to li\e. The club chartered 
by the school, while serving the pufiil, renders some definite 
service to the school in aiding the school to achieve its objec- 

9. The club name: The name of the club and the naine^of the ranks 
in the stepiiing-up program can have an aj)[H‘<il to the imagina- 
tion of the members. 

10. The club sponsor: 'fhe adult sfxm.sor has a healthy curiosity 
and a re<il iiuerot in the field of activitv and has or comes to 
have a genuine delight in tlu* personnel of the club. 'I'his 
adviser knovv^ what to advise, when to advice, how' to advise, 
and in what amount. 

It is the writer’s opinion that a club which is fairly de- 
scribed by the preceding tests has some of the character- 
istics at least of a worth-while club. 


1. From such sources as first-hand knowledge, handbooks, maga- 
zine articles, books or jiarts of books dealing with t lubs, make a 
frequency table of clubs now existing in junior high schools, in 
senior high schools. How does your list comjiare with the 
table of 1372 club*, in this chapter, and w^ith the summary of 
Rohrbach’s study? 

2. How, if at all, can clubs provide, in part, for individual dif- 
ferences.*' Cite exanqiles. 

3. What d(; you consider the place of the club in “broadening 
and fimling” courses? 

4. Should clubs be sponsored by departments as in the e.xample 



given of the Holmes Junior High School? On what bases do 
you reach your tentative conclusion? 

5. How do you explain the fact that an activity that is curricular 
in one school is extra-curricular in another? Illustrations may 

6. In what respects are the specialized clubs and the older type 
of literary society alike? — different? What are the strong 
and the less strong points of each type of organization? 

7. To what extent in the clubs you actually know, do the activities 
carried on indicate tlie kind of organization necessary? Why, 
if at all, should a club heive any internal organization? 

8. What arc the arguments for and against the clubs having a 
definite place in the daily or weekly schedule? 

(). Why, from the pupil-member’s point of view, do clubs exist in 
school? — independent of the school? 

10. Answer question 9 from the adult’s point of \iew. 

11. What does the presence or absence of overlapping in your an- 
swers to (luestions 9 and 10 mean to you? 

12 . How do you e\i)lain the number of agencies outside of school 
that ha\c a more or less club type of activity for working with 

13. Should the school have, or not have, a constructive policy in 
res|)ect to clubs? How do you explain the presence or absence 
of such a policy in the school you know best? 

14. As a result of your own ".inking, do you say: “A club can 
furnish a favorable opportunity, etc — ” or, “A club does 
furnish a favorable opportunity, etc — ”? Is this distinction 
between “can” and “does” generally kept in mind in the 
literature on the subject? 

15. In addition to the four favorable opportunities that clubs can 
furnish for cducati\'e experience, as listed in this chapter, what 
additional opportunities can clubs furnish? 

16. 1 low did the academic subject in which you are most interested 
become a j)art of the present high-school curiiculum? What 
other subjects, if anv, arc coming in now? 

17. Is there a place in the chd> activities for experimentation with 
new materials? — with new methods? Illustrations may help 

18. What i.s the place of curiosity in learning? How does the prac- 
tice of the school you know best agree with the answer you 
ha\ e just made? 


19. In what respects, if at all, can acting as a club sponsor be good 
for a teacher? 

20. Under what circumstances can and should the club grow out 
of a curricular activity? 

II. Under what circumstances, if any, should a curricular activity 
grow out of a club? 

22. What provisions can you make for getting the right pupil in the 
right club? — the right sponsor with the right club.'* 

23. Should a club have a ‘‘course of study”? 

24. What, if anything is there of \alue in the idea of a stepping-up 
program? A study ot the Boy Scout Handbook may help here. 

25. Work out the nccessiiry series of blanks for making a survey of 
club membership and club acti\ities in your school. 

26. Is the name of the club imix>rtant? If so, point out any espe- 
cially fortunate or unfortunate names you know. 

27. How shall the faculty be prepared for i)articipation in policy- 
making and in acting as club ad\isers? 

28. How shall explorator>' work be done so as to ensure wise club 
choices on the part of pupils? 

29. How long should a pupil l)e a member of a particular club? Is 
this length of time the same for junior and for senior high- 
school pupils*' 

30. Should pupils be required to belong to a club? 

31. Should the number of clubs to which a pupil belongs be de- 
termined by the scIkxjI? If so, on what basis? 

32. How shall a club come into official existence? Shall it be 
chartered by the student council? Under what conditions, if 
at all, should a charter l)e revoked? 

33. How should the club program be developt'd so as to realize the 
purjx)ses for which clubs exist? 

34. What is the difference, if any, between the work of pupils in an 
ideal club and the work of pupils in an ideal class recitation? 

35 - Why have fraternities and sororities come to exist in high 
schools? Is there any relation between this question and the 
presence or absence of a real club program? 

36. Why is it that pupils want, or do not w'ant, to belong to “a 
club of their very own”? 

37. Should all clubs, including their advisers, be superxised? If 
sf), how? — by whom? 

38. Should school credit be given for club work? Why or why not? 

39. Should there be a point system for stimulating, guiding, and 



limiting pupil activity in clubs? If so, should this system 
apply to membership as well as to holding office in the club? 

40. Should the school take into consideration the pupil’s member- 
ship in clubs outside of school as well as in school? 

41. On the basis of club activities what, if any, should be the re- 
lationship of the school to such agencies as Boy Scouts, Girl 
Scouts, Camp F'ire Girls? 

42. What should be the relation, if any, of the school to clubs or 
organizations promoted by particular religious or political 

43. On w hat bases, if an> , can a pupil’s club activity be evaluated? 

44. What record should be kept of a pupil’s club activities? How? 

45. What should be the school’s policy regarding clubs? 

46. W’hat should be the pupil’s policy regarding clubs? 

47. What should be the policy that the pupil’s parents assume 
regarding his membership in school clubs? 

48. By what specific means should the school carry out whatever 
policy it has regarding clubs? 

Chapter XI 


Present trends. High-school publications fall into foui 
groups; newspapers, magazines, annuals, and handbooks. 
As ever>^ one knows, the larger high schools in the past 
have usually had a monthly magazine and an annual for 
each graduating class. While the emphasis, historically, 
has been on these two publiaitions, there is a tendency now 
for each school to issue a newspaper and a handbook. If a 
school, especially if it is one of the newer schools, can have 
only one publication, it is usually a newspaper. The tra- 
ditional annual or yearbook is strongly entrenched, but in 
some progressive schools it is giving way to a special edi- 
tion of the school newspaper. 'Fhe monthly magazine, 
part literary, part news, if it exists at all, is giving up its 
dual role and becoming either a newspaper, or, if the school 
has a newspaper, a literar\' magazine. A rapidly increas- 
ing number of schools are coming to have handbooks. 

Need for a constructive policy. Junior and senior high 
schools, individually, and as grouped together in the larger 
cities and in state departments of education, are confronted 
with the necessity of developing a construc tive policy for 
the guidance of school publications. Some schools, cities, 
and state departments have developed such a polic'y, but, 
either with or without such guidance, daily, weekly, bi- 
weekly, monthly, semi-annually, and annually, these pub- 
lications — newspapers, magazines, handbooks, and an- 
nuals — are being issued by high schools. 

These publications exist, and some of them are rapidly 
increasing in number. Whether school men like it or not, 



publication must be endured, suppressed or guided. In 
this whole field of extra-curricular activities, necessity has 
often been the mother of educational policy. The ancient 
and dishonorable laissez-faire policy, so far as school pub- 
lications are concerned, has had its day. 

There are many insistent questions. What shall the 
school publish? vShall whatever is published be a curricu- 
lar, accredited activity, be partly curricular, grow out of a 
curricular activity, or be something utterly apart? Shall 
the publication be definitely planned so as to serve the 
community, the school, and the individual? If so, how? 
Shall the handbook be written by the principal’s office, by 
one or more teachers, or shall the whole school share in the 
educative experience of telling newcomers what they must 
know in order to get started quickly and effectively in the 
new situation? If the whole-school experience is desired, 
how can it be secured? Shall the art work of the annual 
that is to be entered in a state or interstate contest as a 
student publication be done by a teacher within the school, 
by an outside professional or firm, or shall it be, what it 
professes to be, a student publication? Something of the 
same problem that has been fought out in clean athletics 
remains to be fought out here. Shall the newspaper be 
considered vocational training? Shall it be produced by a 
small group with or without guidance? Shall there be a 
trained teacher, adviser, or director for the publication? 
If so, how can such a person be found or produced? Shall 
each high school, junior or senior, in a system simply do 
what is right in its own eyes, or shall there be some county 
or city or state- wide constructive attack on the whole 
problem? If so, what shall it be? Shall “charity” ad- 
vertising in school publications persist? Shall schools 
teach pupils to read and then give them no guidance in the 
kind of reading to which a majority of them in later years 


will devote the major portion of their reading time? Is the 
school interested in producing the very best publication 
that can be produced? If so, the way is clear; engage the 
very best group of professional experts ihat can be secured 
and have them produce it. Is the school, while keenly in- 
terested in producing a newspaper that reflects the whole 
school, still more seriously concerned in making the school’s 
work in producing the paper a real educative experience 
for its pupils? Answers exist for these and the scores of 
other questions that suggest themselves to the teacher or 
administrator. Just answers, however, are not enough; 
if there is to be real, permanent progress, it must be rooted 
in a constructive policy\ 

Why the interest in school publications? The increasing 
interest in high-school publications seems to be due to 
certain fairly definite causes: to the recognition of the 
value of some of these publications to pupils, to the school 
as a whole, and to the community; to the fact that the pres- 
ent is a time of transition in the character of these pub- 
lications; to the changing of some publications from extra- 
curricular to curricular or partly curricular activities; to 
the courses or parts of courses that are being given by 
colleges and universities in high-school newspaper writing; 
to the guidance that is being given by some departments 
of journalism, chiefly in state universities; to the influence 
of regional, state, and interstate contests; to the need for 
educating the community as to what the high schools are 
doing; to the recognition that work on the newspaper is not 
vocational training; and to the recognition on the part of 
teachers of English that the newspaper provides for their 
pupils a favorable opportunity for accurate, brief, clear, 
interesting writing. 

What favorable educational opportunities are furnished 
by the school newspaper? The function of the school 


newspaper is to publish school news while it is news, and 
through its editorial page to aid in forming and guiding 
public opinion. Here is the opportunity to capitalize the 
achievements of the school and of its individual members, 
pupils, and faculty, for the benefit of all those in or out of 
the school who are interested or who may be interested. 
With the increasing size of high schools and of part-time 
sessions, there is insistent need for the school to utilize all 
the integrating forces available. The school newspaper, 
together with faculty meetings, the pupils* council, and 
the school assembly, can develop and foster this common 
integrating knowledge. Knowledge, however, is not 
enough ; attention must be paid to the development of the 
mental and emotional attitude of the members of the school 
toward each other, toward the school, and toward the 
community. The newspaper can, and in many schools 
does, express the achievement, the life, the joy, the en- 
thusiasm and idealism of the school; this expression is not 
by a direct preachment on these subjects, but by a clear 
write-up of the manifestations of these qualities. To 
capture the temporary ini^^rest of a low grade of intelli- 
gence by accounts of physical or emotional violence is 
comparatively easy. However, this is not the field of the 
school newspaper. The school newspaper in its selection 
of news not only guides but reflects the spirit and quality 
of the school. School compositions, essays, and short 
stories will probably kill any school newspaper. The in- 
creasing ability to be accurate, brief, and interesting is de- 
sired for all who contribute to the school paper, and these 
qualities must be employed in writing news and editorials 
on subjects of interest to the whole school or the newspaper 
will cease to exist. The favorable educational opportuni- 
ties may be considered, first, for the school as a whole, and 
second, for the pupil as an individual. 


Favorable educational opportunities for the school: con- 
structive activities. The publishing of the news of the 
school makes for a common basis of knowledge among its 
members. By focusing approval in the news columns on 
worth-while activities, the paper encourages these activi- 
ties and stimulates others like them. It can and should 
condemn any practices that work against the best interests 
of the school, but its great power lies in its promotion of 
constructive activities and the ideas that lie behind them. 

Interpreting the school to itself. In promoting con- 
structive activities the newspaper has a favorable oppor- 
tunity to interpret the school to itself. By its neus it can 
explore for the members of the school what the school is do- 
ing and in editorial it can show what the news means. 'Fhe 
paper, by focusing approval on right actions, can aid in 
developing right standards of conduct. It can give the 
kind of food for thought that makes for intelligent cooper- 
ation and for the correction of school abuses. Practical 
advice, not necessiirily too directly given, may be a part of 
a \igorous editorial column. The paper not only can fos- 
ter clean athletics, but it can present the news of the sport- 
ing page so that the whole school sees the big educational 
idea that is, or ought to l^e, in all school sports. 

Rumor and gossip grow on fractional knowledge and 
misunderstandings. Direct statement and answers to 
pupils’ questions in an “ Editor’s Uolumn” can make for a 
clear understanding. The right kind of an exch.inge col- 
umn can make, not only for cordial relations with other 
schfX)Is, but for an understanding of what other schools are 
doing. Probably every school has, or comes to have, both 
worthy and sometimes less worthy traditions. The paper 
can aid in fostering worthy traditions. Likewise, if neces- 
sary, it can aid in l)reaking with outgrown traditions, such 
as the ancient ways of treating freshmen or the maintain- 



ing of antiquated types of commencements. There is too 
much idle, ignorant boasting; thoughtful school news can 
make for a civic pride based on real knowledge. The 
handling of the advertising problem can make for a great 
weariness or for friendly cooperation on the part of the 
business men of the community. 

Interpreting the school to the public. The patrons of 
the school and the taxpayers need to know what is going on 
in the high schools. The expansion of the high schools has 
been so rapid during the last two decades that many of 
these citizens do not know what the high schools are doing. 
School newspapers that are well written and full of the 
throbbing life of the school will be read by the patrons of 
the schools. Parents read, or have read to them, what is 
published in the school newspaper, for in the course of the 
year many of the items concern their own children. Like- 
wise, the uncles and the cousins and the sisters and the 
aunts have to read, or listen to, what is published by or 
about their young friends. By careful planning, the 
school, through news and editorials, can make known its 
educational policy to its p^crons and at the same time be 
reasonably sure that what is published is read. All high 
schools need educational publicity; the school newspaper 
furnishes one means of securing it. 

It is curious, but it is a fact, that most writers and speak- 
ers on school publicity have ignored the part played by the 
school newspaper. In such a newspaper there can be an 
all-year-round opportunity to educate the pupils in the 
high school and they will soon be voters — as to the 
needs of the school, .^fter all, the siUisfied customer is, in 
the long run, the best advertisement, and when this satis- 
fied customer tells in print the achievements and needs of 
the school, a real campaign of educational publicity is 
under way. 


Some individuals and some publications, however, are 
awake to the real work of the school newspaper in the 
community. “The essence of good publicity,” as Clyde 
R. Miller puts it, “is to see that the interesting story also 
contains information of importance made interesting.” 
The Clevelafid Plain Dealer expresses its editorial opinion 
in this fashion: “We can think of no better advertising for 
a wide-awake high school than a weekly newspaper, alert 
to news value, vigorous in its editorial utterances, clean in 
its point of view and attractive in its physical make-up.” 

It has often been said that the school newspaper does for 
the school such things as have been enumerated in the 
preceding paragraphs. For the sake of accuracy, it should 
be said here that there is a favorable opportunity for the 
newspaper to render such service. The paper can do it if 
the school, through an able adviser and through intelligent 
faculty cooperation, discovers to the pupils at the right 
time what can be done and a successful way to do it. 

Favorable educational opportunities for the pupil. h>om 
the school’s point of view, the type of paper described in a 
preceding paragraph by a quotation from the Cleveland 
Plain Dealer is eminently desirable. A single issue or a 
whole volume of the paper, however, is not the final test. 
The school is an educational institution, and if the pro- 
duction of the paper is not a real educative experience for 
the group producing it, and to a lesser extent for the whole 
school, the paper has no place in the school. The adviser 
is, after all, a coach. The coach teaches the j)layers who 
themselves play the game. The adviser teaches the staff, 
including the far-flung line of reporters, what to do and 
how to do it, but the adviser does not write or rewrite the 
paper. In many, perhaps in most schools, with a turnover 
of something like seventy-five per cent of the staff every 
year, there will be a need for expert guidance on the part of 


the adviser. The opportunity, however, for the adviser to 
do much of the guiding is in leaching a real course in news- 
paper writing. There is a necessity for guidance at the 
time of planning the paper. Likewise, at the meeting of 
the staff to talk over an issue just off the press, guidance, 
probably indirectly given, as to wherein the issue has suc- 
ceeded and wherein it has failed, can be effective. The 
production of the paper must be an educative experience 
for the pupils producing it. 

The pupils learn to write. To consider the benefits of 
the paper to the school is not enough; the school does not 
exist for itself, but for the education of its pupils. The 
benefits to pupils may be considered under three heads. 
The paper should grow out of a course in newspaper writ- 
ing. In such a course there is a favorable opportunity for 
pupils to learn how to write. It is probably impossible to 
teach any one how to write literature. However, it is 
possible to teach a pupil to be accurate, simple, concise, 
and clear in his writing. In a school paper every one from 
the cub reporter to the ed'*^or writes for a waiting reader 
on a subject that he knows about — a “familiar world of 
people and things” — rather than on subjects that lack 
personal appeal. He is interested in his newspaper article 
and he must master such fundamentals as spelling, sen- 
tence structure, and paragraphing, or his contribution will 
be rewritten or killed. He must be able to distinguish be- 
tween the important and the useless for news purposes. 
What he writes must be interesting or it is nothing. The 
interest that the writer has helps to carry him through the 
hard practice of learning to write by writing. While he 
must write from an impersonal point of view, the motive 
for writing is within himself. His success or failure brings 
its own reward. 

The pupil acts as an intelligent citizen. A thesis of this 


volume, often repeated, is that it is the business of the 
school to furnish a favorable opportunity for the pupil to 
practice the qualities of the good citizen here and now with 
satisfaction to himself. There may be character values in 
“careful, painstaking news gathering.” At least, as Grant 
M. Hyde puts it, “Searching for facts and truthful pres- 
entation of facts is a much better training than mere 
writing out of one's own head -- especially if the head is 
empty.” * 

The school journalist must be accurate; his cooperating 
associates force him to be. He must be al)Ie to carry out 
directions, to practice “self-restrained liberty,” to know 
something of human nature, to be diplomatic in interviews, 
to respect confidence, to carry responsildlity willingly as- 
sumed. to observe accurately, to discriminate, to form an 
intelligent opinion. HulT em[)hasizes this point: 
“The man who cultivates his garden gels not only the 
garden products, but he grows in health and strength. So 
the school jf)urnalist de\elops ingenuity, indi\ iduality, 
self-control, per->onalit\’, moreover, strength of charac- 
ter.” ^ The one who knows high school newspaper work 
can easily recall many inst<inces in whic'h the young jour- 
nalist prac ticed such (|ualities as have been enumerated 
here and that he probably [)ra('ticed th(*m with satisfaction 
to himself. It is probably true that for the pupil the by- 
prcxlucts of school newspaper work are of fundamental 

The pupil learns how to read the newspapers. The 

values of journalistic work in the high sc'hool lie, not only 
in dcvclof)ing a kind of writing ability and in furnishing 
satisfying practice of certain (jualities of c'haracter, but in 


presenting a favorable opportunity for the pupil to learn 
how to read newspapers. A knowledge of the problems in- 
volved in producing a paper enables the reader to have a 
keener appreciation of successful achievement. What to 
read, how to read, and what to believe are all important. 
Democratic government seems impossible without news- 
papers, yet sometimes it seems impossible, also, with some 
kinds that exfst. The school attempts to teach every one 
to read, but as a rule it makes no attempt to help them 
directly in the field in which in later life they will do the 
most of their reading. The surest way to get a better press 
is for the people to demand it. The taste and desire for a 
better tyj)e of newspaper can be taught in every high 
school ; perhaps some day there will be such teaching. 
Clyde R. Miller thinks, “It is interesting and enlightening 
to try to visualize the effect on America during the next 
generation if every high school in the nation sets itself to 
the task of trying to have every graduate a discriminating 
reader of the public press.” * The school newspaper can 
do something to help people to know what to read, how to 
read, and what to believe. 

Work on the high school newspaper is not vocational. 
It is (juite jirobable that some few will find their life-work 
here and, if wisely guided, will find also the stern necessity 
of real preparation for it. High-school work on the news- 
paper may serve as one means of enabling the pupil to ex- 
plore his own interests, aptitudes, and abilities, and at the 
same time enable him to explore, somewhat, the field of 
journalism, but the high school can no more educate and 
train (he journalist than it can the doctor or lawyer. True, 
some high-school graduates can do newspaper work prob- 
ably quite as wtII as some newspaper w'orkers are now do- 
ing it, but the teacher who encourages a high school pupil 

■ Miller, Clyde R , and Charles, Fred. PubUtity and the Public Schools^ p. 141. 


to go directly into journalistic work, in which writing after 
all forms but a small part, is doing violence to both the pu- 
pil and the profession of journalism. While schools of 
journalism, in an academic sense, are relatively new, the 
idea that the way to study journalism is to help a printer 
wash the type, or to dump the editor’s waste-basket, has 
long since gone by. Lawyers no longer learn law by sweep- 
ing out a law office and helping the old lawyer draw up a 
few papers. Neither do prospective doctors begin by wash- 
ing the doctor’s buggy and helping a gentleman of the old 
school mix his pills and powders. These days are gone, for- 
tunately, forever. The pupil who goes from the school 
newspaper to cub reporting is unduly handicapping him- 
self and will probably find he is in a blind alley. At the 
same time, if the newspaper is to serve the public in pro- 
moting the general welfare as it can and should, it must 
have workers of broad education, wide ex[)erience, and 
professional training. 7'he pupil’s work on the school 
newspaper should be worth while, here and now, to the 
extent pursued. 

What shall the school newspaper publish? The school 
newspaper should publish, naturally, that “most perish- 
able of all commodities,’’ the news. Anything that hap- 
pens in which people are interested is news, and the best 
news, says Harrington, “is that which carries the most in- 
terest, significance, and importance to the greatest num- 
ber,” or to cite a successful editor quoted by Miller and 
Charles, “News is what happens today that interests me. 
The editor’s problem is to multiply me by you and divide 
by the number of columns.” News flourishes where there 
is contest and conflict, whether it is between nations, be- 
tween the accused and the law, in a World’s Series, or in 
the subversion of the conventional that results in a dra- 
matic situation. It is the unwise school paper that, either 


in content or make-up, attempts to imitate the average 
city daily. Yet the principle that determines news is the 
same. The Psalmist might have been giving a negative 
definition of a reporter when he exclaimed: “Eyes have 
they, but they see not; they have ears, but they hear not; 
noses have they, but they smell not.” 

It is recognized, of course, that there must be a system 
in gathering the news; that interpreting the news and dis- 
cussing current events will form a large part of a vigorous 
editorial page or column; that feature stories are hard to 
write, but worth all the effort they cost; that the exchange 
column can tell of activities in other schools that are of in- 
terest and worth to the paper’s readers; that interviews, 
wisely chosen and well done, are sure to be read; that while 
age may wither, custom cannot stale the infinite variety 
of personals, which, besides, help the circulation; that an 
editor’s column provides for comment, more newsy and in 
a lighter vein than editorials; that the story of an athletic 
contest may lead to an understanding of the whole athletic 
program; that being funny in a humor column is a serious 
as well as a difficult mattei. 

The humor column. Since the humor column has such 
possibilities and since it has received such scant treatment 
in nearly all discussions of school papers, it may be worth 
while to note what is being published in some representa- 
tive papers. First, so far as humor is concerned, there 
seems to be something in the name of the column. The 
Polygon has the “Weakly Gasp”;' the South Side Times 
has “Southern Spice”;' the North High Oracle has “Ice 
Chips”; J the South High Beacon has “Flickers and 
Flames”;^ the Commerce Budget has “Debits and Cred- 

• The Polytechnic Preparatory Country Day School. Brooklyn, New York. 

■ Sleuth Side lliKh School, Foil Wayn-, Indiana. 

» North High School, Des Mom Iowa. 

« South Side High School. Cleveland. Ohio. 

3o8 extra-curricular ACTIVITIES 

its”;* the Roosevelt Record has “On the Hunt”;^ Tulsa 
Life has “Krax”; ^ Blue atid Gold has its “Poem Tree.” ^ 

What do these columns contain? As Lawrence Mur- 
phy points out, in an analysis of a dozen humor columns 
in as many daily papers, a fourth of the material is nearer 
tears than smiles, another fourth is purely informative, the 
remaining half of the material is devoted to such items as 
poetry, news, or a humorous turn on a political event. 
The best of the humor columns in high-school papers are 
attempting to find their humor in their own school situa- 

Don Marquis, while acting as guide, philosopher, and 
entertainer, gives his idea of a columnist in a kind of 

I pray llicv iiuikc in\ ('oliiinn read, 

.And ^i\e me ilnis ni\ dail\ l)read. 

Kndow me. it tluni grant me wit. 

Likewise with M-n-'e to mellow it. 

Sa\e me from fet ling so miidi hate 
My food will n(»l assimilate 
Open m\ e\es that I m.i\ see 
Thv world with more of eliarity, 

And lesson me in good intents 
And make me friend of innocence. 

Make me fsomelimes, at least) discreet; 

Help me to hide m\ self-coiueit. 

And gi\e me ('oiir.ige now and then 
To he ,is dull as are most men, 

.And gi\e me readers (jiiick to see 
When I am s.itiri/ing me. 

The humor editor can recognize that: 

Men imisi hi* t. night as if \oii taught them not, 

.And things unknown pniposed as things forgot; 

* VWst Cofnnicnr IIikIi S hnol. ( Ifvrl.nul. Otiio 

* ThcrKlriff Kfjowril Int^-rrii#'- s<hf*ol, Wuhil.i, 

• Onlral HikIi S< Tiils.i. Okl.itiom.i 

• Hast MikIi SttKHil,, Olin» 



that a mixture of the serious is helpful along with the gay, 
that he cannot be tolerated if, as Borah puts it, he ‘“cribs’ 
ris(|U(* witticisms from comic publications, dresses them up 
in local colors, and presents them as his own ^ that there 
is no place for the revamping of the Twenty-Third Psalm; 
that he is not to work over or clip old jokes; that he should 
welcome contributions; that while he watches for comical 
occurrences or listens for witty sayings, he must be fair, 
clean-minded, and avoid sarcasm, invective, and ridicule; 
that the humor column can be a joy and delight or that it 
can be just as flat and stale as ditch water. 

How shall copy be prepared? Editors themselves can 
I)robal)ly give the best answers. In a study of Newspaper 
Publicity Jar the Public Schools,^ Dr. R. G. Reynolds re- 
cei\ed replies on this point from 98 editors in 40 different 
states. In summarizing his material, Dr. Reynolds made a 
conscientious attempt to report the opinions of the editors 
cxactU' as they were given; wherever possible he quoted 
their exact words: 


(From the re[)orts of 98 newspaper editors) 

1. Siibji'it-matti'r 

((/) “Write news, not prop.iganda — news is something happen- 
ing. an e\ent of some sort, not an argument to prove or dis- 
prove M)nu* theory or proposition.” 

“( ii\e information rather than advice or insu action. ” 

{Jb) He ac'i iirate, truthful, meticulously exact as to facts, names, 
and details. 

(c) Write news for the public and not for the purpose of 
personal exploitation. 

{(1) Names have great new’s value. 

• Uf)rah, Loo A News Writtna for lltgh Schools, p ISO- 

• Reynolds, R. G. Newspaper PubUtity for Public Schools, pp. 32-36. 1922. 


“A story about an individual is always better than group 

(«) ‘‘Eliminate favoritism and personalities in preparing 

(f) “Eliminate inconsequential details, trivial happenings, 
commonplaces in general.” 

“Don’t overeni[)hasize nonessentials.” 

(g) “ Run in a humorous phrase when it doesn't hurt anybtxly 
and when it does not spoil the text.” 

(A) “Make the story appeal to the a\eragc reader — more 
human stud.” 

(f) “News should he written from the slandi)oint of the public, 
not from the standpoint of the school.” 

(J) “In general a\(nd submitting the achie\ ementsof precocious 
children unless the newspaj)er in\ite.*% such contributions. 
Remember that ewry parent imagines his child to be a 

(k) “(fi\e the news alK:)ut e\cei)tional pii[)iN, the latest experi- 
ments in education, and the like.” 

2. Newspaper style 

(a) “Study the st\le of the newspaper and follow it.” 

“Make every contribution interesting by employing news- 
paper rather than literary diction.” 

“Write news, not literature.” 

(A) “Use news style .I'j di.^tim t from edilori.d style.” 

“Avoid the expression (d o[)inion — merely recite what 
hapjKined without interi)reting it means.” 

“ Do not usurp editorial i>rerog,iti\es by calling the attention 
of the public to sch(M>l needs. Accpiaint the editor with such 
needs and let him do the crusading.” 

“News is not editorial discu.ssion.” 

“Give facts, ncH opinions.” 

“Get away from the academic.” 

“Get out of the idea of ‘we’ and 'our.' ” 

(c) Use a simple style. 

“Keep away from the technical and get down to simple 

“Avoid attempts at ‘ fine writing. ’ ” 

“Use more American and less English.” 

“ Be concise.” 

“Write clearly and to the point.” 



''Use short words instead of long ones." 

“Avoid the use of too many adjectives." 

“Use fewer capital letters." 

“Don’t be flamboyant." 

“The public does not want ‘fancy work’ in news — just a 
simple statement of facts." 

“Do not write in an ornate or didactic style — make it 

(d) Be brief. 

“ Make it short." 

“Make it brief and snappy." 

“Don’t use too many words to say little." 

“Don’t l)e verbose." 

(c) “Get the main fact into the first paragraph." 

“Ciet the gist of the story into the ‘lead’ and avoid mistaken 
headlines " 

“Write the story in the first paragraph and let the details 
follow ’’ 

“State principal f.icts first." 

(/) Avoid repetition. 

3. News s(ttse and news interest 

(tt) “Develop a news sense and a sense for ‘human interest* 
stories " 

“Learn to spot ‘news’ v m seen or heard." 

“Leain what live ikwvs is and stick to it. The public can’t 
be interested bv long-drawn-out essay s." 

“It is the unusual that makes news." 

“ Realize the value of the news feature article." 

“In writing news items, feature the unusual." 

“St I ess tlie strange, the odd, the unusual." 

“Write about those things only which actually possess the 
elements of general interest." 

“Learn to see the ‘story’ in the news." 

“ Regular routine matters do not interest readers." 

“ Keep the paper informed of all innovations.” 

4. The delivery of school news 
(a) Get school news on time. 

“Deliver the news promptly." 

“Give new^s as far in advance as possible." 

“ Announcements are worth more than reports both to school 
and newspaper." 


''Get news in the day it happens if possible. Dailies like 
fresh stuff.” 

“Don’t let news get cold.” 

“Don’t let news become ancient Idstory.” 

“News value dejx'nds largely upon recency of happening.” 
(6) The use of the phone for transmitting news tends toward 

5. The wcchanics of school ttnvs copy. 

(a) “ Use paper for copy 8* 2 by 6^ ^ with lines running the long 
way. The si/e of the liiu)t\pe kcybcxird determines this, 
not the whim of the editor.” 

(h) Use one side of the paper only. 

(c) T>pewrite all copy or write it clearly. 

“Submit cletin coj)y.’’ 

(d) Double space or triple space your co[jy. This is a great 
benetit to the editor. 

(e) Don’t write the headline. 

‘T-ea\e one third of \our title page blank for the use of the 
newspaper headline writer. ’’ 

“Hearlline w'riting is .1 news[)ajHT function.” 
“Don’t disgust the editor b\ writing the headline for him 
“Material for a headline should In* found in the first 
paragraph or ‘lead’ of co[)y.” 

(/; “If a name is spelled in a manner, w'lite ‘correct’ 
after it.” 

(ijj “ U-^e as few' capit.ils as i>ossible.” 

W hile it should be kept in mind that these 98 men write 
from the [)oint of view tff regular newspafier editors, much 
of what they have to say applies with ecjual force to the 
work of the editor of the school paper. 

It is usually wise, as Harrington points out, to obey the 
rhymester’s injurution expressed in “Be Brief”: 

Have you had a thought that’s ha[)py? 

Boil it down. 

Make it short and crisj) and snappy, 

Boil it ck>w'n. 

When your mind its gokl has minted, 

Down the page your pen ha*^ sjirinted, 

If you want your effort printed, 

Boil it down. 


Finding a name. The naming of the school paper, as 
the naming of children, is a kind of personal matter for the 
school or family. It is possible that some papers, like 
some children, dislike their names. The name, as Harring- 
ton points out, should be “dignified, neat, and informing,” 
and where possible should be associated with the name of 
the school or town. To what extent do the following 
names meet with such a standard.'* The Empire Herald, 
Empire Junior High School, ('leveland, Ohio; The Cole 
Jiitiior Life, ('ole Junior High School, Denver, Colorado; 
The Jelfersonian, Jefferson Intermediate School, Detroit, 
Michigan; 'I he Adams Gazette, James A. Adams School, 
Coates\ille, Pennsyhania; The Sketch Book, Washington 
Ir\ing Junior High School, Des Moines, Iowa; Latimer 
Life, Latimer Junior High School, Pittsburgh, Pennsyh 
vania; The Loiiiiieood Ledi^er, Longwood Commerce High 
School, ('le\ eland, Ohio; Sky High, Asheville High School, 
Ashe\ille, North ('«irolina; The Serin Xeies, Nicholas Senn 
High School, C'hicago, Illinois; Manual Arts Weekly, Man- 
ual Arts High School, Los Angeles, California; The Clari- 
tonian, C'larilon High SciiOol, Clariton, Pennsylvania. 
Newsp.iper names of an entirely different type could be 
quoted, but the X-Rays, ICye-Openers, School Defenders, 
and 'LalLduissee ddcklers, like some children, have been 
tormented too much already. 

What organization should exist for producing the paper? 
First of *dl, it is necessary to recognize that the whole 
school, rather than any small group, is responsible for the 
paper, and that in a larger unit, as in a city or countv, the 
superintendent, and behind him the board of education, is 
rcsj)()nsible for the whole policy of school publications. 
This responsibility in a particular school may be vested in 
a board of jniblication which, subject to the principal, de- 
termines the policy for each publication in the school, the 


kind of paper, whether or not newspaper-writing courses 
shall be given out of which the paper can grow, the selec- 
tion of the adviser who in turn is responsible, with the help 
of the pupils, for the selection and organization of the staff. 

The board of publications. A school that has two or 
more publications may find that these publications over- 
lap each other in content, organization, and appeal, and 
that there may be conflict in policy as well as an unhealthy 
rivalry. The lack of cc3()peration in appeal to advertisers 
may tend to destroy both school and comnuinily spirit. A 
board of publications may help coordinate all conflicting in- 
terests and develop a school policy governing all school 
publications. Such a board may be composed of the edi- 
tors, business managers, and advisers of all publications, 
the head of the English Department, the acKi^er of boys, 
the adviser of girls, the director of extra-curricular activi- 
ties, the president of the student council, and the principal 
or his representative. This board is a policy-making 
group. In a small school there will be, naturally, a smaller 
number of memlx?rs on the board, but the principle is the 
same, whether the school is large or small, whether it has 
one or four publications. Further, if there is more than one 
school in a system there is a real need for co()peration of all 
schools and the superintendent’s office in developing a 
policy for the whole system. 

The Cleveland plan. This idea of a central board has 
been worked out in many ways. The city of ('leveland 
has had a director of publications, who among other duties 
had advisory supervision of all Cleveland school papers. 
This director kept individual schools w'ell informed of all 
that is going on in the world of student publications. 'Fhis 
city has an Association of Teachers of, a city- 
wide Hi-Press Club, a working coijperation with the Cleve- 
land Advertising Club, and a series of local contests di- 


rected by the local newspapers and the schools. Annette 
Smith tells the story in this fashion: 

Among the thirteen senior high schools in Cleveland, twelve have 
newspapers and two conduct magazines. Some of the papers are 
published weekly, some bi-monthly, and the newest senior high 
issues a monthly. They range in size from five to eight columns and 
all ha\e four jxiges, except in the case of special editions. No 
effort has been made to standardize the papers except in so far as 
they observe the recognized rules in news-writing and make-up. 
Rather, have they been encouraged to retain their individuality. 
Thus, The South llio^h Beacon, Cleveland’s largest paper and the 
one which has received the greatest recognition, is an eight column 
pajicr, printed on regular newspaper stock, while The West Technical 
Tatler has six columns and is printed on a coated magazine paper. 
Indiv idualitv also expresses itself in special features, columns, and 
the like and great rivalry is often seen amongst the youngsters on 
the papers in their efforts to create the most effective feature in the 

The journalism teachers themselves have been of invaluable as- 
sistance to new toa( hers. Two years ago they organized the Cleve- 
land Association (.)f Teachers of Journalism which meets once a 
month to discuss common and indiv idual problems. The sessions 
are informal dinner meetings where everything pertaining to high 
school papers is gone into thorou^nly. Here, the new teacher comes 
to find answers to lier problems and nothing is too simple or ele- 
ment.rry to receive consideration from the group. 

This associ.iiion’s greatest accomplishment, it believ'^es, was the 
standardi/ing of the teaching of journalism in the Cleveland schools. 
Before this was done every high school had different rules gov- 
erning credits, amount of time a teacher should give to the work 
and amount of time to regular teaching and study hall duty, text 
books to be used in news-writing classes, and other phases of the 
work. A report was drawn up by the association, 
copies of w hich were sent t(^ the director of English, to the assistant 
superintendent of schools in charge of senior high schools, and to 
the principal of every senior high school. Gradually the report’s 
recommendations arc being adopted throughout the city and 
journalism teachers’ working conditions are improving — 

Another cooperative organization functioning in Cleveland is the 
Hi-Press Club, whose membership is composed of boys and girls on 


the staffs of all senior high scIkx^I papers. This club meets about 
c\'er\' three weeks at different schools where a reI)resentati^ e of one 
of the daily papers talks to them aU)ijt some |)hase of newspaper 
work. The best feature writer in towi goes out and talks about his 
six'cialiy. a cartoonist gi\es some of the rules of his trade, a make- 
up authority gi\es the youngsters help in the appearance of their 
papers, and other local newspaper men and women assist with 
\arious suggestums. I'hese talks are made at a dinner served in 
the school's iMleteria through cooperation with the luiuh-room de- 
partment. and are followed by an hour or two of dancing, stunts, 
and other fe^ti\ iti(‘s. 

Local news|>apers ha\e aUo cooiXTated with the high schools by 
ha\ing annual contests for the scIkh)! papers. 7V/c /7e/// Dealer 
offers a cup to the senior high school ha\ing the best ali-roimd 
pa{HT. The \e:js offers one to the junior high school h.i\ing the 
l^st paper, and 7 h*' 1 i»!e\ otlcTs a c up and a certilicate to the senujr 
and junior i).ij)er respecti\el\ ha\ing the Ix^st editoiial p.ige. 

The ('le\ eland .\d\ erti'^ing ('liib has been of great assi'.tance to 
( le\ eland high sc hool p.ipcTs iu imj)ro\ ing the (|ualit\ ol adxertis- 
ing which has ajipearc-d in tlu-ir c'olumns. A commit tic- was aji- 
jxiinted b\ the* c lub, last \, c omj)ose(l of ad\ ertising managers of 
thre^e of ('Uweland’s large ston-s This c'ommittee studu-d the ad- 
\c“rti''ing column-^ ot the high-^c hool papers and from their study 
dr<‘w uj) .1 li'xt of rc ( ommc'iidat ion•^ for impro\ ement. Mhiking 
sc hool pa})er .id\ ertising oH tin' c h.iritN basis and plac ing it on the 
basis that the medium is of rc-al .uKertising \ aluc'. and siil,stituting 
uKertisc ment'* that re<ill\ say something for the “n.imc' cards" 
])re\ iousK used e\tensi\el\, were their two strongest ri'c'ommendti- 

Continuing their polic-y of hc'lping sc hool papers, the- Ads ertising 
C lub g.ue a series of lc*( turc's this \ear to nu'nibers nf the business 
st.'dfs of M'liior high ‘•c hoctl papers, '\ hese lec lures wc're gi\en b\ 
e\i>ert advertising men and ('ontaiiM'd dehniti', concre te help to tin' 
lx>\s and girls in charge of the papers’ adsertising. .Xftc'r the 
lectures a cjuestion hour w.cs lield where the* pupils besic'ged the 
lec turers with cjiic-stious on spec ilic problems.^ 

Probably many cities could profit by studying the organi- 


zation behind the newspapers in the Cleveland public high 

The Canons of Journalism. The board of publications 
must consider, also, the code that is to govern the school’s 
or the city’s publications. Such a code can well be based 
on the Canons of Journalism as set forth by the American 
Society of Newspaper Editors. This society has a Com- 
mittee on Ethics, which shortly after it was appointed be- 
gan the formulation of the Canons of Journalism in 1923. 
This code as adopted, including a revision in 1925, is as 
follows: ' 


The primary function of ne\vspaj)crs is to communicate to the 
human race \vh<it il^ nicnihcrs do, feel, and think. Journalism, 
therefore, demands of its jiractitioners the widest range of intel- 
ligence, ot knowledge, and of experience, as well as natural and 
trained powers ol ol)MT\aiion and reasoning. To its opportunities 
as a chronii’le <ire indissoluhlv linked its obligations as teacher and 

To the end of lindiiig some means of codifying sound practice and 
just asj)ir.itions of .\merican joi. 'alibin these canons arc set forth; 

1. Ri’sf)o}i\thilily. riie right of a newspaper to attract and hold 
readers i^^ restricted 1)\ nothing hut considerations of public welfare. 
I'he use a newspaper makes of the share of public attention it 
gains, servo to determine its sense t)f responsibility, which it 
shares with e\erv member ot its st.ilT. :\ journalist w^ho uses his 
pow'er for »iiu seltish or otheiwise unworthy purpose is faithless to 
a high trust. 

n. Freedom of the Press. Freed(Mn of the Pre'^s i*-' to be ,U‘irded 
as a \ital tight of mankind. It is the unqueslionaoic right to dis- 
cuss w'hviie\er is not explicitly forbidden b>’ law', including the 
wisdom of any restrictive statute. 

III. Independeuee. Freedt>m from all oi)ligations except that of 
fidelity to tlie pulilic interest is vital. 

• First Annual MwlinK of the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Proceedings, 
P- .19 See also- Uiiulis. B Y. /*• ;eAAio»niiCo</«; llarnnRton and Fr4nkenberg. 

Kssenttnls of Journalism, p 86, for Dana’s "Golden Rules"; Huff. Bessie M , f/oiv to 
Publish a School Newspaper, pp. 7"8. 

3i8 extra-curricular ACTIVITIES 

1. Promotion of any private interest contrary to the general wel- 
fare. for whatever reason, is not compatible with honest journalism. 
So-called news communications from private sources should not be 
published without public notice of their source or else substantiation 
of their claim to value as news, both in form and substance. 

2. Partisanship in editorial comment which knowingly departs 
from the truth does violence to the f)cst spirit of American journal- 
ism; in the news column it is subversive of a fundamental principle 
of the pn^fession. 

I\’. Sincerity, Truthfulness, Accuracy, (iood faith with the 
reader is the foundation of all journalism worthy of the name. 

1. By e\ery consideration of good faith a ncusf)aper is con- 
strained to be truthful. It is not to be excuscHl for lack of thorough- 
ness or accurac\ within its control or failure to command of 
these essential qualities. 

2. Headlines should be fully warranted by the contents of the 
articles which they surmount. 

\’. Impartiality. Sound practice makes clear distinction l)etween 
news reix)rts and expressions of opinion. News rep(jrts should lie 
free from opinion or bias of any kind. 

This rule does not apply to so-called sjiecial articles unmist.ik- 
ably devotwl to ad\ocacy or characterized b\ a signature authoriz- 
ing the writer’s own conclusions and interpretations. 

\'I. Fair Flay. A newspajKT should not publish unoflicial 
charges atTectirig rejiutation or moral character without opj^orl un- 
ity gi\cn to the .iccusee to be heard; right practice demands the 
gi\ ing of siK'h opportunit) in all cases of sttIous accusation outside 
judicial iiroceedings. 

1. .\ newspaper sliould not invade |)ri\ale rights or feelings 
without sure warrant of public right as distinguished from public 

2. It is the pri\ilege, as it is the duly of a newsjiajKT, to make 
prompt and complete (virrertion of its ow n serhius mistakes of fact 
or opinion, whatever their origin. 

VII. Decency. \ newspap<*r cannot escape roiuiction of in- 
sincerity if while profes^^ing high moral purpose it supplies incen- 
tives to liase conduct, such as are to be found in details of crime and 
vice, publication of w'hich is nrit demonstrably for the general good. 
Lacking authority to enforce its canons, the journalism here re|)rc- 
sented can but express the ho[)c that deliberate fiandering to 
vicious instincts will encounter effective public disappro\al or 



yield to the influence of a preponderant professional condemna- 

VIII. To its privileges under the freedom of American institu- 
tions arc inseparably enjoined its responsibilities for an intelligent 
fidelity to the Constitution of the United States. 

The newspaper workers in every school, aided by the board 
of publications and by the Canons of Journalism, can and 
should work out a code for their own guidance. 

The kind of paper. The board can decide also the kind 
of paper to be published. Shall the paper consist of a 
single copy prepared by a group of pupils and read at a 
weekly meeting of a home-room, club, or class, or in as- 
sembly; shall it be copied and posted on one or more bulle- 
tin boards; shall it be a special column or section in the 
town paper; shall it be mimeographed; or shall it be pub- 
lished as a school paper? In any event, how often shall it 
be published? Most schools seem to prefer a mimeo- 
graphed or printed school paper of their own, but Paul W. 
Kiescr,* possibly with small towns in mind, presents the 
following argument for pubh'shing the school paper within 
the columns of the community newspaper: (i) No expense 
to the high school and no worry about paying expenses of 
publication; (2) the advantage of the expert help and ad- 
vice of the newspaper editor and his mechanical force; (3) 
a weekly publication, if desired, instead of a monthly 
paper; (4) no need of soliciting “charity” advertising 
from the local merchants; (5) no feeling on the par* of the 
local editors that their territory is being encroached upon; 
(6) the school news in the community newspaper is much 
more likely to be read by the parents than if published in a 
separate high school newspaper — the weekly newspaper 
is the most thoroughly digested newspaper published; 

• Kieser. P.iul W . and Yule. Mildred E. A booklet. The High Sthool Paper, published 
by the State C ollcgc. Brookings. South Dakota. 


(7) a much better idea of newspaper methods and require- 
ments is secured by this means. 

The adviser and the school paper. The adviser, pref- 
erably a successful teacher of English, needs the kind of 
youthful zest, vitality, and nervous energy that enjoys an 
adventure. As Miller points out, this is a young person’s 
game. Such a teacher must be the kind of person that gets 
other people to work. Since the co(‘)peration of the whole 
school is necessary, the adviser must be able to work con- 
structively and happily with other ineinbers of the faculty 
as well as with the pupils. The paper should touch every 
group, every actlvlt\ , and every depart nuMit in the school. 

Since so many advisers at the present lime are com- 
paratively untrained - Miss Penney put/ d at nine out of 
every ten — the second (jnestion is, How shall the adviser 
be trained.^ If the prosf)ecti\e adviser is a college grad- 
uate with successful experience in teaching, preferably 
English composition, a vacation si)ent witli a news[)aper, 
country weekly or city daily, will hel|). .A course for ad- 
visers of schotjl newspapers, as (dfered in some college for 
teachers during reguhir or summer sessions, should be of 

There should be also a thorough understanding of the 
whole problem of extra -curricuhir activities. In fact, two 
faculty ad\ isers, if they can and will work together, may be 
l>etter than one. If there are two, one should have charge 
of producing the paper while the other has ( harge of all 
financial affairs. Men and women advisers .ire as a rule 
equally good -or bad. In any event, the adviser will 
have to do a great deal of self-education. The bibliog- 
raphy for this chapter shows the wealth of material avail- 
able. “The real test of an adviser’s fitness for his work,” 
so Miss Penney thinks, “is his ability to lead his pupils to 
develop the right .attitudes, to set up the right standards. 



to accept the responsibility for making the paper as nearly 
ideal as possible.” Thereto she adds this cheery note; '‘A 
teacher who believes in youth and its possibilities finds 
in this relationship satisfaction and joy.” * 

How is the paper produced? Some papers are written, 
edited, and published with very little faculty guidance in 
schools that have not as yet assumed responsibility for the 
paper. Other papers with a staff, or at least the editor-in- 
chief, elected by the student body, are issued under faculty 
super\ ision. In many cases, those elected are chosen from 
an eligible list made up by the faculty. In still other cases 
the fciciilly directly or through the adviser of the paper 
select the more important officers, who in turn select their 
assistants. The whole matter of choosing the staff de- 
pends largely on whether or not there are newspaper- 
writing courses gi\en in the school. 

There is a growing tendency for the school paper to grow 
out of cKiss work and to carry in each issue such statements 
as the following: 

The Xortli Central Xe^vs, Xot.ii Central High School, Seattle, 
W.ishingti)!!, j'>iihli\he({ weekh by the cla^>s vi journahsm. 

'I he Weekly East Technical High School, Cleveland, 

Ohio. Imhlished e\(‘rv Thiirs(Li> during the school >ear by the stu- 
dent\ of neivsl)aper writing and editing and printed by the bo>sof the 
print shop. 

'The Ar^entian, Argentine High School, Kansas City, Kansas, 
published si'ini-inonthly by the .students of the Journalism Depart- 

Pasadena Chronidr, Pas<idena High School, Pasadena, Cali- 
forni.i, published under the direction of the Department of Journalism. 

The Dart, Ashl.ibiila High School, Ashtabula, Ohio, published 
once a wet'k during the school year by the Journalism class of Ash- 
tabula Ili\^h hool. 

How is the staff organized? In those schools in which 


the paper grows out of the work in news or newspaper 
writing, or journalism classes, the chief members of the 
staff, at least, come from present or past members of the 
course. Some schools make one term’s work, usually in 
the junior or the first half of the senior year, a prerequisite 
for membership on the staff. There are often a large num- 
ber of reporters; in some cases one for every home-room. 
In some cases the staff is selected for the term, occasionally 
for the year, and in other cases the staff changes every 
week. There is a growing recognition of the necessity for 
all staff ap{)ointments to l>e made on a merit basis with a 
fairly strict system of promotions. 

It is practically impossible to find any two schools that 
organize their staffs in exactly the siime way. The fol- 
lowing plan seems to meet most of the needs for educative, 
efficient work: 

The South High Beacon 
South High School, C', Ohio 

Editorial Board: Kle.inor Morgan, Josei)hine Koinocka, Alplions 
W'ytwLT, Mar\in Tanner. 

Business Manager: .-Xlfrcd Kiis. 

Advertising Manager: Kthel Mcermans 
Circulation Manager: Ik*rnard Bounce 
Sports: ( harles Strobl, Paul Rii/icka. 

Art Editors’ John (1«irk, LeRoy Schrauf. 

Feature W'riter: I'hjrein e Quay. 

Faculty Adviser of Xnvsuriting: Margaret M. Sullivan. 

Faculty Advisers of Business Management: Raymcjiid S. Shriver, 
E. A. Nace. 

Reporters: ('erelia Jones, .Sarah Morgan, Mayhclle Mclncrny, 
Wilbur Kelley. 

Typists: Lillian Nan, Blanche Krackora, Angclinc Strelec, 
Caroline llladik. 

An examination of the list of the staff as published at the 
top of column one, page two, in nearly every school news- 



paper, will reveal the organization of the staff. Such books 
as Huff’s or Otto’s, listed in the bibliography of this chap- 
ter, give a clear analysis of the duties of each member of 
the staff. In any plan the fundamental idea is a division 
of work and of responsibility. There needs to be first of 
all the teacher-adviser, who stimulates and guides by ex- 
pert advice and by a wise, sympathetic, absolutely fair 
handling of the human element. It is important to keep 
some healthy adventure in the education of youth: the 
wise adviser provides for adventure rather than for its 
elimination. In the beginning and the end, nearly every- 
thing depends directly and indirectly on the ability of the 
advaser. The experiences of the Manual Training High 
School of ICinsas City, Missouri, as well as that of many 
other schools, shows that “bricks without straw” " can 
be made, but a real newspaper is not made without an 

Advertising in the school paper. The placing of ad- 
vertising in the school paper has been considered by some 
business men to be an act f ' charity. Some solicitors of 
advertising for school papers have sold space instead of 
service and have based their sales talks on “loyalty ” to the 
school. Advertising must be on a sound business basis. 
The school that sends, or permits, pupils to “beg” for ad- 
vertising in its publications is alienating business men, 
lowering its own dignity, and destroying the self-respect of 
its “beggars.” 

There can l^e a survey of the school made to find out ex- 
actly what the members of the school buy. The paper’s 
advertising manager and his assistants can make a list of 
everything that they can conceive of that the members of 
the school do buy or might buy. The members of the 

* Bricks Wtthoui Straw — a booklet showing how a school “grew" a course in news< 
paper English and a print shop Published by the school, 1919. 


school could be asked to check the particular articles which 
they were considering buying. The tabulating of these 
checked items would result in a freciuency table. This 
table could be used as a basis for soliciting advertising. 
The solicitor of advertising will study the merchant and 
his business before interviewing him or his advertising 
manager. With a delinite knowledge of what the mem- 
bers of the school will buy, the solicitor can sell service in- 
stead of space. 

Donovan, in his test of one thoiisiind high-school seniors 
in eleven senior high schools in Philadel[)hi,i, found that 
these pupils knew what commodities were b(‘ing ad- 
vertised and pointed out th<it present-day young people 
bought and influenced their parents to buy the mer('han- 
dise about whi('h they knew.* 

The Cleveland Ad\ertising (dub studied the whole mat- 
ter of advertising in scIkxjI publications and coiududed that 
“the school news[)aper is an actual asset to acKertisers 
whose line (jf busimss permits them to use it intt'lligently 
but that the Annual has no pi. ice in the adveilising ap|)ro- 
priation of an efficiently managed adxertising depart- 
ment.” " 

Courses in newspaper writing. If a school expects to 
realize in the knowledge, attitudes, or h;d)it> of its i)U[)iIs 
whatever of educational value there may be in first-year 
Latin, in geometry, in athletics, C)r in the sc hool newspaper, 
it must provide guidance in the work to be done. 'Fhe 
work may l)e c'urricular, partly ('urricular, or entirely extra- 
curricular, and the amount and possibly tht* (juality of 
guidance may vary, but guidance is necessary. 'I'he point 
of view maintained in this chapter favors the firesent tend- 
ency for school newspapers to grow out of regular courses 



in newspaper writing. There are many of these courses, 
but few of them are in print. The Laboratory Manual for 
Joyfnalism in High Schools,^ by Bessie M. Huff, published 
in 1921, containing courses for three semesters’ work with 
detailed assignments and reading references, was one of 
the earliest in the field. 

The Cleveland Association of Teachers of Journalism, a 
pioneer organization, discussed, as long ago as at its meet- 
ings from February to June, 1922, the courses in newspaper 
writing that ought to exist in junior and senior high 
schools. The consensus of opinion was: 

{(i) 'I'll, It th(‘ course of journalism be dnided into two semesters 
and be listed in the prescribed English course as English Composi- 
tion journalistic writing. This will eliminate the difficulties 
otten found when students apply for college entrance and entrance 
boards ([uest ion them about credit for journalism. 

(/)) 'fhat one h.ilf unit for each semester’s work be given for the 
course; but that the lirst semester’s credit be withheld until the 
student has compli‘ted the second semester’s w'ork, unless in the 
opinion of the te.uher ,ind the principal there is some special reason 
for crediting one semester’s wor’ 

(0 'fhat the course be called i^aiglish composition, Journalistic 
Writing I, lor the lirst semester’s work; and Journalistic Writing H 
for the second semester. 

{(1) That the first semester’s work include a review of the prin- 
ciples of composition and iniin tuation; and the study of the theory 
and jiractice of newswriting. 

(c) the second semester’s w’ork be the publication of the 
high-school newspaper and only students who have cor pleted 
course 1 be permit ti‘d to enter course II ; that these students, super- 
vised by faculty adv isers, carrv on all the work connected with the 
editorial and busiiu ss sides of the publication. 

(/) 'fhat teachers in charge of school publications be allowed 
school time f ir the work and that their teaching periods be reduced. 

ig) That tin teacher I'f journalism in charge of the publication 
have no extra-curricular duties except the paper. 


{h) That his classes be two in addition to the journalism classes. 

(i) That he be given no home-room. That study hall work, if 
assigned him, take the place of a class. 

(7) That a teacher be apix)inted to tupervise the business side of 
the paper and be allowed one teaching period a day for the work; 
that he work in conjunction with the teacher in charge of the edito- 
rial side of the paper and be resjx^nsible for the handling of all de- 
tails in connection with business problems, including ad\ ertising, 
circulation, and cost of priKiuction. 

(k) rhat the editorial and business stall be named according to 
merit of candidates by ad\isers in charge of publication, approved 
by the principal of the schot)l. 

(/) That definite duties be given each worker on the staff and 
that he be held strictly accountable for the execution of these 

(w) That business and editorial advisers and staffs cooperate all 
the time in the work of publication. 

(«) That each student on the staff be re(|uired to keep a file of 
stories he has published to aid teacher in determining grades. 

(0) That as far as possible work of publication be done as class 
work each day. That extra hours after scIkmjI gi\en to publication 
be credited as outside pr(*paration tf; home \\ork. 

(f?) That credit in the course be gi\en to students in the cour.‘?e 
who contribute art work, time in *ioliciiing and selling ads, prepara- 
tion of ads, collection of bills and for keeping accounts in connec- 
tion with business side of the paper, relative to advertising and 

(q) That it is necessary that there be a stated time when the 
staff meets and remains to write news. 

The future of school publications. According to present 
tendencies, the junior and senior high schools of the future 
will have at least one publication and that publication will 
be the school newspaper. This pai>er may be mimeo- 
graphed or printed, according to the size and the financial 
resources of the school. Schools containing only grades 
one to six also will probably have a mimeographed news- 
paper. Possibly in junior high schools, and certainly in 
senior high schools, the newspaper will be produced by 



pupils who have had and who are having direct curricular 
training in the writing and production of the school paper. 
Junior and senior high schools will have a handbook pro- 
duced largely by the pupils. The possibilities for educa- 
tive experiences for pupils in producing the handbook will 
be recognized by the school and this recognition will guide 
the development, writing, and organizing of the material 
contained in the handbook. The third school publication, 
if there is a third publication, will be the literary magazine. 
The news items that have formed a large part of the older 
magazines will be found in the school newspaper. The 
“humor ” that has been produced by the scissors and paste- 
pot will disappear. The real humor of the school — and 
there is plenty of it — will be cared for in the humor col- 
umn of the newspaper. The accounts of “rosy fingered 
Dawn, child of the morning, “ will be left for Homer and 
other giants among poets who can do that kind of fine 
writing. The literary magazine will contain the best of 
the attempts at creative writing that grow as a part of the 
planned-for activity of the \\''5olc school. The number of 
schools that now issue a special number of the school news- 
paper in place of the traditional annual will increase 
greatly. Most assuredly the real junior high schools will 
not imitate the stereotyped senior high-school annual. 
The senior high school that has a planned, well-thought- 
out program of activities, curricular and extra-curricular, 
either will provide the difficult training necessary to pro- 
duce an illustrated book that epitomizes the school or will 
eliminate the annual entirely. 


I. In the high schcx)ls that you know, or know about, what school 
publications exist Under what conditions are these publica- 
tions prcxluced? 


2. What are the chief issues that need clear statement and defini- 
tion in rei»ard to each type of publication/ 

3. How do >011 account for the incaMsiiiR interest in some forms 
of scliDol pul)licatu)n and the dect easing interest in otliers? 

4. What fa\oral)le educational opportunities, if any, do you see 
for the sch(Kil in producing; and jniblishinj^ a scliool newspaper? 
— for tlie pu[uls/ l ake an\ one of these t)pport unities that you 
see and anaU/e it in detail. 

5. \\ h\ i'., or is not, work on the hool newspapt'r \ ocational.'^ 

6. Anal\/e se\eral of what \(»u consider the best school news- 
papers )ou Ciin find a^ to content. What should the school 
new'.p.ijKT publish** 

7. What should be tiie j'k)lic\ of the s( hcu)! p.iper in respect to 
editorials-* teatnre stories^ — humor column^ 

8. What spt c ilu training: shall the school ^i\ e puj)ils in the pre|)a- 

ration ot ( op\ ^ ( 'ornpare \our .uis\cer w ith the st.iieinents of 

the ( dil< fTs sunimari/t d in this ( ha[)ter. 

9. (Jn what basis should the mime of the p.iper be sch^ited? 

10. Select tr(*m the s(ht)ol newspapers a\ail.ible the bc^st in form 

.ind make What standards h.i\e >011 formulated as a 

b«isis ot se le ( fi(»n'' 

11. .Should tluTe* be in a partieular school a bo.ird of publicatfons 
which supc rv is( all [)ublie ations'* If so, w ho shenjld c ornpose 
it^ W h.ti should siK h a IxMrd do*^ 

12. What oryiaiii/ation, it in\ , should e\ist for j’uiding the .school 
public .itions in a whole (ount\ or (it\ school ^Nstem.'* 

13. How, it at .ill. c.m .1 cletmite undersi.indin^^ be developed be- 
tw'een the s< hoc^l tind possible adxertisers in school publicii- 

14., it an\, canons of school journalism be de\ eloped? 
W c.inons should be* de\ eloped '' 

1 5. I *nder w c ire i s, if .in\ , is it w ise to |)ublish sc hool 
new's in the loc .il papi r** If it is wise to publish such news, 
how, in \ i( w ot neccss.irv c Itic i<*nc\ .ind desired e*due,iti\e ('X- 
[HTieTU e, sh.ill e op\ be- produecd and, if nee i-s.sar\ , edited.'' 

16. flow is the- ri^tht kind e>f ad\ise-r of the scheje)! iu-wspat)er tei be 
found or produc ed '* 

17. Shall the- newsp.ipe r be produced by a curricular in iiew.s- 
j),iper writing; " 

1 8. In the luKh schools where- the newspajH-r is prcKluced l)y a 
regular e in newspape-r writing, how dex-s the amcjunt of 



pupil-time required compare with the time requirement of 
other Knglish courses? — with mathematics, Latin, history, 
b( ieiice^ 

19. I low can the newspaper staff be selected? How should the 
staff be selected? 

20 What are the duties of each member of the staff? 

2 1 . W'ork out a course of study for one semester of a course of news- 
pa|)er writing given in the first half of the senior year. 

22 What should be the future of the school newspaper in your 

Chapter XII 


The why and how of the handbook. In the survey of the 
high schools of Philadelphia, the present writer said: 

There should l)0 a Students’ Handbook of eniuenient \cst- 
fXKket ^ize for e\er\ hi^h scIkk)! pupil. Such a book should con- 
tain the aims and as[)irations of the school, the or^^ani/aiion and 
administration of extra-curricular acti\itles, the orj^.ini/ation and 
administration of the academic and routine work of the scIuk)!. 

In presenting the aims of the school there slioiild l)e a historical 
sketch of the institution and what it has stood for, an account of 
the material beirit^ of the school — the buildinjj, the classrooms, 
offices, i^vmnasiuni''. the lockers, the scheme of decoration, and the 
plans for the care of the building. There should be also in this 
part of the handlxMik a general authoritative statement from the 
prim ipal of the plan of whatever tvjH* of ciwiperative government 
«ind <idministration exists in the school. In addition, there should 
be an attempt to state the sc IkkTs c reed and to put down as defin- 
itelv as fx)ssible in words the spirit of the sc IkkiI. 

A sc'cond part of the handlxHik should be devoted to pupil activ- 
ities. Here should be {)resented the ('onstitution of the Senate or 
Students’ Association and the spec i.d regul.itions that this a.ssoci- 
ation, with the aid of the aclvi-er or dirc'cior of student activities 
and the principal, has made for regulating all the extra-curricular 
activitie-. in whic h the pupiU jiarticipate. Sue h items should be in- 
cluded as the ch<irtering oi clubs, the regulations concerning mem- 
f)ershi[) in these clubs, the home-room org.ini/ation, the athletic 
asvxiation, the schcxil [i.iper, the assembly, the musical organiza- 
tions, an acc'ount of the work of the drarn.ilic and all other clubs. 
There w'ould be included also an acrount of the alumni or alumna* 
a.sso< iations. 

In a third part there should be an account of the de()artmcnts of 
instruction, the variems curricula brielly set forth, a list of the 
faculty by departments, and where the members of the faculty 
may be found. 



A fourth part should contain an explanation of the organization 
and administration of the schools. Everything should be pre- 
sented here that the incoming pupil needs to know about the 
mechanical organization of the school. Such topics should be in- 
eluded as how and when to register, the scheme of the pupils’ 
schedule or roster, the schedule of the school day, the amount of 
work each pupil can carry, the credits, the requirements for gradu- 
ation, the marking system, the use of the library and study hall, 
and such information as would help the pupils and teachers, espe- 
cially the new ones, to feel at home in the school environment. 

The fifth division might contain the special features of the school, 
the intimate life of the school, its traditions and its great achie\e- 

Finally, there should be the school songs and cheers and a state- 
ment of the school's spirit of sportsmanship. 

The purpose of the whole book is, through conveying definite 
information and the spirit of the school, to establish right school 
habits and a certain mental attitude toward the school and all its 
activities. It is difficult for one who has been long in a school to 
realize how strange the school and all its ways are to the more or 
less frightened pupil who is just entering. Wherever possible this 
Students’ Handbook should be studied by the pupil in the term 
preceding the time when the pupd is to enter the high school. It 
should serve as a guide for all pu,.ils throughout their high school 
course. Parents of all pupils should read it carefully. 

This handbook should be prepared by the Students’ Association 
with the aid of all club officers, the teachers, the principal and his 
office, and with the special aid of the director of pupil activities. 
The principal or his office force could prepare the solid information 
of the book, but the tla\or and point of view would probably be 
that of the ofiice rather than that of the pupils. The incoming 
pupil gets the information about the ways of the school and how 
to behave from other pupils rather than from the teachers. The 
pupils can tell each other the life of the school a great deal Letter 
than can the teachers. This does not mean that the principal and 
teachers should not aid and direct, when necessary, in the prepara- 
tion of the handbook and finally review it carefully before it is 
published, but it docs mean that the Students’ Association should 
assume the responsibility of n.cparing the manuscript. 

The preparation of such a book can be one of the best English 
problems that could occupy a class or several classes. The data 


from the school would be collected, evaluated, and organized. 
Scores of handbooks from other high schools all over the country 
would be secured and studied, and, finally, after the pui>ils have 
something to say. there would be the problem of saying it in the 
best possible way. The writing of such a book offers so many op- 
portunities for real training that the teachers must not rob the 
pupils of the chance. In the end, the pupils with the aid of the 
teachers will produce a much better book than can the principal 
and teachers working independently of the pupils. 

In some large high schools the publication of the student hand- 
book is financed by the Board of Education; in others the Board 
furnishes the paper and the pupils do the printing and binding; 
and in still other high schools, the Students’ Association finances 
the book and sells it to the pupils at cost — ten or fifteen cents i)er 

What do high-school handbooks contain? In a detailed 
study of 223 high-school handbooks from 35 states, Alfred 
A. Rea ^ in 1922 found what he considered 192 different 
items discussed in these handbooks. His list gives the 
frequency of mention of each item discussed in the 223 
handbooks studied. This list can serve, not only as a 
means of showing the items and their frequency, but at the 
same time as a check list for those interested in studying or 
in publishing a handbook. 

Items Mentioned Frequency 

1 Items Mentioned Frequency 








Datecjf publication 



Names of faculty 



Course of study 



School yells 






Plans of building and 


Attendance regula- 






Introduction and fore- 


School songs 





Pupil organizations 



College entrance re- 

8 . 

Daily schedule 





Library information 



History of school 


• Fretwell, Elbert K. Survey of the Public Schools of Philadelphia, Report^ Book 4, 
pp 158-60 


Items Mentioned Frequency 

17. Assemblies 104 

18. Lost and found 100 

19. Awards 96 

20. Requirements for 

graduation 95 

21. Report cards 95 

22. Cafeteria 94 

23. Tardiness 93 

24. Pictures of building 92 

25. Lockers 86 

26. Pictures of people 86 

27. Fire drill 85 

28. General information 85 

29. School calendar 85 

30. Marks and marking 81 

31- Organization publish- 
ing the handbook 81 

32. Scholarships 79 

33- Blank memorandum 

space 78 

34- Social life 75 

35- Index 71 

36. Honor Society 69 

37- Table of contents 68 

38. How to study 67 

39- Honor rolls 64 

40. Telephone regulations 63 

41. Athletic rules 60 

42. Names of handbook 

staff 60 

43- Greetings 55 

44. Names of members of 

Board of Education 55 

45- Traffic regulations 54 

46. Ideals 52 

47- Health regulations 51 

48. Constitution and by- 
laws of school 51 

49- Bell system 50 

50. Directory of building 50 

51 . Letter wearers 44 

52. Space for owner’s 

name 44 

53- Admission regulations 43 


Items Mentioned Frequency 

54. Credits 43 

55. Athletic records 42 

56. Fees and tuition 42 

57. Bulletin boards 39 

58. Care of building 39 

59. Athletic schedules 38 

60. Advisers 38 

61. Banking 37 

62. Manners and courtesy 37 

63. Study hall rules 36 

64. Summer school 34 

65. Home-room 33 

66. Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciation 33 

67. Home work 32 

68. Point system 32 

69. School spirit 3 1 

70* Supplies 31 

71. School colors 30 

72. Alumni association 29 

73- Dedication of book 29 

74- Publications 29 

75* Smoking regulations 29 

7b. Aims of school 27 

7. Do and don’t 27 

78. Pass slips 26 

79- Trophies 26 

80. Traditions 26 

81. Book exchange 25 

82. Examinations 25 

83. Finances 23 

84. Physical Education 23 

85. Registration rules 23 

86. School and student 

creeds 23 

87. Vocational guidance 22 

88. Medals 21 

89. Memorials 21 

90. Flag salute 20 

91. Military training 20 

92. Special credits 20 

93. Visitors 20 

94. Working papers 20 

95. Calendar 19 


Items Mentioned Frequency 

96. Care of books 19 

97. Halls, conduct and 

monitors 19 

98. Lunch 19 

99. Motto 19 

100. Rules and regulations 19 

1 01. Textbooks 18 

102. Advertisements 17 

103. Reading lists 17 

104. Reports to parents 17 

105. Transfer and dis- 
charge 1 7 

106. Gymnasium 16 

107. Parking bicycles 16 

108. Deans 15 

109. Change in course 15 

no. Dress 15 

111. Gifts 15 

1 12. Employment 14 

1 13. Reports, administra- 
tive 14 

1 14. Transportation 14 

115. Night school 13 

1 16. Student loans 13 

1 17. Faculty ii 

1 18. Administration 10 

1 19. Citizenship 10 

120. Classification of pu- 
pils 10 

121. Class officers 10 

122. Emblems 10 

123. Hospital room 10 

124. Office rules 10 

125. Anti-fraternity rules 9 

126. Points, conduct 9 

127. Promotions 9 

128. Elevator regulation 8 

129. Graduation customs 8 

130. Program of study 8 

1 31. Names of club mem- 
bers 7 

132. Student government 7 

133. Art organizations 6 

134. Deportment 6 

Items Mentioned Frequency 

135. Etiquette 6 

136. Entering and leaving 

137. Fraternities 

138. Free textbooks 

139. Merit system 

140. Make-up work 

1 41. Property 

142. Regent’s examination 

143. School seal 

144. Truancy 

145. Demerits 

146. Dancing 

147. Failures 

148. Forms of manuscript 

149. Expense 

150. Honor system 

15 1. Location of school 

152. Passing of classes 

153. Religious credits 

154. Activity season ticket 

155. Cap and go\Mi 

156. Continuation school 

157. Dropping subjects 
15k Keys 

159. Pupil constitution 

160. Shop opportunities 

1 61. Directions for written 

162. Flag etiquette 

163. Forms 

164. Grading plans 

165. Guidance 

166. Leadership 

167. Requirements as a 

168. Rules of organization 

169. School welfare com- 

170. Supervised study 

171. School buildings 

172. Tutoring 

173. Use of stairways 2 

174. Visiting teacher 2 



Items Mentioned Frequency 

175. Blind pupils I 

176. Character record i 

177. Detention room i 

178. Definition of credits i 

179. Girls’ rest room i 

180. Cavern ment i 

1 81. Honor students i 

182. Honor study room i 

183. Keeping company i 

Items Mentioned Frequency 

184. Project room i 

185. Probation rules I 

186. Public opinion I 

187. Public speaking I 

188. School prayer I 

189. School counselor I 

190. Special equipment I 

19 1. Special examinations i 

192. Sessions I 

Producing the handbook can be an educative experience 
for the pupils. Most people do not make mistakes in- 
tentionally. Rather, they make mistakes because they 
do not know any better, or, as pupils usually say, I didn’t 
think.” The getting out of the handbook can help pupils 
to think, to understand, and to know. A constant theme 
of this book on extra-curricular activities is that pupils 
should have the educative experience of sharing in making 
school regulations. Likewise, the idea is often repeated 
that education should take place in advance of legislation. 
The producing of a handbook furnishes a rare opportunity. 

Study other handbooks. r example, in a high school 
that does not have a handbook, handbooks can be secured 
from other schools. These handbooks can be made up 
into “libraries” of four or five books each and circulated 
through the home-rooms. As a result of the study and 
discussion of these handbooks in home-rooms, pupils can 
learn, not only what other schools are doing, but at the 
same time they can get a conception of what a high-school 
handbook is. Probably many of the pupils know or can 
get copies of handbooks used in many department stores, 
or in industry, or business, or those that come with the new 
family automobile. 

What does a pupil need to know? The discussion of the 
handbooks of the “circulating libraries” as carried on in 
the home-rooms leads naturally to the second step in pro- 


duciiig the handbooks: ‘‘What does a pupil need to know 
to get on well in this school?'* Here the exploration of 
what one needs to know can be brought out in thorough, 
dignified discussion. The school regulations can be stud- 
ied, but, after all, most school regulations are negative. 
What the ordinary pupil needs to know is not so much the 
negative as the positive statement of what one needs to 
know as a basis for right action. In a well-regulated school 
there are few regulations. The field to be studied is much 
wider than any body of school regulations. The pupils of a 
home-room, especially in freshman and sophomore home- 
rooms in a senior high school or in the seventh and eighth 
grades of a junior high school, will be especially ready, if 
the “atmosphere" of the home-room is democratic and 
friendly, to tell, explain, emphasize what one needs to 
know. Like Cardinal Wolsey, they recognize the “state of 
man." They have put forth their “ tender leaves of hope"; 
they have had their “tomorrows" when the “blushing 
honors’’ fell thick upon them. Likewise, they probably 
have fresh in memory a fatal day when came the “frost, 
a killing frost," which seemed about to nip their academic 
existence. Those who have survived the “frost” incident 
to some blunder can tell, or think they can, what one needs 
to know to get along. Pupils have always been passing on 
this knowledge to other pupils. Much of this knowledge 
passed on has been of the sub rosa variety. 

Schools that have tried this home-room discussion plan 
of what one needs to know usually report a revival of right 
and courteous action Wossoming all over the school. But 
this is not the end of the story. 

Pooling information. The pupils in the home-room pool 
the information which they think ought to go into a hand- 
book. It is really encyclopedic. The home-room secre- 
tary compiles the information. The secretaries of all 



other home-rooms do the same. All of the material com- 
piled by all home-rooms is the raw material of a handbook. 

A handbook assembly. The discussion activity that 
has been going on in all home-rooms needs the unifying 
process that can come in an all-school assembly. This 
assembly program can consist of a summarizing and ra- 
tionalizing of what has been done. Pupils who have been 
especially successful in home-room discussion can tell the 
whole school what one needs to know as a basis of right 
action in the school. Likewise, where this type of assem- 
bly has been tried out, the pupils usually have included 
some account of “when a feller needs a friend.” It should 
be noted in passing that these leaders of discussion in home- 
rooms and in assembly can make a series of excellent 
“teams” to send to contributing schools to explain to 
“graduating” gioups what they need to know and do on 
entering high school. 

Editing. In getting out the handbook, all of this ma- 
terial pooled from the various home-rooms can be turned 
over, for editing, to an Engr h class working in coopera- 
tion with the student council or to a committee of the 
council. This material, together with the necessary ad- 
ditional material from the oflice, when condensed and 
written and rewritten, is the handbook. It is probably 
more nearly correct to say a handbook is “rewritten” 
rather than “written.” In any event, such a process as 
has been described is an adventure in democracy. Of 
course, the teachers have been guiding all the time — 
guiding, not dictating, but they are not “nominated in the 

Naming the child. This child of so many brains needs a 
good name. School discussion will help here. As in pro- 
ducing the book, discussion is not exclusively for the pur- 
pose of producing a better book or a better name. Rather, 


it is to make the book when issued the “pupils’ own book”; 
likewise, to get education in socialized living in advance of 
legislation. This book, intended for the pupils and their 
parents and the teachers of a particular school and not for 
nation- or state- wide circulation, needs a name to carry 
the idea of the book and to identify it. Among names 
which seem appropriate are: The Pupils' Handbook, to 
distinguish it from a teachers’ handbook; The Lane Book, 
The Langley Guide, Freshman Guide Book, Freshman First 
Aid, The Life of Manual Arts. At long range such names 
as those just cited seem better than: The Bulletin, The 
Circular of Information, Regulations and Requirements, 
The Empirector, or The Angels' Guide. 

The spirit of the handbook. Every principal who has 
tried writing “The Foreword” for the school handbook 
knows the difficulty of saying just the right thing in the 
right way. He probably desires to be friendly, firm but 
not fierce, dignified but not stiff, brief but not abrupt, to 
capture in words the spirit of the school as he expresses its 
ideals, to welcome each pupil as an individual and as a 
member of his or her group, to help the pupil feel at home 
in the school and to challenge him to contribute his best to 
make the school still better. 

The pupils, in furnishing ideas for the book and in 
writing out these ideas, often have a way of expressing the 
spirit and describing the adventure that going to a really 
rlive high school actually is. Frequently these pupils, in 
their expression of the life of the school, guided and edited 
enough but not too much, surpass the professional phrase- 
ology of the more erudite faculty. 

Using the handbook. The handbook ought to be so in- 
teresting that the prospective or new pupil reads it straight 
through, and ever after uses its well-made index as a means 
of constant reference. In the hands of the right home- 


room sponsor, the spirit that maketh the book alive can ex- 
press itself still further as the book is used in the home- 
room as one means of guidance. 


1. What kinds of commercial, industrial, or professional organiza- 
tions have handbooks? Why? 

2. In a handbook for your high school what items should be in- 
cluded? On what bases do you make your selection? 

3. How, if at all, can producing the handbook be an educative 
experience for the pupils? 

4. What does a pupil need to know on entering your school to be- 
gin well? How, if at all, does a pupil secure this information? 

5. If a school is to issue a handbook, how, step by step, should it 
be got out? On what educational bases do you justify your 

6. How can the handbook be used or misused? How should it 
be used? 

7. Should the school have a handbook? Why? 

Chapter XIII 


The magazine and the school. Wisely or unwisely, the 
school has emphasized writing for everybody. English 
composition has been an assigned task; even if the pupils 
had nothing to say, they were required to write. One of 
the hard puzzles is to find why teachers of English com- 
position have placed so much emphasis on the wearisome 
red-ink correction of then\cs and so little em[)hasis on de- 
veloping in pupils the materials of composition along with 
the method. The urge to speak and to write well comes 
from having something to say. There is need for a reason- 
able mastery of the mechanics of composition, but if the 
writer has nothing to say, probably the time-honored drill 
on unity, transition, coherence, and variety will never 
succeed. “ Look into thy heart and write ” may have been 
the best advice for producing lyric poetry, but such looking 
so often results in seeing nothing. Reading, wide, rich, and 
varied, in a friendly, creative, critical atmosphere, is a 
foundation for writing. In school there is an insistent 
necessity for a teacher-guide who has the sense and taste to 
point out what is really good. To say, “Thou ailest here 
and here,” may have all the value that Matthew Arnold 
claimed for it, but it is the sincere, positive, correct point- 
ing-out of an e.xcellent idea, word, phrase, or sentence that 
stimulates and guides the young composer who may some 
day write well. 

In a school where there is real creative writing in sketch, 
poetry, essay, or whatever the form, there is a necessity for 
outlets for this creative work. One of these outlets can be 
the literary magazine. 


Early school magazines. The earliest form of magazine 
or newspaper seems to have been a manuscript paper pre- 
pared by the scholars and read before the school at more 
or less regular intervals. The first article on the editorial 
page of The High School Thesaurus, Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, November, 1859, contains this statement: 

In former years a written paper, composed of short editorials, 
the compositions of the scholars, selections of wit, etc., was read 
before the school once a week. 

Its editors were a young lady and gentleman, appointed by the 
principal teacher. 

Its si/e was equal, usually, to four sheets of “foolscap” paper; 
and nearly three fourths of an hour e\ery Saturday morning was 
de\oted to its reading. Ambition to have one’s compositions 
published served as a stimulant, ever urging to continual efforts at 
improvement, and the regular reading of the paper was always 
looked forward to with interest by all, and with some fear and 
trembling by those whose reputations as composition writers were 
at stake. 

The numbers of this interesting paper are in the possession of the 
school and form a pleasing collection of youthful productions. 

Among the examples of these manuscript papers are two 
papers, “The Constellation” and “The Aspirant,” 1851- 
1863, of the Girls’ High School of Portland, Maine. These 
rival papers, as Grizzell * points out, “served as a medium 
of expression of student opinion as well as the presentation 
of choice bits of poetry, essays, jokes and school news.” 

The next step was the printed paper. In October, 1851, 
The Effort was published at Hartford, Connecticut. This 
was a twelve-page single-column publication with an editor 
chosen by the school. It was devoted to essays, poetry, 
sketches, stories, and chronicles, with no news, jokes, or 
advertisements. In its first editorial it stated this purpose: 
“We are the humble media through which the talent of the 

» Griz/ell, F D and Deielopment of the High School tn New England Before 

tS6s, p 34O. By permission of flic Macmillan Company, publishers. 


high school is displayed. We are collecting the first har- 
vest of thought from fields long unused to the sickle where 
the rich ears have as yet reposed in secret.*’ 

The ambitions of this editorial, as well as the solicitude 
expressed in the heading under which this first editorial 
was published, “Commendo vobis parvum meum filiiim,” 
appear not to hav^e been realized, as The Effort seems to 
have exhausted itself with the first issue. 

The High School Thesaurus, of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, had a longer life. This publication, beginning in 
November, 1859, was an eight-page three-column paper 
“published monthly by the scholars of the high school” at 
five cents a copy and ran for three years. Its first edi- 
torial, headed “Prospectus,” contained this statement of 
purpose: “To improve the character of the compositions, 
and to place matters of school interest in a permanent and 
accessible form.” There was also the promise that, “ The 
Thesaurus will contain statistics relating to school matters, 
short editorials and selections, translations, compositions 
in prose and verse and in each number a report of the pro- 
ceedings of the Eucleia Debating Society and an occasional 
oration or discussion,” True to its “Prospectus,” its title- 
page contains a “Literal Hexameter Translation” of 46 
lines of Virgil, 23 lines translated from Horace, and the 
story of Orpheus and Eurydice. In common with The 
Effort, it contained editorials, essays, and poetry. It in- 
cluded, in addition to its translations of the classics, gen- 
eral and school news, advertisements, and such official in- 
formation as the school calendar, class and examination 
schedules, and courses of study. 

Along with the serious undertakings represented by such 
publications as The Effort and The Thesaurus, there ap- 
peared early in the history of school publications the 
humorous variety of magazine. In January, 1857, at 



Hartford appeared “ High School Chanticleer, published 
every once in a while by Jim Crow Chanticleer, price two 
cents, G. Hebard, Sole Agent/' In accordance with its 
aim of being funny, volume i, number i, begins with “A 
Sonnet to the Big Ox,” which is followed by what would 
now be called a “faked” stenographic report of a recita- 
tion. In the last three quarters of a century “school 
humor” does not seem to have changed much. It should 
be said for the honor of Jim Crow Chanticleer, however, 
that in his “crowings” he did not devote himself to his 
“scissors and the paste-pot.” 

Later magazines. More recently the school magazine 
has been an omnibus type of publication. Homer W. Hay, 
m An Analysis and Evaluation of the High School Maga- 
zine f devoted himself to a study of 103 magazines. Nearly 
but not quite all of the contents of the magazines, as he 
analyzed this material, fell into twelve groups. In spite of 
the varying sizes of school magazine pages, he was able to 
find approximately the number of pages devoted to each 
of his twelve divisions and U determine fairly accurately 
the percentage of space devoted to each division. From 
this material the following table is set down : ^ 

Kind op 

Average No. 

Per cent 


OF Pages 

OF Space 











3 - 


Alumni News 




4 - 






9 5 












1 .2 


The range in number of pages of the 103 magazines 
analyzed was 12 to 140, with an average of 41 pages. The 
average number of issues per year was 7, although the mode 
was 9. From the table presented, the literary prose of 
whatever form and the poetry constitute about one fourth 
of the material. As a whole these 103 magazines belong 
to the omnibus type of magazine, partly literary, partly 

Recent magazines. There has been a tendency in the 
past, if the school could have only one publication, to have 
this omnibus type of magazine. In the past few years, 
however, there has been a rapid tendency to substitute the 
newspaper for the magazine and to devote the newspaper 
to news. Where the school has been able to support in 
material as well as in finance two publications, the maga- 
zine has continued to exist, but has changed from the 
omnibus type to a literary magazine. 

A statement in The Kvanstonian , published by the class 
in journalism at the FLvanston Township High School, 
Evanston, Illinois, may serve as an example of the change 
from the omnibus to the literary type of magazine. In 
volume 13, number i, February, 1922, this explanation is 
made : 

This is the first number of the new Evanstonian, Those features 
of the former Evanstonian which were essentially newspaper fea- 
tures and which t(K;k away from the unity of the magazine have 
been incorporated in the school newspaper. We believe that in its 
new form the magazine will give greater satisfaction both to those 
who read and those who write for it. 

The development of the literary magazine has grown in 
part as a result of the tendency in many schools to develop 
what has often come to be called creative writing. This is 
as it should be. The literary magazine as an extra- 
curricular activity should grow out of the curricular life of 



the school. If the school in the various English courses is 
not concerned with developing the writing ability of pupils, 
but puts its trust in assigned themes, such as ‘‘ What I did 
last summer,” or character sketches of Brutus’s Portia or 
Macbeth, or attempts at short stories, the literary maga- 
zine cannot grow out of class work or return to the class 
activity to enrich it. In such a case the magazine may 
exist to furnish an opportunity for the expression of in- 
dependent, creative work. However, such independent 
publications usually exhaust themselves in a few numbers. 
The fact is, if the school desires to have a literary magazine, 
the place to begin is not in the magazine itself, but in 
developing really creative work in the various English 
classes. The best of this creative work may find an out- 
let in the magazine. The school newspaper is growing 
rapidly, possibly in some cases too rapidly. The omni- 
bus type of magazine is passing. As the schools grow in 
the direction of creative writing, the ability to produce 
and to appreciate the literary magazine will probably de- 

The magazine a planned structure. There has been a 
tendency to appeal for material for the magazine, to im- 
plore, to ” pass the hat for contributions.” School editors 
at present, however, seem to have learned .something from 
the professional magazine editor. There is a growing tend- 
ency for school editors, in getting out the various issues of 
a magazine, to do longer-term planning. A particular 
issue is planned well in advance. The editors do not wait 
for what comes in or finally write the issue themselves. 
Rather, they plan what they want and get definite pupils 
to assume responsibility for producing the material desired 
by a set time. Such a plan is possible in a school where 
pupils have learned or are learning how to get ideas and to 
express them sincerely, clearly, interestingly. The way 


should always be open for the new writer, but definite, 
well-understood assignment is usually more effective than 
waiting for an inspiration. 

The pupil and the magazine. What do pupils want in 
the magazines they read? The answer to this question 
does not of necessity determine the kind of magazines that 
should exist. However, the answer does have some bear- 
ing on what kind of magazine the school can support. If 
the school desires to develop pupils who think with increas- 
ing intelligence and independence, there is little point in 
the exhausted appeal, “Show your school spirit by sub- 
scribing for the school magazine.” Enough crimes have 
already been committed in the name of School Spirit. 

High school pupils do read widely. Since those heroic 
days of 1741, when Benjamin Franklin and Andrew Brad- 
ford fought it out in Philadelphia to sec whether The 
General Magazine or The American should be the first 
magazine published in America,* there has been a constant 
search to find what in the magazine has “appeal.” 

In 1922, Arv'illa M. Johnson, in a study of the magazine 
reading of pupils in eight Nebraska high schools, outside of 
Omaha and Lincoln, found that 1652 pupils read 277 differ- 
ent magazines.^ Of these 1652 pupils, 1174 read the 
Literary Digest, but a study of the 277 magazines read by 
one or more of these pupils emphasizes the breadth of the 
reading range and the attraction of the human interest 

The school magazine depends on readers, as well as 
producers. The interests of readers can be developed by 
the school to the point where there is intelligent under- 
standing and financial support of a school magazine that 

• See Tassin. Algernon The Ma^aitne in Amertca, p i Dfxlfl, Miad and Company, 


Slark atib (Sold 

Mttdii 1980 

Nnnbtt Thtm 

Published tnd printed by the students of the Riehe?d J. Beynolds Hl^ 
iVhoel, Wittsten-Sslem, North Csrolina. 

One Z>ollsr a Tear 



Cover ... Joe King and LoeSle Myers 

2. Frontispiece Joe Khig 

8. Booksi Plays, Poems ... — Faith Brewer 

4. Death Comes to Sonia . Esther Bonsk 

}0. Words ... Isabella Hanson 

10. A Glorious Adventure Elisabeth Gray 

12. Characteristics of Milton . — .... Bosanelle Ctsh 

14. Cotton Mather Visits Van Dyke’s Dept. Store .... Hope Best 

15. Sunshine in the Rain — Booth Nash 

1& Winston-Salem — Mary Garber 

17. A Letter Isabella Hanson 

18. Cues Bosanelle Cash 

20. Daughter of SolonKm Margaret Long 

21. Thought Ships . George 

22. Three Poems Frith Brewer 

28. The Storm Booth Nabh 

28. Avalon . Isabella Haasra 

24. Book Beviews 

28. The Legend of Black Rhrer Faith B rewee 

27. I am Become a Name Beth Whtte 

2& Silent Friendi Mary EL Dobhlne 

28. Morning Glorlee Bonth Nash 

29i Sir Begsr De Coverly in a Modem Hotel , Annm fiimpfiw 

20. Fate South Nash 


appeals to a level of thought and feeling as high as the 
pupils can appreciate. 

Form and material. The present school magazine still 
has a long way to go in make-up and material before there 
is any general realization of the possibilities of the maga- 
zine. Such a title-page as the one shown on page 347 is 
really an exception. 

Many of the magazines do not have a title-page at all. 
Many others omit the name or the location of the school or 
the date of publication. The make-up of too large a per- 
centage of the magazines is a chaos, “without form and 
void.” In trying to be “ literary,” there is still too much 
of “ the-pearly-dew-drop-at-dawn ” stuff. There probably 
is some value in attempting to give to “ airy nothing a local 
habitation and a name,” yet too many of the contributions 
say nothing, probably not because the writer has nothing 
to say, but because of a striving after “ fine writing.” There 
is little evidence of much study or thought in preparation 
for writing. The swift intuitions and the eternal ego of 
youth are a very real part of youth’s charm. However, 
the same charm continuously repeated grows stale. 

The thin work of the writers is not due to inability. 
It is due rather to misdirected guidance or no guidance at 
all. Take the “ Exchange Department,” for example. 
Almost any departmental editor could review, summarize, 
or select material from other school magazines that would 
be of interest to his readers in showing what other schools 
and school publications are doing. The possibilities of the 
spread of worth-while ideas from one school to another 
through the “ Exchange Department” of the school maga- 
zine are very real. Instead of an exchange of ideas there 
are such comments as the following: 

We enjoyed the of High. It’s quite peppy and 

up-to-date, especially in sports. 



The from could be improved with more cuts. 

your cover page is very attractive and your exchange 

department is very complete. 

School editors waste space on such chaff because other 
editors do it, and these other editors do it because some 
other editor used to do it. School editors are intelligent; 
all they need is guidance in getting a sense of new direction ; 
namely, write for their own school readers instead of writ- 
ing for the exchange editor of another magazine. 

Guidance, not toleration. The magazine has been a 
traditional extra-curricular activity. Since it has not 
tended to break out in any violent trouble-making form, 
it has been tolerated, but that is all — just amiably toler* 
ated. What pupils when adequately guided can do in 
real writing that finds an outlet in the school magazine is 
abundantly demonstrated in some school magazines. The 
magazine does not need toleration; it has had too much 
of it already. It needs from teachers, who themselves can 
and do write, critical evaluation and constructive planning. 


1. From an analysis of such school magazines as you have avail- 
able, what arc the strong and what are the weak points of this 
type of school publication? What are the standards by which 
you judge? 

2. How do the magazines you ha\e found compare in material 
with the 103 analyzed by Hay? 

3. To what extent, if at all, is the action of The Evanstoniarif cited 
in this chapter, rc|)rcsentati\c of current practice? 

4. What c\ idence do you find in school magazines to indicate that 
they arc or are not a planned structure? 

5. To whal extent, if at all, i*^ the table of contents of The Black 
and Gold, cited in this chapter, representative of form in cur- 
rent school magazines? 

6. What is the function of each of the various editors and each of 
the various managers of a school magazine? 


7. What constructive policy in respect to school publications, in- 
cluding or not including the magazine, do you recommend for 
the high school in which you are most interested? By what 
steps can the policy you have in mind be effectively carried 

Chapter XIV 

Why do high schools have annuals? In A Study of the 
Educational Value of the High School Annual, Martha 
Grace Lane ‘ summarizes the reasons for publishing an 
annual as given by 41 schools: 

Number of Schools 

Purpose Given Giving Purpose 

To serve as a record of senior class 15 

To serve as a record of activities of the school. 13 

To give pupils training such as annuals give ... 8 

To take the place of exchange of photographs . . 4 

To further school spirit 3 

To line up with other schools 2 

In An Analysis and Evaluation of the Contents of the 
High School Yearbook, Russell S. Burkhart * analyzed the 
literature that had been pub..ohed about the annual. He 
found the idea most often stressed was: The annual is a 
record for a semester or for a year of the people, the events, 
and the spirit of the school. 

Early college annuals. The annual in the colleges prob- 
ably had some influence on the corresponding publication 
in the schools. Possibly the same reasons have existed in 
colleges and in schools for this type of publication. Miss 
Lane in her study points out: 

0. That as early as 1806, Yale had a booklet entitled “Profiles of 
Part of the Class Graduated at Yale College, September, 
1806" which contained silhouettes of members of the class. 

b. That by 1822 there were autograph albums in which class* 


mates had written “sentiments” of varying length, different 
for each acquaintance. 

c. That by 1840 these albums had grown to twice their original 
size and that in addition they contained engra\ ed portraits of 
“distinguished professors.” 

d. That by 1852, while these blank aiitograj)!! albums were still 
used, there were certain additions: cngraxed iM)rtraits and 
signatures of mcml)crs of the class and engra\ed \ iews of the 
college. Blank pages, however, were still retained between 
the portraits for “sentiments.” 

e. That in 1870, \'ale published a pamphlet of 24 pages entitled 
“The Statistics of the Class of 1870, ^’ale College.” This 
publication contained a list of the class, statistics such as 
territorial distribution and average age, memluTs of .societies, 
the match games in which the members of the 1870 class 

/. That the class albums continued as Kite as 1890. 

There were innovations, not only in the same college, 
but in other colleges. For e.xample, in 1857, according to 
George Rugg Cutting, in his Student Life at Amherst College, 
the Olio was published first in newspaper form, and that 
two years later it had become a pamphlet of 32 peiges. By 
1869 the Olio included a description of each class. This 
newspaper form and the accounts of classes other than the 
seniors sounds rather modern. 

There is still another new note in Miss Lane’s data. In 
1874, at the University of California, the yearbook, The 
Blue and Gold, appearing as the work of the junior class, 
contained information about athletics, music, societies, as 
well as this new aim: the publication was begun “for the 
purpose of giving other colleges and the world at large 
some information respecting most particularly the stu- 
dents, their various organizations, etc., and in this way 
inaugurating a custom prevalent in most of the eastern 
colleges — a custom, too, of undoubted usefulness and 



These three examples of Yale, Amherst, and the Univer- 
sity of California serve to show that in the beginning the 
annual was a memory book of the class, its activities and 
“sentiments,” of the faculty, of other classes, of the college, 
and that in California it was intended also to give this 
information to “ the world at large.” The simplicity of the 
early form — autograph album at Yale and newspaper at 
Amherst — may be somewhat prophetic. 

Early school annuals. The purposes of some of the early 
school annuals follow much the same ideas as those of the 
colleges. However, there are some new notes. In 1873, 
the 30 pages of volume 2 of the anniial of the Hopkins 
Grammar School of New Haven, Connecticut, as Miss 
Lane points out, was made up of a “calendar, salutatory, 
list of trustees, instructors, students, school honors, prizes, 
secret societies, publications, athletic and miscellaneous or- 
ganizations such as class committees and clubs.” The Plan 
of Phillips Kxeter Academy, volume 2, 1880, states: “Our 
intention is merely to furnish a faithful record of all that 
has happened during the >ear.” The Meteor of the 
Cheshire School, Cheshire, Connecticut, 1882, contains, 
among other things in its 52 pages, this observation: “This 
year it [The Meteor] is of considerable importance, as all the 
literary qualities in the school are combined in it.” The 
Anchora, Mason High School, Mason, Michigan, in vol- 
ume I, 1895, says: ‘‘As we look back, we survey not the 
records of indi\’iduals, but the history of a class.” Not all 
of these earlier annuals, however, take themselves so seri- 
ously. In the preface to the OUa Podrida, Lawrenceville 
School, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, volume 3, 1885, this 
statement is found: “A dessert dish only, made up of light 
and effervescing compounds — classes full to overflowing, 
scholarship beyond the average, contesting games, inter- 
esting societies, literary and musical.” 


What do school annuals contain? In an analysis of the 
annuals, or yearbooks, of lOO high schools, Burkhart ‘ 
found substantial agreement in respect to many items 
found in these books. For example, all of the books had 
accounts of the senior class, of athletics, and of school 
activities; 97 contained advertising, 96 humor, 95 had 
accounts of classes other than the senior class, 94 had 
faculty “write-ups”; 75 had, in addition to other pictures, 
snapshots of people or scenes about the school; 70 had 
space for autographs, 68 had an activities calendar, 61 de- 
voted space to distinctly literary material, 58 gave some 
account of the alumni. 

The percentage of space devoted to various types of 
material may help somewhat in getting a conception of this 
publication. Burkhart found that in the annuals from 
these 100 schools the median percentage of space devoted 
to senior class was 18; to advertising, 17.5; to activities, 
12.8; to under-classes, 10.4; to athletics, 9.4; to humor, 
7.5; to introductory material, 6.5; to the faculty, 3; to other 
material, 14.9. He found, also, that the median space 
devoted to pictures was 23.6 per cent. In a further analy- 
sis of this space devoted to pictures, he points out that 
26 per cent of this 23.6 per cent was devoted to the senior 
class, 18 per cent to activities, 14 per cent to classes other 
than senior, 13 per cent to athletics. As to size, a large 
proportion of the books in Burkhart’s study were about 
7^ inches wide and 10^ inches in length. The median 
number of pages was 1 16, with a range from 38 to 220 pages. 

Variety in annuals. This composite picture may aid in 
getting an idea of the annual, but of necessity it does not 
present the “individual differences” of annuals. There 
are annuals that present the picture of every pupil in the 

* These answers were in the main from the smaller schools In Pennsylvania and ad- 
joining sutes: 45 per cent were from schools enrolling lo to 50 pupils; 35 per cent from 
schools of 51 to 100 pupils; 20 per cent from schools of more than 100 pupils. 



school and accomplish this end by including the group pic- 
ture of every home-room. There are almost infinite vari- 
eties of motifs, varying from Alice in Wonderland to the 
Last of the Mohicans, There are simple memory books, 
and, likewise, books that present in pictures the activities 
of the school carried on in developing the Seven Cardinal 
Principles of Secondary Education. There are mimeo- 
graphed annuals, special editions of the school newspaper 
or magazine that serve as annuals. There are annuals 
printed in the school print shop and others printed outside 
the school, some of which are so elaborate as to tax the art 
of the engraver and the printer. There are annuals de- 
veloped by the whole school, by the senior class, by the 
faculty, and in some cases developed very largely by 
agencies outside the school. In respect to humor, which 
in many cases is one of the saddest phases of this publica- 
tion, McKown * found, in a study of 400 annuals, 57 vari- 
eties of “stunt pages.” However, in spite of the infinite 
variety of youth, there is a cjeneral monotony in annuals. 

Monotony in annuals. 1 erhaps this monotony in an- 
nuals is inherent in the situation. In spite of all that has 
been said about the liberalism of youth, seniors in high 
schools, so far as the annual is concerned, delight to walk 
in the trodden paths. They desire to produce a better, 
hence a bigger, annual than the preceding class. The 
medium in which they work, so far as the annual is con- 
cerned, is so new to them, and the guidance which they 
receive from the school is usually so limited, that whatever 
creative ability they have fails to express itself. In desir- 
ing to make the annual “better,” they usually fail to 
develop new ideas or new forms and fall back on spending 
more money on the same kind of thing other classes and 
other schools have done. If the reader is in dpubt about 

> McKown. H. C. Extra-Curricular Activities, pp. 400-04. 


the weight of the dead hand of tradition, so far as the 
annual is concerned, let him try a really new idea as to 
form or material on his senior high school class and be 
convinced. Here is the everlasting cycle of “keeping up 
with the Joneses.” 

Wherein lies the fault? The fault, however, for this 
monotonous standing still is not entirely in the pupils: ic is 
rather in the schools. Administrators and teachers with 
no intention of doing so have created, or allowed to exist, 
a situation wherein pupils have little or no opportunity to 
be creative. The publication of a hook, especially .so diver- 
sified a book as an annual, demands knowledge, skills, 
abilities which the school has made no serious specific 
attempt to develop. 

The problem of the annual. When one considers the 
highly technical and difficult problems involved in produc- 
ing and financing an annual, and considers at the same 
time the utter absence of training in most schools to meet 
these problems, the miracle performed by annual advisers 
and pupils in making bricks without straw becomes ap- 
parent. A brief review of some of the kinds of work re- 
quired to produce and to finance an cinnual can make this 
point clearer. 

The staff. There must be a producing staff, including 
an editor-in-chief, editors of various departments, an art 
editor with assistants in charge of photograplis and snap- 
shots. There must be literary editors or assistants to pro- 
duce whatever written material is to be included in the 

In selecting a staff, the tendency is away from election, 
wherein popularity rather than competence plays so large 
a part, toward appointment by a faculty-student council or 
senior class board. Neither popularity nor high class 
grades ensures a capable editor-in-chief or business man- 



ager. The adviser is too frequently some faculty member 
who has the job ‘‘wished on him.’* The faculty-adviser 
should be an expert in this field and chosen as carefully at 
least as the football coach. 

Finances. In finances the usual statement is: “Thf 
annual must be paid for.” The fact is, the annual should 
pay for itself by being worth what it costs. The business 
manager, the editor-in-chief, and the adviser must make a 
budget covering every detail. The business manager and 
his assistants must produce the money; the editor-in-chief 
spends it. This business manager must directly or through 
assistants attend to publicity, circulation — mass selling 
and individual — attend to advertising, where it is per- 
mitted, soliciting advertising and preparing copy. He 
must collect money from seniors, clubs, home-rooms, 
classes, and advertisers. He must recruit and organize 
an office staff to handle details, and set up a system of 
bookkeeping to guard against carelessness and even dis- 
honesty. Honesty on his part is not enough ; many honest 
people are bunglers. 

Professional assistance. There is necessity for profes- 
sional assistance: the photographer, the engraver, and the 
printer. The photographer deals with pictures of groups, 
individual portraits, and views. The engraver translates 
drawings and photographs into zinc and copper engravings, 
while the printer deals with paper, type, set-up, covers, 
binding, engravings, and printing. The engraver, if prop- 
erly urged, probably will design and plan an annual. Do 
not blame the engraver; blame the school that sets up or 
permits a situation that demands an annual and provides 
no educational means for advisers and pupil-editors to 
learn how to produce an annual. 

Since so many of these advisers, frequently rotating 
from year to year, and these new editors do not know 


what a book will cost, the engraver and the printer must 
be consulted in making the budget. Of course, the staff 
facing so intricate and such an expensive undertaking 
should organize and begin work at least a year before the 
book is to be published. As a rule, however, the work is 
crowded into the last few busy months before graduation. 
As a result, the production of the book is not an educa- 
tional procedure at all ; it is, rather, a scramble to get the 
book out on time. Result: increased dependence on the 
engraver and the printer — especially on the engraver. 

The business manager. The business manager in a 
school that has issued an annual may be able to get a 
detailed statement of previous costs. There is no real 
assurance that he can, for the school as a school often pro- 
vides little or no guidance in keeping records. He must 
determine rates for advertising, for organizations, and for 
subscriptions. How’ much advertising can he get, how 
many books can he sell, how much will a book of a certain 
size and quality cost? Finances largely determine the 
book. He does not know by experience, and will not know, 
unless somebody tells him, that to be at all safe he must 
set aside 1 5 per cent of his total funds as a reserve, and then 
forget it. With this done, he can struggle with the per cent 
of funds to be devoted to photographs, art and engraving, 
printing, and with at least five per cent for miscellaneous 
expenses. The school should provide expert guidance if 
as a school it desires its pupils to meet and solve these 
immediate problems. 

The editor. The editor, who somehow gets a conception 
of what he is to do, desires to produce or select the write- 
ups, events, pictures, drawings that will make a record for 
that year of the people, the events, and the spirit of the 
school. Here is a real problem of creation and selection. 
He may be able to get a theme or motif for his book that 



unifies it and gives plain facts an appeal to the imagination. 

This editor must face the problem of introductory pages: 
title, school, location, year, and by what group issued; 
probably also a foreword, theme, dedication, contents, 
frontispiece. He must even learn to be honest about a 
two-dollar copyright. Somehow this editor has to learn 
how to make pages complement each other from an art 
point of view and how to get his decorative cover and end 
sheets in harmony with his theme. He has to learn such 
technical points as to plan his book and “divisions” in 
4, 8, or 1 6 pages. He must use intelligently his page 
decorations: border, headpiece, tailpiece. What about 
printer’s type and rules? Shall his stuff be “Ben Day’d” 
so as to get an extra color at the lowest printing cost? He 
has to know the relation of the size of his page to the stand- 
ard sizes in which paper is made. Likewise, if his book is 
to trim 9 by 12 inches, he must know that he has to get 
his regular material in a page 6 by 9 inches; that a type 
page must be adopted for the entire book which is in keep- 
ing with the paper page pla* *ed. In some way he must 
learn page balance, when to use it and when to avoid it to 
secure self-balanced units. 

In making his dummy, he must lay out his pages with 
mathematical accuracy with full knowledge that divisions 
and sub-divisions must begin on the right-hand page. He 
may be surprised that he does not know so simple a thing 
as how pages are conventionally numbered. If he does 
not keep straight here, he is in for trouble with his printer. 

An editor could save himself trouble and money if he 
knew that square or rectangular halftones are cheapest, 
how to figure the cost of engravings, how to secure dis- 
counts by getting copy in early and by paying promptly, 
and how the cost of color work may make him old before 
his time. 


The schedule. If the editor-in-chief and the business 
manager and their associates know how to schedule work, 
life will be more pleasant. Know or not know, they have 
to do it here. The book must be out on time. Begin in 
the spring of the junior year. List every item with a 
definite date when it is to be ready, with reserve time fig- 
ured in and then forgotten, and who is responsible for it. 
Have a work time schedule for every member of the staff, 
and with photographer, engraver, and printer, and live by 
the schedule. 

Art work. In the art work, decide who is to do it. Hav- 
ing it done by capable people in the school is one thing, 
by the engraver is another thing. A capable art teacher is 
a joy here. She can plan with the editor and assign work. 
In a school where there is no real art department, there is 
little chance for a pupil, even an editor-in-chief, to know 
art engraving requirements. The editor may know that 
so far as the annual is concerned a drawing exists to make 
a good engraving, but he may not know that a good pen 
drawing requires a capable artist plus a ball-pointed sea- 
soned pen, black India ink, and a supply of at least two-ply 
Bristol board. He may find to his sorrow that pencil 
drawings, unless a soft pencil is used, turn out badly, and 
that in any event “highlight” halftones are costly. He 
will learn to have all artists make drawings in the same 
proportion to engravings to be produced from them, and 
that his photographer must understand the special require- 
ments of photo-engraving. This photographer must get 
uniform headsize (from eyebrows to point of chin) and 
make sharp, clear-cut prints on glossy paper with a uniform 
background and in a uniform color. Pictures made in this 
fashion, and mounted on plain mounting board in appro- 
priate panels with rubber cement, may do justice even 
to the seniors. 



Engraving probably is not half as complex as it seems or 
sounds, and an art editor does not need to know all about 
it technically. However, he does need to know the differ- 
ence between a zinc etching and a halftone, and that small 
annuals, and probably all others, should have all halftones 
in '‘square finish” and that other finishes outside of panels 
cost 25 to 50 per cent more. He should know when to 
“tool” and when not to “tool”; and if nature has richly 
endowed him with originality, he may find how to avoid 
using color plates and keep everybody happy. “Tint 
laying,” “air brushing,” the use of the “embossing plate” 
or the “frisket,” may be all Greek to the art editor, but he 
must know enough to send the engraver absolutely clean 
copy. Likewise, he must know that in marking every 
photograph, if he writes on the back of the photograph, he 
must write lightly unless he wants his marking to show in 
the engraving. Likewise, he can understand that every 
engraving must be numbered, that prints of portraits must 
be as large as the engraving i^ to be, and that there must 
be balance in group pictures with uniformity in disposition 
of hands and feet. 

Printing. E\’erybody is a consumer of the printed page 
and it is worth while to develop an appreciation of printing. 
Instruction for preparing copy and for planning the print- 
ing is too detailed to be presented here. However, the 
editorial staff must learn it or leave it to the printei and 
thus lose whatever educational value it may have for them 
so far as the annual is concerned. The staff should know, 
at least, what to expect from hand-set, linotype, or mono- 
type work, and what it costs. Likewise, they should know 
the type faces best to use and the size of type — probably 
10 point, 2 point leaded. There must be an understanding 
of how to use proof-reader’s symbols. In any event, have 
a printer in whose ink, at least, one can have confidence. 


Whether the book is to be wire-stitched or sewed must be 
decided, as well as whether the binding is to be paper or 
imitation leather. Have the printer responsible for the 
binding and allow time for glue to dry. The cover design 
should be in accord with the theme of the book. Copy, of 
course, must be typewritten, double space, and so correct 
that there will be no charges for author’s changes. Like- 
wise, the copy must be of the right number of words to fill 
the spaces as indicated by the dummy. Keep a carbon 

What the school should do. It should be repeated that 
the publication of a book so diversified as the annual de- 
mands knowledge, abilities, skills which the school has 
made no serious specific attempt to develop. The school 
either should provide for developing in pupils the necessary 
knowledge, abilities, and skills or eliminate the annual. 

Three possible ways. If the school wants an annual, or 
yearbook, to provide a record of the events of the year, of 
the seniors as a group and as individuals, and of other 
groups and individuals, so as to interpret the school and 
its spirit to the school itself and to the community, at least 
three possible ways are open: 

I. Set up a situation where, under expert guidance, 
pupils, especially seniors, who are interested in this type 
of work and who have demonstrated ability to profit by it, 
shall have a favorable opportunity to learn, on a real educa- 
tional basis, how to produce this type of publication. The 
making of such a book can be a profitable educative experi- 
ence. Such a plan requires a trained, capable teacher. 
Not enough such teachers exist, but training is possible. 
The demand can produce the supply. Such a plan requires 
time in the semester schedule, probably with school credit 
if the work is worth credit. The study of such a group 
would deal with the question of how to produce a book, and 


the publication would grow out of the educative work of 
the class.* 

2. Hire a group of copy producers, engravers, and 
printers to get out the book for the school. In view of 
some present practice, there is much to be said in favor of 
this plan. At least, it would be what it pretended to be. 

3. Continue the plan as now carried on in many schools. 
According to the present plan in many schools, the sponsor- 
ship is “wished on” some teacher who neither has desired 
nor had competent training to do the advising. Just as 
well require a man who has had no football experience 
whatever to coach the “Varsity” team. A few, usually 
earnest, young people, at the busiest time in their school 
career, without competent guidance struggle with a really 
colossal undertaking — producing, publishing, and financ- 
ing an “illustrated ” book. In order to get the work done 
at all, the engravers and printers are called in to carry 
much of the work that properly handled would be an edu- 
cative experience for the pupils. Engraving and printing 
are decidedly honorable and sicillful activities. There is no 
particular reason apparent why the school, indirectly, 
should hire the engravers and printers to do the educative 
work that the school ought either to do itself or not 

The annual and the contest. There has been a long 
struggle in high school toward “clean” athletics. Now 
players must be actual students of the school, they must 
be under a certain age; they must have had passing grades 
in a certain amount of work since entering the school, and 
they must have maintained certain specified standards in 
their work during the preceding semester. Coaches as a 
rule are regularly employed teachers of the school. Thus, 


when teams meet in an inter-scholastic sport, one team is 
playing the other team. Coaches do not play on the 
teams — not, at least, from nearer than the side lines. In 
the state or national contests in annuals, it is repeatedly 
asserted that material is included in the contesting annuals 
which pretends to be but is not the work of the pupils or 
even of the teachers of the schools represented. Pupil - 
editors, of course, know this, and are a party in the pre- 
tense. If the often-repeated allegations are true, here is 
plain dishonesty. At the same time, some idealists insist 
that the school stands for the dev'elopinent of ethical char- 
acter. fault is it? The professionals called in for 
engraving, for example, want to produce a creditable book. 
If ideas or drawings are wanting, they can supply them. 
It is their business. If later, the book is entered as the 
work of the school in a contest with another school, that is 
the school’s affair. If it is not the engraver’s fault, maybe 
it is the pupils’. These pupils as a rule have ideas and 
have or learn to have the ability to exprcvss their ideas. 
However, plunged suddenly into the responsibility for 
getting out a publication for which they have little or no 
training, and re(|uired to work in a medium they do not 
understand, they copy for the most part other annuals, and 
welcome ideas, designs, and material from whatever source 
they can get them. 

The fault lies in the school that desires or permits an 
annual and does not at the same time pro\’ide a favorable 
opportunity for the pupils to have the educative experience 
necessary to do their part in producing it. 

Fortunately, some of the nation-v. ide contests in school 
publications take into account the abuses, real or imagi- 
nary, in the contests of annuals and eliminate the annual 
from the contest. It seems reasonable to suppose that, 
when school superintendents and principals and boards 



education wake up to what they are doing, the alleged 
‘‘abuses’* in the production of annuals will be eliminated 
or the contest in annuals will stop. 

Advertising in the annual. In one city of four high 
schools and three colleges, the merchants got so tired of 
what they considered “charity” advertising in the annual 
that they refused to continue advertising. In another city 
the merchants still contribute and seem satisfied to have 
the annual publish no advertisements, but include instead 
a single page enumerating “Our Patrons.” In Cleveland, 
Ohio, with some twelve senior high schools, there was criti- 
cism of the solicitation of advertising for school publica- 
tions. The Board of Education met the criticism by a 
formal statement that, if the merchants did not want to 
advertise in school publications, all such advertising would 
be prohibited by the Board. The matter was referred to 
the Cleveland Advertising Club, with the result that this 
club decided that the school newspaper was “an actual 
asset to advertisers whose line of business permits them 
to use it intelligently,” but uiat “the annual has no place 
in the advertising appropriation of an efficiently managed 
advertising department.” * Result: general elimination 
of annuals in Cleveland. 

Special edition of the school paper. It is generally 
recognized that the school newspaper is taking the place of 
the omnibus type of school magazine, and that the maga- 
zine where retained is becoming a literary and not a semi- 
news publication. The movement in the direction of the 
newspaper is also expressing itself in the substitution of a 
special edition of the newspaper for the annual. The 
present typi of annual may continue or a special edition 
of the magazine, or of the newspaper, may be issued as an 


annual. It is the business of the whole school to develop- 
a constructive policy in respect to what form, if any, the 
annual should take and how it should be produced. The 
school either should eliminate the annual, no matter what 
form it takes, or provide the time and the training neces- 
sary for the production of the annual on an educative basis. 


1. In the high school that you know best, if it has an annual, how 
did the first annual get started? 

2. How do the purposes of the annual you know best agree with 
those found by Miss Lane? 

3. How does some annual in which you are interested compare 
with median practice as found by Burkhart? 

4. To what extent, if at all, do you agree with the writer’s state- 
ment that the school has made no serious, specific attempt to 
de\eIop the knowledge, skills and abilities in pupils that the 
publication of an annual demands? 

5. What staff is necessary to produce an annual? How should 
this staff be organized ? What are the duties of each member of 
the staff? 

6. How do the duties of the business manager, editor, and art 
editor as you have outlined them, compare with the duties of 
these three positions as set forth in this cha[)ter? 

7. To what extent, if at all, do you agree with the three possible 
ways of handling the annual situation, set forth in this chap- 

8. What, if any, serious educational difficulties present them- 
selves in contests among school annuals? 'I'o what extent if 
at all do you agree with the position taken by the author of 
this chapter? Why? 

9. On what basis do you agree or disagree with the position take n 
by the Cleveland Advertising Club in respect to advertising in 
the annual? 

10. What should be the policy of your senior high school in respect 
to the annual? How should this policy be carried out? Why? 

Chapter XV 

Present status. Four statements can characterize the 
present situation: there is keen interest in commencement, 
especially in smaller communities; the traditional program 
generally prevails; there are many isolated cases of experi- 
menting with new types of programs; there is no generally 
accepted theory as to the educational purposes of com- 

Interest. Outside of big cities at least, commencement 
is a glorious time. It’s June in New England, or May, 
perhaps, farther south. ‘'Every clod feels its stir of 
might.” ‘‘Now, if ever, come perfect days,” not only in 
the season, but in the ideals, aspirations, hopes, dreams of 
youth. ‘‘wSweet girl graduates” are not dated as to style, 
but they belong to the days ‘‘When Heaven tries the earth 
if it be in tune.” Fathers, mothers, brothers, uncles, 
cousins, sisters, aunts get a thrill, vicariously, out of the 
real achievement of graduation as represented by some 
member of the family. At least this happy state is true 
where family life is a triumphant reality. From the nature 
of the whole situation, practically no commencement pro- 
gram can be so poorly developed or presented, or be so 
artificial, as to be considered a failure. 

Commencement as a reporter sees it. Reporters are not 
exactly a sentimental lot, but real newspaper reporters are 
keen, and occasionally, at least, as representatives of the 
community, some one of them sees and understands the 
spirit of youth as it expresses itself in commencement. 
Take this account, for example, from the Philadelphia 
Evening Ledger: 


In the schools at least democracy is a reality. In graduation 
days, children often appear to see farther and clearer than their 
elders. People with tired minds and those infecied with the 
modern disease of cynicism, and all the o\ er-sophisticated folk who 
have concluded that there is little gooil in humanity and nothing 
but black devilment in the accomplished order of human affairs, 
ought to go occasionally to the graduation ceremonials in the pub- 
lic schools. 

An escape from Bedlam that can be; an interlude to remember, a 
vivid experience in the light of fundamental truths. 

Youth alwa\s is in wa\s miraculous. Tlierc are times when it 
seems to hold all true wisdom and to be alone capable of fully under- 
standing the things that really matter in this life. It has no fears, 
no doubts, no hatreds. 

What does youth know that the elders luue forgotten.^ Some- 
thing of importance, surely. For in the printed rosters of the 
school classes that are now going singing out into the world of af- 
fairs are names reminiscent of almost e\ery habitable land, every 
national tradition and every race, and those who bear them have 
achieved unity of feeling, unity of aim. 

Among themsebes in a small bright world where democracy 
assumed its truest form they have accomj)lished something which 
Governments still find im[)()ssible. Tliey move together in gen- 
erous and friendly association. 

The old countries are only a few gcner.itions behind many of 
them. Vet in classes like that which was graduated .Monday even- 
ing from the South Philadel|>hi«i High .School for Girls you can hnd 
no lingering trace of the racial and religious bigotries, of the 
“natural antipathy,” of the insane dislikes and suspicions that 
divide the larger world. The cultivation and encouragement of 
such things are left to the kings and the j)l(*nij)olentiarii‘s, the am- 
bassadors and ministers of state of this (pjeerly organized wa)rld — 
men far less w'ise in es.sentials, seemingly, than the children of the 
public schof)ls. 

Changes that have l>ecn brought about in the tone and color of 
graduation days show' clearly that the will to i)rf)gress and a habit 
of frank and rational criticism and iiujuiry are inherent in the 
schfx)ls and ev en in the lively and curious minds of those who study 
in them. The pose and artificiality of older graduation days arc 

There are few long and agonized and stuttering declamations 



any more. Fewer and fewer grow the woeful imitations of Daniel 
Webster. Brutus and Cassius have gone altogether from com- 
mencement programs. The scliools have left Congress to be the 
last great unapproachable stronghold of the sounding and hollow 
metaphor. ^ 

The children of today turn curious eyes upon their contempo- 
raries and they can discuss significant events of the hour with 
naturalness and tranquillity. They are doing it now in all the 
schools. And some sort of wisdom of the heart — a quality that 
often is trampled under and buried under the doubts and surmises 
of progressive experience and the higher education — leads them 
to take one another for granted, to be generous and believing and 
to make among themselves the best uses of the traits and talents 
because of which the great nations cannot find peace or security or 
hope of escape from sin cessive conflicts. 

There is something beautifully rational, something supremely 
wise, in the unwrillen laws by which children live in their schools. 
Faith has not been educated out of them They take things and 
people at their face ^alue and they can be amazingly shrewd in 
their instinctive assessments — 

Irish and haiglish, Russian and Pole, French and German, Ar- 
menian and Greek — all contributed to that bright company of 
American schoolgirls, and the* all sang together in a way that 
made you think of the lights and winds of April in open fields. 
Alike they felt. Alike they talked. Even accents had been ironed ^ 

The wrath, the madness, the bigotries, the manufactured de- 
lusions that torment mankifid had no place in the scheme of their 
relationships, (ioing away, you instinctively felt like lifting your 
hat at the thought ol them and of their teachers and of youth at 
large. And you had to feel again that the public schoo’^ of the 
United States are, with all their defects, one of tlv* great wonders 
of the world. 

The traditional program. Certainly one of the “won- 
ders” of the schools is graduation. A vision of the possi- 
bilities of commencement as an educative experience ought 
to add to one’s sanity in nltempting to make suggestions 
for improvement. As described by high-school principals 
and teachers, there are hundreds of examples from which 


one might build up a composite picture of the traditional 
type of commencement. Since this type of program is so 
well known, a brief example is prubably sufficient to help 
keep it in mind. Thus, one principal writes: 

The commencement program of our high school is still of the old 
type, that is, patterned after the small college commencement of a 
generation ago. The form of its program has become traditional 
and still hangs on though it has oiitli\ed its usefulness. The bene- 
fits deri\ed therefrom do not warrant the present e.xpenditure of 
time, money, and effort. 7'he e.xercises consist of music furnished 
by outside talent, of the salutatory, the valedictory, two additional 
essays or orations, and finally a long address by a professional 
lecturer. By the time the program is completed, e\ery one is 
thoroughly tired. The orations and essays have been a bore to 
every one except the nearest relatives. The address is too often 
“full of sound and fur\', signifying nothing.” The essays and ora- 
tions more often rejiresent the work of the coaches than of those 
who deliver them. \\'hate\cr idea the pupil originally had as to 
what constitutes effecti\e speaking cither has been stimulated into 
intoxication or sandbagged into inanity by the staggering an- 
nouncement that he is t(j produce an oration. All this has preceded 
the awarding of lionors and conferring of diplomas. Seemingly 
some of the teachers as well as the community appear to be per- 
fectly satisfied. 

Modifications of the traditional plan. Out-and-out 
breaks with tradition are comparatively rare. Perhaps 
from the point of view of permanent progress in many 
communities, it is better so. F'our examples of rather 
complete breaks with tradition will be presented in detail 
later in this chapter. In the majority of cases, however, 
progress is being made slowly by modifications of the tradi- 
tional program. These changes seem to be based on the 
recognition of the idea that commencement can furnish a 
favorable opportunity for an educative experience for both 
the school and the community. This point probably can 
be made clearer by illustration than by more abstract dis- 



First example : As it was in the beginning. Not all high 
schools are new, and in the older ones, tradition, some- 
times beautiful and often emotionally satisfying, is firmly 
established. One teacher makes this comment: 

Ours is an old high school and as a result any special function of 
the school is more or less influenced by tradition. So many of the 
features of our commencement day have been long established! 
This is not an apology. It is a beautiful occasion for we have held 
fast to much that is fine and good. The program is as follows: 
organ recital, 10.30 to ii.oo; march of the graduates to the plat- 
form; Invocation — usually by a minister who is a relative of a 
graduate; concert Bible reading by the class; anthem; salutatory; 
chorus; presentation of prizes and awarding of scholarships; 
chorus; valedictory; chorus; presentation of diplomas; class hymn. 

Mothers and grandmothers of our pupils are frequently gradu- 
ates of the school and they insist that the event is important 
enough in the girls’ lives to warrant expensive gowns and red roses 
in February. Hence, the commencement gown in our extravagant 
procedure is frequently contrasted with the home or school-made 
dress of some other high schools. I have attended many com- 
mencements in newer schools in other cities, and in their programs 
there is usually an attempt to ii ^rpret social needs or to empha- 
size the utilitarian aspect of modern education. It has never 
seemed to me to be effectively, or successfully, done. 

Second example: Speakers to know more about their 
subjects than does the audience. The growth in the size 
of high schools is making it increasingly difficult for all the 
graduates to speak. This, itself, may work a rf'iorm. 
Essays and orations on “Where the Brook and River 
Meet,” and “Beyond the Alps Lies Italy,” seem to be a 
thing of the past. As long ago as 1913, Joliet Township 
High School, Joliet, Illinois, was emphasizing in its com- 
mencements that speakers should talk on something which 
they understand and concerning which they knew more 
than the audience to which they are speaking; that these 
talks should have a direct interest to and therefore be 


capable of producing a direct effect upon the audience ; that 
they should deal with phases of school life in which the 
pupils had had first-hand experience and about which they 
could speak with an authority that would aid in guiding 
the formation of intelligent public opinion/ 

Example three: Single-theme programs. In Schcnley 
High School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a plan was in- 
augurated by Principal James N. Rule, and has been car- 
ried on by his successor, Principal lulward Sauvain, which 
enabled Principal Sauvain to write: 

Nineteen semiannual commencement |)r()granis ha\e l)een ren- 
dered since Schenlcy Hi^li ScIkk)! N\as first opened. K\ery one 
of these nineteen programs has been on <i single theme. A subject 
is chosen and dilTeront phases of the subjecM .ire assigned to the 
various members of the class who ha\e been selected as the i)U|)ils 
best able to represent the class. 

Some examples of the single themes chosen and the 
topics developed under each theme may serve to illustrate 
that this tyi)e of [)rogram has prevailed for a long time at 
Schenley. “The .New Patriotism” was the theme June 27, 
1919. The topics were: “The Necessity of Maintaining 
Law and Order,” “The Dangers of C lass Autocracy,” 
“What Constitutes a State.” “National \ersus Interna- 
tional Obligations,” “Education as a Means of Promoting 
the New Patriotism.” “The Majesty of the Law” was 
the theme June 27, 1921. The topics were: “Democracy 
and the Law,” “Industry and the Law,” “Lawlessness — 
Its Cause and Cure,” “ International Peace through Inter- 
national Law.” The theme January 27, 1922, was “The 
Younger Generation.” Heginning with the (juotation from 
Barrie, “The world needs a league of youth more than it 
needs a league of nations,” the four topics were: “The 
Modern Youth Movement,” “The Intellectual Phase of 

■ Schooi Revtevo, 21 : 260 - 62 . 



the Youth Movement,” ” Youth and the Older Genera- 
tion,” “The New Responsibilities of Youth.” 

As to the manner of presenting the program. Principal 
Sauvain adds: 

Something else that does not appear on the printed program 
and that may interest you is the following: I have charge of the 
program until after the in\ocation has been rendered, at which 
time I present the president of the graduating class as chairman, 
who presents in turn the various members of his class wdio have a 
part on the program. I again take charge after he has delivered 
his farewell address to the class. We like very much this plan of 
having the program in charge of a pupil. 

Example four: The single theme and the curriculum. 

Another type of theme and one that could grow directly 
out of the work in American history was chosen by the 
Senior High School, Athens, Ohio, for a commencement 
program. The following summary may give a clearer idea 
of the program. Theme: “The American Constitution,” 
president of senior class presiding; Song — “America” — 
class and audience; remarks by president of senior class, 
“The Critical Period” — senior girl; “The Personnel of 
the Convention” — senior boy; “The Preamble of the 
Constitution” — senior girl; “The Compromises of the 
Constitution” — senior boy; “Amendments to the Con- 
stitution” — senior girl; “Congress Shall Grant no Title 
of Nobility” — senior boy; presentation of diplc nas — ' 
member of Board of Education; Americans’ creed — class; 
salute to flag — class; “The Star-Spangled Banner” — 
class and audience; music was furnished during the program 
by the senior girls’ glee club, senior boys’ quartet, senior 
boys’ and girls’ octet, and the high school orchestra; 
speeches averaged five to siv minutes; selection of speakers 
was made in February so as to allow plenty of time for 


Example five: The single theme and the school. Unity 
in the program and the study necessary to attain this unity 
can be gained by the single theme. The relation of the 
school and the community has served not only as a single 
theme but as a means of making commencement an educa- 
tive experience. 

In the days when Will French was principal of the High 
School at Winfield, Kansas, there was developed the single- 
theme type of programs. It was in accord with the 
Schenley plan, except that the speakers probably had more 
first-hand knowledge of the theme they presented. For 
example, French wrote: 

In this scIicxdI of about 800 pupils the chief point of difTerence 
between this program and some others is that this one has a single 
theme about which the program is built. For example, this year 
it was “The Place of the Modern High School in an American 
Community.” The speakers meet, select their theme and each 
pupil chooses a phase of it which he would like to cover. This 
year the first speaker’s topic was the importance of schools in a 
democracy; another speaker pointed out the relations hetweert 
types of work taught in school and the needs of the community; 
another stressed w’hat the school means to the pupil, emphasizing 
the influence of extra-curricular acti\it> ; while the last speaker, in 
presenting the class gift, spoke of the spirit of the school and com- 
munity service that was to be found in the school. 

Another difTerence in this program is that these “honor’* stu- 
dents w'ho present this program are not chosen because they are 
particularly brilliant students, but are chosen on a different basis 
— but this is another story. This t> pe of commencement program 
may l^e a little better than the a\erage, but 1 should like to find a 
feasible plan for giving pupils an opportunity to demonstrate what 
they can do, as in Domestic Science, in Art, in Agriculture, in 
Manual Training, in Drawing, and so on. 

Example six: Single theme explaining the school. The 
William Penn High School for Girls of Philadelphia, under 
the leadership of the former principal, W. D. Lewis, and 



his successor, Principal William F. Gray, aided by Mrs. 
Lillian K. Wyman, Adviser of Girls, and the members of 
the faculty, has been a pioneer in many fields including 
commencements. As^early as 1923 the commencement 
exercises dealt with the extra-curricular activities of the 
school under the title of “Lessons in Living.” The six 
phases of the theme were: “School Activities as a Means 
of Self-Expression,” “Clubs that Encourage Physical Ex- 
pression — Athletics, Hikes, and Dancing,” “Clubs that 
Help Others — Chemistry, Social Workers, Students* Aid,** 
“0wa5, the Mirror of School Activities” {Onas is the school 
magazine), “Lessons in Living.** 

At another time the commencement program in this 
same school was devoted to a consideration of pupil partici- 
pation in government under four headings: “The Function 
of the Student Court,** “The Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives,” “Student Monitors and Volunteers,** and 
“The Purposes of Student Government.** By means of 
presenting their ideas on the ^heme chosen, the 1 15 seniors, 
through their representatives, were clarifying for them- 
selves, for the seven other classes, for the faculty, and for 
parents and friends, the work of an important phase of 
school life. These speakers, through four years of intimate 
experience, knew more about their subject than did the 
audience. There was an opportunity for their evaluation 
of pupil participation in government to be of real worth to 
the whole school. 

Example seven: A junior high school breaks with tradi- 
tion. As everybody knows, there is a tendency for the 
junior high school to follow the senior high school, just as 
there is a tendency for the senior high school to follow the 
college. Not in all junior high schools, however! The 
9A English teachers in the Morey Junior High School, 
Denver, so M. B. Addleman reports, believed the 9A pupils 


for their “ Promotion Day*’ should make as well as give the 
program. These teachers started the idea of a pageant 
which was taken up by the class, made and remade until 
practically every phase of the school in dramatic episode, 
poem, song, dance, or pantomime, was represented in a 
pageant which w'as finally called, ‘‘What the Seasons Bring 
to Morey.” The attempt was made to [irescnt the whole 
life of the school, rather than just the life of the 9A class. 
Every one w'as invited to submit material. One English 
teacher, and a group of pupils who were especially inter- 
ested in that phase of the work, edited the material. \"ari- 
ous departments of the school cooperated — art, music, 
commercial, crafts, physical education, the shops, and so 
on. Miss Addleman says: ‘‘Much of the material was a 
real revelation of ability to the teachers while the aiiprccia- 
tion of the pupils for achievement w’as illuminating. In 
all cases the type of written w'ork was noticeably better 
than most of the regular class w'ork.” 

It may have been noted that these seven examples begin 
w'ith a state of satisfac tion with commencement as it is 
and by gradual changes in subject, and finally, in form, 
come to a new type of program. Any one may add easily 
other types of subjects, such as, a i)resenlation of the de- 
velopment and history of the school, the town, the state 
presentation of the activities and claims of various dei)art- 
ments of the scIkkjI, curricular and extra-curricular. The 
aim has been to indicate a line of jnogress on the subject 
side. From presenting orations and essays on subjects 
with which pupils have no first-hand knowledge and fre- 
quently only slight secondary information, commencement 
has changed to an attempt to present something of the 
pupils’ own creating which presumably is of interest to the 
school and the community. 



A break with tradition : Four examples. In many schools 
the traditional Commencement is being modified. Many 
of these changes are along the lines of the seven examples 
that have been given. From the Commencement in the 
old school, wherein mothers could relive for an hour their 
own bright days of youth, to the whole-school Commence- 
ment at Morey Junior High School, is a real advance. It 
marks the long step from cheerfully walking in the trodden, 
and perhaps delightful, ways of the mothers to a new con- 
ception of the educational possibilities of the pupils’ own 
guided, creative achievement. 

The arranging of the commencement situation so that 
the pupils and teachers can participate, intelligently and 
creatively, in the development and presentation of the 
program, seems to characterize those schools that have 
made a definite break with tradition. Four examples are 
selected for presentation here as a means of indicating 
some of the newer types of commencement. It seems wise 
to present these examples in considerable detail rather than 
to give many examples in a more condensed form. 

First example: An allegory. In graduating its 510 
seniors in the June Commencement, 1922, the Central 
High School, Tulsa, Oklahoma, for the first time in its life 
of twenty-two years, gave up the commencement address 
in favor of an allegory entitled “Youth’s Challenge,’’ 
written by the school’s director of dramatics. After the 
class processional, the invocation, and music by the boys’ 
glee club, all but six of whose members were seniors, and 
by the girls’ glee club, this drama of graduation constituted 
the program. A quotation from the printed program may 
give some idea of this innovation : 


Youth’s Challenge: An allegory based on the objectives of edu- 
cation as taught in the Central High School, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Place: The Halls of Learning; Regions of the Great Spirit. 

Time: Universal Boyhood and Girlhood. 

Characters: Prologue. 

Sfririt of Learning (Teacher) Spirit of Home 

Life (Challenger) Sp^trit of Work 

Everyyoiith Spirit of Leisure 

Spirit of Citizenship Spirit of Character 

Spirit of Research Monitors of Wisdom 

Spirit of Health 


Youth's Challenge is a portrayal of Everyyouth’s experiences and 
his subsequent reactions during the four years of high school life. 
It is an allegory, similar in spirit to Everyman, the old morality 

The Spirit of Learning, the guide to Everyyoiith, enters and 
takes possession of the Halls of Learning. Life, the C'hallenger, 
stands at the door ready to entice any youth who may enter. 

Ever>‘youth enters. After Ixjwing in prayer, E\eryyouth, chal- 
lenged by Life, and guided by the Spirit of Learning, starts on his 
pilgrimage in quest of Experiences. He meets Exj)erienccs of 
Health, .Search for Truth, Home, Work, Leisure, Character, and 
Citizenship. The Experiences, rol)c*d as Si)iritual Characters, at- 
tempt to impart to him those qualities which ICvery youth needs to 
inculcate. After passing over devious paths, Everyyoiith reaches 
the Level of Graduation, on which he meets The Monitors of Wis- 
dom. Everyyoiith, with his classmates, receives his diploma, and 
looking at the Great .Spirit for the last time as a student, he passes 
on to Life’s other Regions, and The Echoes of his Class Song are 
heard from the distance. 

The symbolic robes are copies of Roman and Grecian conceptions 
of similar spiritual values as portrayed by sculptors of the Early 
Renaissance in Italy and (Greece. The colors of the robes sym- 
bolize the painter’s conception of such ideals: Ciold symbolizes 
richness; white, purity; purple, the regality of work; crimson and 
cream, vigor and purity of the IwxJy; green, with rainbow colors, 
frivolity; blue, truth; black and red, life’s meanings. 



It may be added that the incidental music during the 
allegory consisted of selections from Haydn’s “Eleventh 
Symphony,” Schubert’s “Unfinished Symphony,” and 
finally from the Stradella “Overture.” In the end, as 
Everyyouth climbed toward the Great Spirit, the principal 
of the high school, the superintendent of schools, and a 
representative of the board of education, in academic robes, 
appeared on the eminence, the members of the class en- 
tered the stage in processional march, climbed the symbolic 
slope, and received their diplomas from the representatives 
of the board of education. 

It is recognized by the reader, of course, as well as by 
the writer, that so brief a synopsis does not do justice to 
this commencement, but it may serve to give an idea of 
this new and creative presentation of an age-old way of 

Second example: A socialized commencement. Com- 
mencement at the South Philadelphia High School for Girls 
has already been mentioned. The writer has studied, first- 
hand and at long range, the commencements of this school, 
but there is, somehow, a spirit and a technique that he 
could not capture and set down in words. As a result he 
appealed to the principal, Dr. Lucy L. W. Wilson, to tell 
both what the school does and how it does it. With the 
aid of Olive Ely Hart, head of the English Department, 
Dr. Wilson has given the following account of thi com- 
mencements in this school: 

The Principal speaking: 

Fortunately for us, we did not have to face the commencement 
problem until two years after the establishment of the school. In 
these two yeai s we had begun to sense our real problems, that of 
understanding life in terms of our twenty-six nationalities; in terms 
of individual differences, economic and social; in terms of a great 
variety of intellectual desires, ranging from utter indifference to all 
except creature comforts, to a fierce hunger for learning, often re- 


gardless of actual ability; in terms of mental ages, varying at en- 
trance, from nine and a half to eighteen and a half years; and in 
terms of I.(J.’s running from 66 to Please remember that these 

are high school I.Q.'s, u'ith therefore a large divisor! 

In these two \ears, we had learnec] that the educational im- 
peratiNCS for our adolescents, at any rate, were oi)p()rtunitics for 
self-disco\ ery, opportunities for self-expression, opportunities for 
self-integration, (ipporlunities for de\ eloping right attitudes, and 
oiiporlimities for forming right habits, including the important (jnc 
of success — all in a self-less and highlv socialized en\ ironment. 
To ser\e these ends we had to offer m.iiu' and \ariefl actixities; 
worth-while and significant tasks with the perpetual goal of worth- 
while and signific.ini accomplishments. 

Did we ourselves secure the “success habit ” in tlu‘sc endeavors? 
Well, no, but we were and are on the road .ind our Wtigon is hitched 
to that star. 

Hecause of the fruitful experiences of these two vc'.irs, it was im- 
[X)ssible for us to conteinjilate the commencements that we had 
inherited from our high-sc hool and colh'ge davs. bather an out- 
side spe«iker or *1 few jejune compositions from a vitv few of the 
many gr.iduateN, with coiu'ert re,iding «ind singing the onl>' oj)- 
portunilv for the main. “Win not socialize our commencements, 
t(K),” said some of us. Some, not all' 

And w(‘ knew the (ost, none better. WV knew it ('ould not 
be done successfullv without he,irt> coojieration, ev entuall> , from 
all the teachers, at the vitv busiest season of the Not 
merely a teacher of baiglish, nor even the whole department, but 
all the teachers, working with all the gr.iduates, is the jirice that 
must be jiaid. It come.s high, but we still think it is worth all 
it costs. 

More often than arn thing else we have sfuight to infer[)ret the 
school to the community, but each time from a fresh vicicpoint. 
f)nce the kevnote was Character; another time. Team Work. Onc'e 
Saruierson of Oundle held the rtins; again, it James Harvey 
Robinvm, with his Miad in the Making, who drove us. 

Sometimes the world .seemed bigger either the .s( hool or the 
community. The of the armistii e, vve libiTated our emotion? 
in a ma.sf|ue, the World for Democracy. We were for the moment 
“With Cireat Nations, millions on their knees with new devotion 
and high fervor thrilled.” Still later, we created a Spirit of the 
Nations, and, God save the mark, zl Peace Pageant! 



This year, 1926, the year of the Sesqiii-Centennial Anniversary 
of our independence, Oiir Philadelphia looms up large and big; one 
commencement told the story of Old Philadelphia, while the other 
is now picturing its actual present and its hopeful future. 

As in every other cooperative enterprise, fine leadership is es- 
sential. We had a leader. Will it not be better to give her the 

Head of the l^n^lish Department speaking: 

Ha\ing achie\'ed a dominating idea for a commencement, the 
next problem was, obviously, to devise ways and means by which 
that soul might take form. Although we began by assuming that 
every girl in tlic senior class would be able to take .some part, it did 
not follow that every girl wished to take part. They, too, had a 
tradition behind them and they did not wish their commencement 
to be “different.” One girl wcepingly asked, “How would you 
like to come to your commencement in your father’s boots!” It 
would 1)0 difficult, now, after sixteen such commencements to 
persuade a girl that she could not be provided with a part. Tradi- 
tion is sometimes not a handicap. 

Whether the program has attempted to put on a special-theme 
pageant or to interpret the ideals of the work of the school, the 
method, of course, has always 1 ^n to plan as dramatic a stage 
spectacle as possible. 

Science experiments, gymnastic stunts, playlets in English and 
in foreign languages, speed tests in typewriting and stenography, 
fashion shows, artistic and inartistic house decorations, have all 
contributed to demonstrate the spirit of the w^ork of the school, 
when a true pageant was not suitable for developing the theme. 
One program planned to give an idea of the spirit of the modern 
high-school curriculum reads: 

Science; A Help in Making Good Citizens 
Mathematics: A Friend in Need 
Language: A Hond in a World Democracy 
Physical Training: A Need in School as Well as in Camp 
Applied Art: A Vital Factor in Right Living 

Life as a fine art was the theme of another commencement. The 
program reads: 

New Ideas Through Science 

Honesty, Speed, Accuracy in Mathematics 


Habits of Industry in Art 
Team Work in the Gymnasium 

A Sense of Responsibility Through Cc»mmercial Training 
Tolerance for All Men through the Study of History 
Social Training Through English « 

A pageant written around the numerous nationalities repre- 
sented among the students consisted of four episodes: 

I. I hear the call of those who are seeking 

II. You, too, must give, for only in giving shall you find that 
which you seek 

III. Behind you lies the wisdom of old nations 

IV. Consecrate all that you bring to the best in the world 

Sometimes we have staged exhibitions in halls and classrooms to 
represent the sample gi\en on the stage. 

Always the first part of the program in which the class is seen as 
an interpreter of itself and of the school, is followed by the formal 
procession and passing of diplomas. There is rarely a break of 
more than five minutes between the two parts of the program. 
The girls in the last stunt literally leap into their commencement 
gowns and appear in line. 

The technique of preparation has resolved itself in our school 
into the formation of commencement clubs which meet once a 
week in regular club time during the entire term. For this reason 
the commencement idea has to be hatched before the beginning of 
the term, so that the plan in the rough may be presented to the 
girls. Each girl chooses the phase of the work which she prefers. 
If try-outs are necessary, the department concerned decides upon 
the qualifications of applicants. 

Costumes arc made by the girls, or by the sewing classes, under 
the direction of the Arts Department. Elaborate costumes, such 
as were needed for Old Philadelphia, are rented and paid for out of 
the funds paid by the class for gown rentals. The gray commence- 
ment gowns are made and owned by the school and rented at a 
nominal rate for use at commencement. 

During the last two weeks before commencement, the senior 
class is called for rehearsal whenever the auditorium is available. 
In our o\ercrowded school that means approximately three 
periods daily. During these periods the marching, singing, and 
diploma passing, as well as the pageant, are rehearsed. 



With a class of 175 or 200 girls, it is obviously necessary to have 
the help of a large part of the faculty in putting through the pro- 
gram. The pageants have been written in a variety of ways: by 
the English Department; by several departments in collaboration; 
by the clubs under their sjjonsors; by individual teachers. 

The results have always left us with the conviction more strongly 
rooted than before that commencement is a rare opportunity to 
let the community glimpse the workings of the school and to help 
the students themselves to realize the sweep of the years through 
which they have just passed. 

The fact is that with inspiring leadership the commence- 
ment program of the South Philadelphia High School for 
Girls grows out of the life and the spirit of the school. 
There is generated somehow a big idea that, with zeal, with 
team work, and with a rare technique, surmounts all ob- 
stacles and interprets the life of a democratic high school. 
There is, so the author thinks, more to it than meets the 
eye in even the clear-cut write-ups that have been given. 

Third example : The demonstration type. So far as the 
author knows, D. D. Mayne, Principal of the School of 
Agriculture, University of Minnesota, University Farm, 
St. Paul, was in modern times the pioneer in the demon- 
stration type of commencement and with his associates 
developed this type so that the graduation exercises at the 
School of Agriculture, University of Minnesota, have at- 
tracted wide attention. This type of commencement 
seems so important that it is presented here in some detail. 

Since 1904 the material discussed and demonstrated by 
pupil representatives in the commencement program of 
this University Farm School has developed from the cur- 
riculum of the school. Such subjects have been included 
as: “What Happens to the Beef Animal “Music in the 
Home”; “The Combine in Minnesota”; “Farmer Move- 
ments in the United States”; “Constructive Child Play”; 
“ Beautifying and Arranging the Farmstead ” ; “The House* 


hold Budget'*; “Utilization of Peat Soils for Crops"; 
“Fruit-Growing in Minnesota"; “The Farmer and his 
Wheat Market”; “Home Care of the Sick”; “Modern 
Conveniences in the Farm Home"; “Plant Breeding”; 
“Machine Power on the Farm";‘and “Literature in the 
Farm Home.” 

How are programs of this type developed ? A member of 
the faculty of this school, Johannah Hoganson, explained 
it to other members of the writer's classes, Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, in this fashion: 

At the dose of the spring term, the juniors elect their president 
for the succeeding year. This president becomes ex officio a com- 
mencement speaker. He will choose the subject of his sf)eech. 
It may be in social science, agriculture, engineering, agricultural 
economics, or allied fields. The ne.vt fall, as seniors, the class 
nominates by secret ballot five commencement speakers, three 
boys and two girls. The secret ballot is presented to the principal, 
who tabulates the results. Acting in conjunctiim with the head o( 
the English Department, the class adviser, the chairman of the 
students’ work committee, the social adx isers to bo\'s and to girls, 
and the teacher of dramatics, the principal accej^ts the students' 
ballot and selects the fne commencement speakers. The com- 
posite judgment of the class in nominating the best representatives 
is most canny. 

A carefully ^elected list of subjects for conimeiuenient speeches 
is agreed upon by this committee. The greater part of the list is 
usually the product of very careful selection and research by the 
principal, lasting over a period limited only by his e\|)erience. 
Nothing once presented may be rehashed. New, \ ital subjects are 
chosen. From this list, the commencement speakers make their 
selection if they have no personal preferences. Sometimes a stu- 
Jent has chosen his own field because of interest and e.xperience in 
it. After the selection of the subjects and their definition, the 
commencement speakers outline whatever additional laboratory 
practice and research is necessary and begin work on their problems. 
Before the winter holidays, the speeches and laboratory work must 
have definite form. After the holidays, the work is more intensive 
and rehearsals begin about three weeks before commencement. 



The speakers are personally responsible to the principal for the 
preparation of their parts, the experiments to be performed and all 
properties to be used during the demonstration. In case a subject 
is chosen which required participation of several people* the 
speaker may choose other 92 niors to take part. The principal ap- 
proves such selections. 

Another activity engages the attention of seniors who are not 
commencement speakers or their assistants. A small corps of 
stage managers is selected whose business it is to place and shift 
properties used in the demonstrations. This must be done quietly, 
accurately, and with dispatch. Organization behind the scenes 
must be perfect. This may be appreciated when the range of 
properties is as wide as this list might suggest: maps, charts, graphs, 
complete stump pulling apparatus, an automobile fully equipped 
for touring, completely furnished kitchen with wells, models of 
landscaped farmsteads, coops of chickens and samples of feeds, a 
dairy cow, and a small apiary. There is no obstacle too great to be 
overcome if it stands in the way of perfecting a demonstration. 
Each program is balanced in content and execution; but eight 
minutes is allowed for each number. There is no evidence of hurry 
because the machinery has been oiled so thoroughly in advance. 

Not only do the seniors who take part get a liberal education, 
but the audience is conscious the same kind of a reaction. 
Since the initiation of this type of student participation in com- 
mencement exercises at the School of Agriculture, no one has even 
suggested the substitution of the conventional type. 

How did this demonstration type get started in this 
school of agriculture? To the student of the history of 
education, the idea of the worker demonstrating his 
achievement before being admitted to a higher rank is not 
new. The question here is: How did this demonstration 
type get started in its present form in modern times? By 
permission of Principal Mayne, the author quotes the 
following letter: 

The first demonstration graduation that I know anything about 
was held in connection with my high school at Fort Atkinson, 
Wisconsin, in 1890. After that, eight such graduation exercises 
were held in connection with my high school at Janesville, Wis- 


consin. In that place, however, the graduating classes were so 
large that the exercises were held each night for a week. 

When I came to University Farm I urged the committee to adopt 
this form of graduation, but they felt that it was too radical a de- 
parture from the usual type of commencement exercise. Some of 
them thought that the audience delighted in the fulsome flattery of 
the usual valedictory* and the wonderful power of the orations. 
They did concede one number on the program, “Landscape Gar- 
dening for the Farm Home.’* A picture was on the platform, but 
no reference was made to it. The whole thing was a failure. 

The next year we had a regular demonstration program with 
salutatory for the beginning and valedictory for the end. One of 
the demonstrations w as “ Bread-Making.’* Go\ ernor Johnson was 
on the platform. It struck him so favorably that he did not wait 
to give his regular address, but sampled the bread that had been 
baked and enthusiastically approved this form of graduation ex- 
ercise. After ha\ing the Governor’s approval, the battle was 
won, and the demonstration type of program prevailed. It was 
necessary, how'e\er, to continue the salutatory and valedictory till 
1909 w^hich marked the last of “To our Dear Principal, etc.’’ and 
“To the Board of Regents, etc.*’ 

Here in this School of Agriculture there is a type of com- 
mencement program that really grows out of the life of the 
school — dramatic, full of interest, of value to those who 
work out the program, to those who listen, and of real 
guidance for future action. This plan indicates not only 
what can be attempted, in part at least, in rural high 
schools; it also points the way for wholesome procedure in 
technical and academic high schools. The real contribu- 
tion made by this type of commencement lies in the fact 
that out of the life of the school these pupils, as a result 
of their own investigations, are discussing and demonstrat- 
ing subjects of vital importance to themselves and to their 

Fourth example : A masque with an evaluation. One of 
the most hopeful signs for the development of more worth- 
while commencement programs seems to lie in the fact that 



principals and teachers, in their dissatisfaction with the 
traditional type of program, are increasingly attempting to 
evaluate what they are doing on the basis of educational 
theory which, at least tentatively, they accept, and to 
modify their work accordingly. Take this example con- 
tributed by Helen Anderson of the South Side High 
School, Denver, Colorado: 

The presentation of a masque and its value according to some 
principles of extra-curricular activities. History: In Denver at 
the time of this masque, the commencement exercises were a mass 
affair in which all high schools in the city participated. At the 
South Side High School it was decided by the teachers in charge of 
the class day program that a change from the hackneyed type of 
class day was desirable. It was believed that a worth-while pro- 
gram should include every member of the graduating class. Ac- 
cordingly a masque was written by two of the teachers, in which a 
legend, telling of the birth of the school colors, purple and white, 
was wo\en. The two hundred seniors were given parts, and the 
masque was presented in an out-of-door theater in Denver’s most 
beautiful park. An audience of several thousand witnessed the 
performance. As a result, it ha'’ been decided that something of 
this nature shall take the place of uie old time class day. Since the 
masque embe^died m my of the cherished traditions of valedictories, 
prophecies, etc., it was not altogether a violation of the customs of 
other years. 

Evaluation — Positive Viewpoint 
I. Commencement as an extra-curricular activity should grow 

out of curricular activities. 

a. The idea of the “Masque” grew out of the study of that 
form of literature in one of the classes in Senior English. 

b. The designing of every costume used, approximately 3(X), 
was turned over to classes in the art department. Conse- 
ciuently, every costume presented a design created by the 
students theniselv'es. 

c. The making of the costumes was placed in charge of the 
sewing classes. Every girl in the senior class made her own 
costume. Costumes of boys were planned and cut by the 


d. Something like twenty group dances and a number of solo 
dances were worked up by senior girls in the physical train- 
ing classes. 

e. Music and songs were in charge of glee clubs, which in turn 
are made up of members of the music classes. 

/. All accompaniments were played by the school orchestra. 

g. Necessary mimeographing and typewriting were done by 
members of t\'pewriting classes. 

II. Extra-curricular acti\ities should train in leadership. 

a. Three seniors were in charge of ad\ertising camj^aign. 

b. One senior girl took charge of bu>ing materials for cos- 
tumes, distributing it, and collecting the money for it. 

c. Two senior girls did important lil)rar> \sork, gi\'ing needed 
information to groups in charge of costume design and to 
teachers writing the masque. 

d. Approximatel> twenty people received training in directing 

e. Twelve students had important leads, which demanded the 
same elements that are necessary in assuming the leading 
part in any dramatic work. 

/. Business arrangements were entrusted to a committee of 
senior boys. 

g. Every senior participated in a class day which in other 
years had been in the hands of a popular few. 

Evaluation — Negative Viewpoint 
I. Extra-curricular activities should grow out of curricular activ- 

a. The original idea, the actual writing of the words of the 
masque, the composition of the music, the writing of the 
words of the songs, might have been the work (jf capable 
English students instead of the work of the te.ichers. I say 
“might have been,” because 1 have never known of so ex- 
tended a piece of work to be the result of student effort. 

b. The advertising cami)aign, instead of being in the hands of 
the advertising committee, might have been the work of 
the class in advertising and salesmanship. 

c. The writing of the program might have been student work 
in English classes. 

d. The dramatic work could have grown out of the work in 
public speaking, but did not. 


II. Training in leadership. 

Many details attended to by faculty members might have 
been entrusted to students, such as: schedule for rehearsals, 
marshalling of performers both at rehearsals and at the main 
performance, casting ^f characters, police duty in park, and 
finding a more democratic method of finance. 

III. The result. 

The cliief value seems to lie in the training pupils received, in 
the fact that all members of the senior class took part in the 
perform. nice, and in showing many phases of the work of the 
school to the .ludience of patrons. Thinking of the masque 
as a performance, the drawbacks in the main are: the 
amount of labor and expense involved were out of proportion 
to a “one-iierformance” program. However, when the ed- 
ucational value is considered, it was thoroughly worth while. 

These four examples, together with the example from 
the Morey Junior High School, may serve to indicate some 
of the directions in which newer types of commencements 
are moving. As Dr. Wilson expressed the idea, it was im- 
possible for these pioneers to contemplate with satisfaction 
the commencements inherited from their high-school and 
college days. 'Fhese four schools, widely distributed geo- 
graphically, along with some scores of other examples that 
could have been cited, have provided for socializing, 
creative types of commencements that aim to provide 
happy educative experiences here and now. 

Supplementary graduation activities. In addition to the 
commencement program itself, there are in many ^ases 
such other traditional activities, as class day, senior ban- 
quet, senior sermon, senior play, senior gift. Possibly 
commencement dress might be considered an activity. 

Class Day. From experience one thinks immediately of 
the class — past, present, and future; that is, of history, 
will, and prophecy. The history, free from idle boasting 
and self-complacency, can contain an analysis of the com- 
position of the class, the narrative of what the class has 


stood for, together with a record of its successes and fail- 
ures. If the class has been alive and ambitious, it probably 
has some honorable failures. There can be also an account 
of how many of the class are going to college and what 
colleges and how many to business and what kinds of busi- 
ness. A frivolous “History*’ is out of keeping with the 
dignity of the class. 

In contrast to the class history, class “wills” and 
“prophecies” may give freer rein to the fancy and provide 
for invention of a lighter type. Often these two phases of 
the class day program provide wholesome fun. To be 
clever on command is difficult, and to try, and fail, results 
in a pathetic flatness. Seniors, or some of them, are clever, 
j ind there should be a place for humor. This humor should 
b, e on the highest plane that the class is capable of creating 
ar id enjoying. To attempt to eliminate it is to court the 

oe of mock commencement wherein one college class, at 
lea* 3t, in a kind of rough play, met and conferred horse- 
cqI lars on each other. Crude? Yes. But the members 
of this class thought it was fun. Some classes, in opposi- 
tioi) ^ ^he old saying about fools’ names and faces, have 
delighted to paint their numerals in smoke-stacks and 
otrfer seemingly inaccessible places. One school at least 
provides, as a part of class day, the unveiling of class 
.iiumerals. Such an honorable procedure, however, would 
be denied any class that had improperly displayed its 

Class day should provide for a wide distribution of class 
leadership. Wherever possible class day should bring for- 
ward pupils other than class officers and pupil representa- 
tives on the student council. Likewise, class day should 
recognize in some appropriate way not only a particular 
teacher-sponsor, but all sponsors of senior home-rooms. 
In the following class day program. Central High School, 


Tulsa, Oklahoma, the president of the class presided, but 
the program was presented by pupils other than class 

Roy^mith, Presiding 

Salutatory Maxine Witt 

Boys’ Quartet 

Don Wheat, Floy Bright, Robert Carnahan, Robert Griggs 

Class History William Rice 

Class Prophecy George Norvell 

Piano Solo “Allegro Appassionatto” Evelyn Hood 

Lamp of Knowledge Roy Smith, Varley Taylor 

Class Will Norman Drake 

Tribute to the Faculty Mark Ballard 

Valedictory Raymond Courtney 

Class Song Composed by Lois Mohler 

Processional of the Senior Class to the North Terrace for the un- 
veiling of the class numerals. 

Unveiling of Numerals Leslie Brooks 

Response Ward H. Green 

In addition, the names of the fifteen senior home-room 
sponsors were printed as a pa- of the program along with 
the names of the class officers. 

Senior dinner. These senior dinners, sometimes called 
banquets, have been in some cases unreasonably expensive 
and embarrassingly dull. This one, held in the high school 
cafeteria at Tulsa, looks interesting and not too serious. 
Following the menu of this, the third annual dinner, the 

printed program runs thus: ^ 

Toastmaster — King Arthur William Fleetwood 

Magics and Wonders of a High School Edu- 
cation — Merlin Mr. Prunty 

Assemblies — Sir Bore-us Roy Smith 

Now it can be told — Loonette Mary Louise Stalkef 

The Hard Cruel World — Grinanbear Miss Watkinson 

Battles — Sir Gelahead Ted Thompson 

New Worlds to conquer — The Lily Maid 
of Askalot Marie Guinn 



In Quest of the Ever-elusive Diploma — 

Duncelot David Bradley 

Solo — Royal Harpist Charlotte Laughton 

Surprise number by the Court Entertainers 

Class Song — Tulsa High Everybody 

Senior play. If a group of seniors, either in a curricular 
class or in a school club, have been interested in and work- 
ing at the presentation of plays, a senior play may be an 
appropriate commencement activity. The theory so often 
in mind in this chapter is that commencement activities 
should grow out of the real work of the school. In accord- 
ance with this idea, the class or club may have presented 
frequently during the year one-act plays. At commence- 
ment time, either by presenting two or three of the best of 
these plays, or by presenting new productions that come 
as a climax of the semester’s or year’s work, there may be 
a real, justifiable senior play. However, for the class to 
present a play that does not grow out of a previous activity, 
and to do so just because it is the traditional thing to do, 
is worse than a waste of time and energy. 

Senior gift. There is a tradition in some schools that 
the senior class make a gift to the school. As a special 
edition of the school newspaper comes to take the place of 
the annual and as cap and gown replace bou(|uets, many 
rather expensive dresses, and consequently much cab-fare, 
this custom will pr(jl)ably increase. The easiest way for 
class and school to proceed is for the class to collect the 
amount of money the members desire to give and have 
some one “buy something” for the school. The matter, 
of course, is scarcely so simple. To make an appropriate 
gift. as every one knows, is quite difficult. For example, 
the class desires to present to the school a picture. The 
art teacher may be delegated to select it. The result would 
probably be an excellent choice. However, the educative 



experience for the class would be almost entirely lost. 
Instead, the class, working through a committee, might 
consider through the whole senior year wfhat kind of picture 
would be appropriate fo^- the school and at the same time 
expressive of the ideals of the class. Such a desire might 
lead some pupils, possibly many, to visit art galleries, study 
catalogues of copies of famous paintings, to class discus- 
sions of pictures, to cooperation with art dealers, local or 
otherwise. There would be necessity for consultation with, 
and guidance, by the art teachers and others who have an 
intelligent appreciation of pictures. The gift as a material 
thing is not so important as the educative experience for 
which, indirectly, it provides a favorable opportunity. 

The presentation of the gift and its acceptance should 
be a distinguished occasion The gentle art of giving and 
receiving will stand much courteous and emotionally satis- 
fying practice. 

Class sermon. Many schools have a class sermon as a 
part of ‘‘commencement wee ” In many cases classes 
year by year rotate among the various churches. Cer- 
tainly there is a place for religion and worship. As schools 
are coming to have adeejuate auditoriums, the class sermon 
may be at the school. The processional and recessional 
can be played by the school orchestra. There can be the 
dignified entrance and exit of the whole class. Additional 
music may be by the school chorus and orchestra or by the 
boys’ or by the girls’ glee club or by all of these organiza- 
tions. One school used “Build Thee More Stately Man- 
sions,’’ by Farwell; “ Ave Maria,” by Luzzi; “Faith of Our 
Fathers,” by Remy; and finally Barnby’s “Now the Day 
is Over,” as a response to the benediction. In Scripture 
lesson and in sermon, the light speaker may rise to the 
unique opportunity provided by such an occasion. 
Commencement dress. One graduates from high school 


but once. For many it is their last and greatest “gradua- 
tion.” The self-respect expressed in desiring to appear 
well is greatly to commended. Several solutions of this 
real problem are possible. The school can dictate what to 
wear. Every one may strive to keep up with or to surpass 
the others. Boys can agree among themselves to dress 
in a certain way. Girls can make their dresses as a school 
activity. At a meeting of girls and their mothers and 
class advisers, certain definite agreements, helpful to all, 
may be reached. The class can rent caps and gowns, black 
or, better still, gray. An increasing number of schools are 
coming to own and furnish caps and gowns for the use of 
graduates at commencement. This idea is so sensible and, 
in comparison with the “keeping up with Lizzie” competi- 
tive idea, so inexpensive that probably many more schools 
will adopt it. 

Choosing the speakers. Formerly the speakers were 
selected on the basis of academic grades. There is not 
necessarily a high positive correlation between high grades 
and speaking ability. Again, the principal and the faculty 
have selected the speakers. Such a plan may make sure of 
good speakers and likewise may bestow honor where it is 
due. At the same time, such a plan robs the pupils of the 
educative experience of selecting their representatives. If 
the pupils as seniors cannot make intelligent choices, it is a 
sad commentary on the school that has failed to educate 
them. Those pupils, or groups of pupils, who can produce 
the best material suited to the occasion should produce it. 
Likewise, those who can present it best should present it. 
Thus, in the commencement program of the South Phila- 
delphia High School for Girls, one can read, “Valedictory, 
Isabelle VV^elsh, delivered by Hannah Klaus.” In the 
newer types of programs there is a real opportunity for 
wide participation of the class in preparing and presenting 
the commencement program. 



Guiding purposes of commencement. There is as yet 
no generally accepted purpose of commencement. Thus, 
when one attempts to think through the whole problem in 
determining what to do, some guiding statements, tenta- 
tively accepted, form themselves in one's mind. Eight 
such statements are proposed here as possible aids to those 
attempting to solve the commencement problem: 

1. Commencement, in common with other extra-curricular activ- 
ities of the school, should grow out of the life of the school. 

2. It should be an occasion of real joy in that it represents the 
successes of individual pupils, parents, the whole school and 
the community. 

3. It should be educative for every individual and group con- 
cerned in that it sets forth what has been done, the way it has 
been done, what remains to be accomplished, and some sug- 
gestions for future procedure. 

4. It should be inspiring to the class, to other classes, to the par- 
ents and friends of present, past, and future classes, to teach- 
ers, to the school as a whole, and to the community. 

5. It should be democratic in its simplicity, sincerity, worth, and 

6. It should be beautiful in the aspirations, faith, and fineness of 
youth, and in the appreciation of youth that can live in the 
minds of adults. 

7. It should, through just pride in achievement and through ap- 
preciation of work > et to be done, integrate the school within 
itself and unify the school and the community. 

8. It should be emotionally satisfying and this satisfaction should 
be on as high a plane as those concerned at this fa v orablt time 
can actually, in some measure at least, create, understand, and 

After one has thought through some of the purposes and 
possibilities of high-school commencements and formu- 
lated, tentatively, at least, the purposes that are to guide 
his thinking and action, the serious question still remains: 
How are these purposes to be realized? The material that 
has been presented in this chapter undertakes to show 


where schools now are in respect to commencement, where 
some schools want to gjo, and how some of them are at- 
tempting to realize the vision that they have. In any 
event, a guiding philosophy is necessary. Some detailed 
consideration of these eight statements may aid in develop- 
ing the ideas presented. 

Commencement exercises in high schools should grow 
out of the life of the school. There is a tendency, tradi- 
tionally, to develop the school along one line and, when 
pupils have completed certain courses or gained the re- 
quired number of units in sequential work, to celebrate the 
event by exercises along an utterly ditferent line, entirely 
foreign to the work in which success has been achieved. It 
has been insisted In' some critics that a high wschool is really 
two schools; one — curricular — set up by the faculty; the 
other — extra-curricular — set up by the pupils. The gen- 
eral thesis maintained in these chapters is that the funda- 
mental purpose of the school is to develop good citizens, 
and that the whole ninge of the school’s activities, in or 
out of the regular curriculum, should be used to develop 
the qualities of the good citizen. 

Historically, as (Frizzell ‘ has pointed out, the school ex- 
hibition was a forerunner of the present commencement. 
This plan, in part at least, did present, in early New Eng- 
land schools, work that pupils had done. However, the 
exhibitions themselves in some cases, and especially the 
“ rhetoricals,” were often devoted to material utterly for- 
eign to the regular wcjrk of the school. There seems to be 
a desire in the homo sapiens, when he makes a general holi- 
day, or wishes to present himself in the most favorable 
light, to assume a rOle entirely outside his regular life. 
Does the individual or the school live on such a low plane of 

' Grizzell, E D. Ortutn and Devtlupment of the High School tn New England befene 
pp. 334-3S. 



thought and feeling that for commencement there must be 
something developed quite out of keeping with everyday 
life? The fact is, so far as the traditional commencement 
Is concerned, that princi^Dals and teachers, in their respon- 
sibility for commencement, have dropped the regular work 
of the school and, where there is an absence of constructive 
planning, have drifted into a pale imitation of the college. 

If the school is a routine, stereotyped school, possibly the 
pupils will not be interested in attempting to develop the 
commencement program from the life of the school. Like- 
wise, the faculty may not be interested in having the pupils 
try it. If the school is really alive, commencement activ- 
ities can grow out of the real life of the school. 

Commencement should be a joyous occasion. Probably 
the capitalizing of successful achievement brings as much 
enjoyment as any other phase of life. Regardless of the 
bored appearance of those “educators” who are interested 
in subject-matter alone, graduation from a first-class 
American high school is no m. n achievement. In many 
high schools at the present time, only a small percentage 
of the parents of the graduating class have themselves 
graduated from high school or any corresponding grade of 
school work. So far as both the graduates and the audi- 
ence were concerned, the most joyous graduating exercises 
that the writer has ever attended have been in a school in 
which twenty-six nationalities were presented and in which 
seventy-five per cent of the pupils spoke, in their homes, a 
language other than English. 

There is a charm about youth, an enthusiasm of parents 
and friends that makes high school commencement a joy- 
ous time. For some teachers these exercises, often re- 
peated, may be largely routine; some few, it may be, find 
no thrill in the joy of others. That is their misfortune. 
However, no such aloofness is felt by the graduates them- 


selves or their parents and friends. Wise guidance at such 
a time may enable pupils and the whole school to bring 
into clear focus the best that the school, through its pupils, 
has achieved. Pupils may rationalize worth-while habits 
so that these habits stand a better chance of enduring. 
The community may come to have a more intelligent 
appreciation of the school. 

There is a caution in all this joyous spirit that ought to 
be kept in mind. Graduation, as every valedictorian re- 
marks, is not a completion; rather it is a commencing of 
further work. Some parents are so overjoyed that they 
consider the education of their sons and daughters com- 
pleted. The less experience they have had with schools, 
the more this is apt to be true. Commencement, while 
celebrating the present, should point the way for the future. 
Probably’ no program at such a time was ever so poor or so 
stupid as to spoil entirely the joyousness. It may be that 
this is one reason why progress is so slow. Whatever the 
program, there should be an intelligent looking toward the 
future that, among other things, will prevent the un- 
favorable emotional reaction that too often takes place 
among pupils and parents after commencement day is over. 
To leap from the joyous light of generous approval into 
unplanned obscurity is a consummation devoutly to be 
avoided. C'ommencement, while capitalizing the present 
and past, should also look to the future. 

Commencements should be educative for the graduates, 
for the lower classes, for the parents, and for the whole 
community. If the program grows out of the real life of 
the school, participants in the exercises will simply be 
bringing to the highest point parts of the work that they 
have been carrying on. Commencement will not be such 
a hectic rush and a break, but rather a continuance of the 
pupils’ and the school’s best endeavors along familiar lines. 



The lower classes, by the help of the seniors, can get a 
clearer understanding of individual and of school problems. 
They may be encouraged to continue in school by having 
a definite part in the unfinished work of school improve- 
ment. From seeing what seniors have done and how they 
have proceeded, these lower classes may learn vicariously. 
Parents, through pupil presentation, may learn something 
both of the problems and the methods of modern education. 
The whole community may get a clearer appreciation of 
youth and of the place the high school holds in the com- 
munity. The taxpayer may gain some knowledge of the 
dividends paid on his investment. To some extent the 
individuals of the whole community may get a better fac- 
tual basis for the faith — almost unbounded faith, in some 
cases — that they, as Americans, have in universal edu- 

Commencement should be inspiring, intellectually and 
emotionally. Commencement should help the various 
groups: the class to realize it has achieved, where it 
wants to go, and to some extent, at least, how it expects to 
get there; other classes, especially the juniors, to recognize 
what another class has done and in meeting the challenge 
to improve on past records; the parents of the present class, 
parents of former clasvses who in a kind of retirement have 
lost some of the enthusiasm for action, and parents who 
look forward to the growth and advancement of their own 
children; teachers who by school work, including pupil ad- 
visement, have contributed to the pupils’ and the whole 
school’s success; the community in a keener appreciation 
of the progress that can come through increasingly well- 
trained leaders. 

Commencement should be democratic in its sincerityi 
simplicity, worth, and dignity. If the exercises are based 
on an imitation of college commencements, if pupils pro- 


sent material "‘appropriated’* directly from the work of 
others, if pupil speeches, supposedly their own, are written, 
or rewritten, by the faculty, the real sincerity is sacrificed 
for show. If the program really grows out of the life of 
the school, if pupils, with the guidance of teachers, give 
their own work, there is a sincerity that above all else is 
important. If a pupil presents as his own material that is 
prepared by some one for him, he is educating himself in 
plain dishonesty. Schools that supposedly provide every- 
day favorable opportunities for education in sincere, honest 
expression, schools that do not tolerate cheating in exami- 
nation, have in some cases worked on what seems to be an 
entirely different basis when pupils are to make a public 
appearance as representatives of the school. 

The presentation by the pupil of work that is really his 
own, and that grows out of the real life of the school, gains 
not only the ring of sincerity, but at the same time a simple 
dignity that is unmistakable. In both speech and dress, 
high school seniors should be true both to themselves and 
to the democratic institution that they represent. Elabo- 
rate and diversified “hardware” in the form of rings and 
pins, expensive gowns, American Beauty roses, and much 
cab-fare are not in keeping with “Democracy’s High 
School.” Such practices are not only an unnecessary and 
unwise financial expense, but they are in a bad taste that 
makes for just the opposite of simplicity, sincerity, and 
dignity. Such practices obscure the real worth of the in- 
dividual. The sinceiity and the simplicity of graduating 
exercises that throw into high relief pupil and school 
achievement furnish the real distinction of high school 

Commencement should be beautiful. The beauty that 
comes through simplicity and dignity is not the kind that 
is bought by money. The graduates themselves and the 



work of the school are of chief interest. The greatest rec- 
ommendation of the school lies in what the pupils do. At 
the same time there can be beauty <n simple staging, 
whether the commencement is indoors or out, beauty in 
the procession, in just the right music by the school pian- 
ist, orchestra, glee clubs, or chorus. There can be beauty 
in the plan of seating, with the graduates in the foreground 
and the adult participants in the background, or, for the 
most part, out of sight entirely. There is sometimes too 
little emphasis on that which is really beautiful — the 
spirit, the decorum, the aspirations of youth — and too 
much emphasis on elaborate, imitative trappings. 

Commencement should integrate the school and unify 
the school and the community. Through lines of study 
pursued, through extra-curricular activities, the class itself 
may have diversified interests. The school as a whole 
works in many directions, but the commencement, like the 
assembly, is a whole-school undertaking. The entire 
school, in striving to honor those who have achieved most, 
the graduates, can become more closely integrated through 
common knowledge and b the common effort to do one 

The school that devotes itself exclusively to the mastery 
of what people have thought and done in times gone by 
limits itself unnecessarily in community contact. The 
community may support and accept the school in a faith 
in its professional leaders and yet actually know very little 
about the school. A commencement which is based on 
what the school has done and has tried to do which 
grows out of the life of the school — can help the com- 
munity to think for itself and to appreciate that “ the good 
old days” are mostly in the present and the future. The 
school should know itself; the school and the community 
should know each other, if the greatest progress is to be 


made. The commencement is one means of attaining 
these desirable ends. 

Commencemen^ should be emotionally satisfying. 

There is nothing new about tht^ doctrine of emotional 
satisfaction in relation to continued effort. It has long 
been recognized that practice with satisfying results makes 
for perfection. Intellect may or may not be simply a 
speck afloat on a sea of feeling. However, the fact remains 
that educators, no matter what their theory is, have been 
very timid, so far as practice is concerned, in at empting to 
educate the emotions. Regardless of the fact that the 
emotions lead to action and that much that is finest in 
human relations and achievement is based in, and ener- 
gized by, feeling, some intellectualists have not seen the 
close correlations, the fusing of intellect and emotion, in 
the education of youth. Commencement brings a flood- 
tide of feeling; it is a favorable time to guide action on the 
highest plane of which the participants are capable. 

The eight related, sometimes overlapping, objectives 
presented here are in no sense exhaustive, complete, or 
final. They are presented to illustrate the necessity of 
attempting to think the problem through and also with the 
hope of aiding the reader to develop much better ideas of 
his own. 

How a leader works. Evidently, if progress is to be 
made, there must be constructive, cooperative planning. 
Such effort requires a leader, not only with vision, but 
with the ability to turn this vision into reality. Such a 
leader recognizes the necessity of educating the school 
faculty, pupils, and community. This leader, in getting 
the commencement from where it is to where it ought to be, 
will recognize present conditions. Commencements in 
their irresistible occurrence require planning long in ad- 
vance. The leader may face a strongly entrenched tra- 



ditional type of commencement that in no way satisfies any 
of the principles of education that he accepts as funda- 
mentally sound, but he cannot get rid undesirable prac- 
tice unless he has, or caq cause his associates to have, some- 
thing better to offer. To have ‘‘something better*' is not 
enough : he must arrange the situation so that those who 
are most concerned want this improvement. One of the 
successful ways of stimulating this want is to get all those 
participating to help work out the plan. Many successful 
experiments point out ways of progress. “The best is yet 
to be.” The principal is responsible for his school. With 
the aid of his faculty, if he is a leader, he can arrange the 
situation so that commencement is the real climax of the 
pupil’s educative school experience. 


1. What phases of the account, as written by the reporter of the 
Evening Ledger, would apply to the last commencement of the 
school you know best? 

2. Is there such a thing as a traditional type of commencement? 
If so, how do you account for its having come to exist? 

3. List all the modifications ' the early type of commencement 
that you know or know about. What was the purpose, in so 
far as you can find out, that resulted in these modifications? 

4. What do you consider the strong points of the seven examples 
of modifications of the earlier type of commencement given in 
this chapter? What do you consider the weak points? On 
what bases do you make your decisions? 

5. List the commencements that you know, or know about, that 
represent a fairly complete break with the cadier tyf of com- 
mencement. What, if any, change in the purposes of com- 
mencement do these newer types of commencement represent? 

6. What, if anything, is there that is a new idea to you in the four 
examples of the break with tradition gi\en in this chapter? 
In so far as you can make out, what was the underlying theory 
of commencement in each of the four cases cited? In what 
respects do you agree, or disagree, with this underlying theory 
in each case? 


7. What was the program of the best class day that you know, or 
know about? How was this program developed? What kind 
of a class day, if any, do you want in your high school? 

8. Under what circumstances, if any, is it wise to have a senior 
dinner? If there is to be such a din»ier where should it be held? 
How formal should it be? Why? What should be the nature 
of the program? 

9. How do you explain the fact that there is so often a senior play? 
Under what circumstances, if under any circumstances, should 
there be a senior play? In what respects do you agree, or dis- 
agree, with the section of this chapter dealing with the senior 

10. Make a list of all the senior gifts you know or know about. In 
so far as you can find, to what extent, in each case, was there a 
favorable opportunity for an educative experience? 

11. Should there be any religious exercises, such as a class sermon, 
for example, as a part of commencement in a public high 
school? If so, under what circumstances? How should it be 
managed? Docs such an occasion provide a unique opportun- 
ity? If so, in what respects? 

12. Present the case for and against uniform commencement dress. 

13. If there are to be pupil representative participants in any type 
of commencement program, how should they be chosen? 

14. In what respects do >011 agree and in what respects do you dis- 
agree with the guiding purposes of commencement set forth in 
this chapter? 

15. F'ormulate the purposes you accept for commencement. 

16. In what respects, if any, should commencements in junior and 
in senior high schools differ? Why? 

17. How are the purfK3ses you accept for commencement to be 
realized in your high school? 

Chapter XVI 

Play and respectability. Play is part of man’s original 
nature. However, in accordance with an older theory of 
education, this original nature had to be beaten black and 
blue so as to keep the body in subjection and liberate the 
soul. Asceticism exalted the spirit and had a contempt for 
the body. Scholasticism exalted the mind and neglected 
the emotions. Puritanism exalted the serious and con- 
sidered play frivolous. 

Children play ; chasing, fleeing, pursuing, capturing, are 
a part of their instinctive tendencies. On festal days 
among a rural people the children played hide-and-seek in 
grandfather’s barn, or, if a little older, the boys raced their 
plow-horses in the back pasture, while their elders accumu- 
lated indigestion from dining not wisely but too well at 
grandmother’s table. 

Even the elders, however, had a really vigorous play- 
time at barn-raisings, “corn-shuckings,” and “turkey- 
shoots.” This play came out of the life the people lived. 
The cowboy interrupted the breaking of ordinary horses 
by attempting “to stick” an “outlaw” — perhaps “Old 
Steamboat” himself. The log-driver was not just “chap- 
eroning” logs down a river; there were at times sports and 
high daring. Cradling wheat was not just providing for 
the winter’s food; there were contests of skill and endur- 
ance. “A Son of the Middle Border,” if he was hardy 
enough to enjoy it, had his opportunity to perform “prod- 
igies of valor.” On the whole, however, play was con- 
sidered childish and to become a man was to put away 

4o6 extra-curricular ACTIVITIES 

childish things. Perhaps this was a compensatory philos- 
ophy for advancing age and declining physical ability. 

Among a pioneering people there were ** Giants in the 
Earth.’' The land must be cleared: chopping was not a 
sport. Crops must be grown : gardening was not a hobby. 
Long distances must be covered on foot ; hiking was not a 
recreation. Some Daniel Boone might go exploring, but 
the serious business of life was to take loll of the sea, clear 
the forest, or “break” the prairie. F'aced with this serious 
necessity of subduing the earth, to participate in sports 
was to be a sport, and a sport indulged in “riotous living.” 
Guided by a conception of the sinfulness of original nature, 
by an idea that play was childish, and by an understanding 
of the hard conditions of frontier life, play was often thought 
of as a waste of time and therefore could scarcely be con- 
sidered respectable. 

The individual and athletic sports. In a day now to 
some extent gone by, the home, the school, and the com- 
munity did little or no constructive planning for athletic 
sports. As a result boys, less docile than girls of that day, 
planned for themselves. Grizzell ^ cites the following ac- 
count of a high-school baseball game played in Worcester, 
Massachusetts, in 1859: 


It is by no means our purpose to enter into an elaborate dis- 
quisition on the subject of Ball Playing, viewed in the health-and- 
exercise light, or the comparative amount of l)eneht derived from 
the expenditure of so much time and money. But it may not come 
amiss to give some little history of the W.H.S.B.B.C., which is, at 
present, a prominent institution of the school. About the middle 
of last September, a paper, purporting that “We, the undersigned, 
join ourselves together for the establishment of a Baseball Club,” 

* Gri2zell, E. D. Origin and Development of the High School in New England Before 
1S65. The news item is taken from the Worcester (Massachusetts) Ihgh School 
Thesaurus, vol. i. no. I, p. 5. 1859. By permission of The Maciniilan Company, 




was circulated among the gentlemen of the school. A constitution 
was drawn up, and in this manner without parade or ostentation, 
the Club rose into being. In accordance ^ith the constitution, 
several of the softer sex added their names to the list of members. 
But the event proved a miscalculation of their power and endur- 
ance, and they deserted in a body. The mournfulness of which 
loss was somewhat mitigated by the leaving of “ten cents each, 
initiation fee” in the Treasury. The schoolyard underwent such 
preparation as the nature of the circumstances allowed, and several 
games, of little interest except to the players themselves, were 
carried on attendant with the usual results, viz: a few broken win- 
dows, and innumerable^ lost halls. Meanwhile reports were heard 
of a famous club y-cleped “Eaglet” — a club which had its play- 
ground on the new common. Whereat, the spirit of the K. S. Club 
rose up, and it was hastily, and then seemed rashly voted “to chal- 
lenge the Eaglets to play a game of 50 tallies”; which challenge was 
promptly accepted, and the afternoon of Wednesday, the 12th of 
October, was appointed for the fight. At one o’clock of this mo- 
mentous day, ten bold Eaglets with supernumeraries, scorers and 
referees in quantities to suit, were on the ground. An array, indeed, 
whose formidable appearance effectually dispelled what little hope 
of success had been cherished by the club. 

At length the required number of our players was present, and 
all preparations ha\ ing been c ■'mpleted, at 2 o’clock the game be- 
gan, H. S. ha\ing the first inmng. In a short time the Eaglets 
made 6 tallies, which number they had great difficulty in passing, 
while H. S. went on to between 30 and 40. And then, in turn, the 
Eaglets steadily gained until they had scored some 30 to 45 * Both 
sides being anxious to finish the game that day, the playing was 
continued till quite late, and in the latter part, the Eaglets having 
their ins, and being favored by the darkness, still gained, until 
shortly after 6 o’clock the game was adjourned, H. S. havi'»g scored 
48 tallies to the Eaglets’ 42. We adjourned Li expectation of 
finishing it at another time, but the Eaglets expressed their willing- 
ness to let it remain as it was. The success on our part, so unex- 
pected to everyone, was, in a great measure, owing to the superior 
throwing on our side: for the Eaglets afterward affirmed “That 
they could not expect to beat us, so long as we had Horace 
Sunn for a thrower y 

It may be well to state that all that prevented our victorious 
Club from immediately challenging the Upton “Excelsiors’ — 


who had just defeated the Medway Club in their great match 
game — was the lateness and darkness of the hour. 

In a college where there was a gymnasium owned by the 
students or where there were inter-dormitory or inter-fra- 
ternity games, there may have been some approach to the 
English “house-system” of organization for games. In 
the early high schools, however, there was no such residen- 
tial basis for organization. Where there were the required 
number of players and some “Horace B. Smith for 
a thrower” and some “Eaglets,” or lesser birds to be 
plucked, there was the setting for a contest. 

The school and sports. Since the school, outside of an 
occasional Casa Giocosa, had no constructive plan for 
sports, and since pupils would plan for themselves, con- 
flicts between school authorities and pupils were inevitable. 
The conflict might not be as merry as a “war” between 
Town and Gown, but still there was trouble, not only be- 
cause their play activity made trouble for somebody in 
authority, but because the activity was considered un- 
seemly for young gentlemen. In 1761, the students at 
Princeton University got into difficulty because they 
played ball and into special difficulty because they “played 
at Ball” against the president’s house, an offense that the 
trustees of that university decreed should be punished by 
a fine of five shillings “levied on each Person who shall 
offend on the Premises.” * 

In the development of sports in American secondary 
schools four steps seem to have marked progress. First, a 
group of boys on their own initiative organized a team 
composed of the ablest players regardless of whether or not 
they were actual members of the school. This team, away 
from home, at least, bore the school name. In playing the 
team of some other school occasionally a brawl of some 



kind developed which required that the school, to protect 
its good name, must take part in settling. Second, the 
settling of this difficulty probably resisted in the appoint- 
ment of some member of the faculty as a kind of sponsor for 
the team. Probably, also, a coach from outside the school 
was brought in to develop a team composed of actual mem- 
bers of the school. Pupils usually welcomed such super-' 
vision and coaching because it enabled them to have a 
better team. Third, the school came to see the necessity 
of paying attention to school sports and engaged some 
member of the faculty whose business it was to develop 
and to supervise sports. Fourth, some schools have come 
to see the educational possibilities in developing a real 
Department of Physical Education and to grow their 
sports, intra-mural and inter-scholastic, as a part of real 
education. The older schools usually had to go through 
the period of Jahn gymnastics, calisthenic exercises, and 
military drill. Some of the newer secondary schools, how- 
ever, have successfully omitted much or all of these formal 
drills and have developed real programs of physical edu- 
cation with games as a defin^Leand important part of that 
program. Many schools, unfortunately, still have a long 
way to go before this fourth step becomes something more 
than a “consummation devoutly to be wished.” A leader in 
this field, Dr. Jesse Feiring Williams, declares: “Of all the 
activities of the school curriculum, none is as rich with 
educational outcomes as the play, games, sport"*, and 
athletics of physical education.’* * 

The school and the athletic association. Athletics is 
older in the schools than is the program of physical edu- 
cation. The “A. A.,“ as the athletic association is fre- 
quently called, grew up between the time when pupil teams 
played surreptitiously and the later development of a real 


program of physical education. Generally speaking, this 
was the Age of Tolerated Athletics. Pupils initiated, or- 
ganized, led the gaines and likewise were not unfriendly to 
the development of an A. A. which supported rather than 
regulated the games. 

In a school where the student council has developed as 
.an all-school means of pupil participation in government, 
the A. A., if it exists at all, has come to be chartered by and 
to be under the direct supervision of this council. As the 
finances of all extra-curricular activities came to be or- 
ganized in a budget system, with either a fixed amount or 
a percentage of all income devoted to each recognized 
activity, much of the work of the earlier A. A.’s is provided 
for. Likewise, where a general pupil ticket, sold at a com- 
paratively small price, admits a pupil to all school activi- 
ties such as games, dramatics, parties, debates, newspaper 
subscription, etc., games take their rightful place as one 
but not the only financed activity of the school. 

School athletics and college athletics. A study of some 
of the reports of state athletic associations by a foreign 
student of American games would certainly leave him with 
the feeling that there is little but eligibility and money- 
mad trouble involved. Even the American love of com- 
petition may some day realize the futility of state and 
national championships. High schools rather than col- 
leges and universities should decide in what contests the 
pupils of the school should participate. 

The high school in a community where there is only one 
high school frequently has difficulty with its public. This 
public may not be at all interested in athletics as one means 
of education, but exceedingly zealous that the home team 
shall win. Of course, a team in a contest should play to 
win by every honorable means available, but there is no 
particular reason for becoming hysterical about it. The 


41 1 

college, however, is in a worse state of affairs than the high 
school. The high school serves a fixed residential com- 
munity; there is not so great a temptation or possibility of 
proselyting. The community, especially the “sports,’’ 
may see nothing in athletics except beating the neigh- 
boring town, but the power of the college alumni has no 
real counterpart in the high school. The school has its 
troubles with the amateur standing of its players, but in 
comparison with the colleges, it has no real difficulties with 
what is sometimes called “the snobbery of the Amateur 
Athletic Union.” School players are beginners, not skilled 
enough to be professionals; hence, the school has greater 
freedom inherent in its situation. It is the opinion of a 
competent observer that, “None the less, in spite of the 
shortcomings of our practice, our school athletics are much 
more nearly an integral part of the educational process than 
college athletics.” ^ 

The aims of athletics. To athletics as to all other school 
activities, the welfare of the individual boy or girl is the 
test to be applied. There cm be no ultimate justification 
of any activity unless this w».ifare of the individual is kept 
definitely as the goal. This welfare includes not only the 
physical well-being now and hereafter, but the whole in- 
dividual. For purposes of emphasis it may be helpful to 
talk about “Head, Health, Heart, and Hand,” or about 
“the mind, the body, and the spirit,” but the individual, 
“one and inseparable,” yields to no such short di’ Ision. 

It has been a constant thesis of this volume, repeated or 
implied in every chapter, that it is the business of the 
school to arrange the whole school situation so that there 
is a favorable opportunity for the individual to practice 
the qualities of the good citizen here and now, with results 


satisfying to himself. There seems to be no other phase of 
this school situation that can be so favorable to the prac- 
ticing of so many of the qualities of the good citizen as 
athletics. A second thesis to be k'^pt constantly in mind 
is, that wherever possible the extra-curricular activities 
should grow out of curricular activities and return to them 
to enrich them. Athletics did exist before the school had a 
program of physical education, health, and hygiene. Un- 
der such conditions athletics could not develop in accord- 
ance with the thesis just cited. Now, however, there is no 
valid excuse whatever for a community’s not developing 
through the school a real program of physical education. 
Among many important tests to apply to this program 
there are these two: (i) Is the program of physical educa- 
tion of such a nature that it includes sane athletics for 
every boy and every girl who can profit by athletics? (2) 
In so far as athletics is extra-curricular at all, can athletics 
grow out of the program of physical education and return 
to it to enrich it? 

In 1922, in the survey of the senior high schools of Phil- 
adelphia * the present writer stated a part of the aim of 
physical education as he sees it in this fashion : 

The problem of physical education is to establish right habits of 
living. Right living must result in such a high level of vitality as 
to enable the individual t(j keep well, to be mentally and physically 
efficient in performing his school work, to have the power, speed, 
endurance, and the nerve control to work consistently on a high 
level of accuracy and efficiency, to have the vitality \ 1 see problems 
clearly, to see them whole, and to have the stamina \o make moral 
decisions, to be free from nervous irritability, and to have a reserve 
of nerve [xnver when facing complex problems and in moments of 
sudden emergencies. This high level of vitality must exist if the 
high school pupil, or the adult in later life, is to do efficient work in 

• Survey of the Public Schools of Ptiiladelphia by the Pennsylvania State Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction. Report, Book 4. pp. iji-32. 



For the accomplishment of efficient work the physical educator 
must develop in the pupil the power to direct himself. The phy- 
sician, the physical educator, and the co^h must determine the 
physical condition and the health habits of each pupil. These 
directors must determine where the pupil is deficient, where health 
habits are wrong, and help the pupil to do the thinking and form 
the habits that will overcome these defects. Where the case de- 
mands it, these directors must also stimulate and supervise the 
self-direction of the pupil so that he has the vitality and control to 
get rid of a negati\e and assume a positive attitude toward all his 
physical and social relationships. 

Since right li\ing must be carried on twenty-four hours of the 
day, and since the pupil spends but a fraction of the day in school, 
it follows that the greater part of this right living must be done 
outside of school. Progressive present day physical educators 
have given up almost entirely the German and Swedish exercises 
with their inhibitory and joyless commands and have in many 
school systems established the natural play spirit in physical edu- 
cation. However, on account of the time and conditions of school 
work, as now understood by many teachers, this play spirit must 
develop itself largely outside of school hours and of the regularly 
accredited curricular acti\ ities. 

There are other educational features of the extra-curricular 
physical acti\ ities that must not be neglected. The wise super- 
vision of the playing field p. Aides rich opportunities for the 
player’s initiative, leadership, and cooperation. The player who 
can think up a new game or de\ise an improvement in an old one, 
or who can organize and direct a new group for playing, has his in- 
itiative and leadership and cooperation rewarded by the approval 
of his fellows. Here players selecting their own leaders and fol- 
lowing them, must cooperate in any contest or meet with sure de- 
feat. The accepted rules of the game make for intelligent obedi- 
ence to authority and demand clean sportsmanship. Individual 
players as well as leaders must accept responsibility and must make 

The qualities of initiative, leadership, cooperation, clean sports- 
manship, intelligent obedience to the rules of the game, and the ac- 
ceptance of responsibility are needed by all boys; and if athletics 
helps dex elop these qualities, it naturally follows that not only the 
ablest pupils who play on th*.. “first teams” should have the op- 
portunity to develop these qualities but that every pupil in school 


unless he is physically defective should play regularly on some 
organized team. 

The section of the Student Council that has charge of athletics, 
or (in a school less well organized) the athletic association, gives 
the pupils an opportunity to work out under supervision the organ- 
ization of their extra-curricular physical activities. There will 
never be and there should not be enough adult supervisors to work 
out all of these activities. Pupils like to hnd and work out some 
things for themselves. The wise supervisor gives stimulus and 
direction to the work and focuses public approval on those who 
contribute to the welfare of the group. 

The chief issue. The main aim is to develop and to 
maintain, now and later, a high level of vitality, to run 
this human engine joyously, beautifully, efficiently. A 
problem of physical education, as previously pointed out, 
is to establish right habits of living. These right habits 
are not just a matter of the training of muscles, big or 
little: they have to do fundamentally with the emotions 
and the mental processes cpiite as well as with physical 
efficiency. In respect to this physical, emotional, and 
mental health, the individual must become increasingly 
self-directive. School years arc short; the school day is 
but a fraction of twenty-four hours. The playing season 
of any sport is but a brief span and the contest is really 
only a few minutes. Comparatively life is long. Sane 
athletics is worth while here and now, but much is lost if 
athletics docs not carry over into behavior, emotional, 
mental, and physical, in later life. No athlete in later life 
wishes to be an Ancient Mariner with an albatross around 
his neck. 

The school’s and the pupils’ aims. In home-room, in 
class organization, in student council, the pupils and teach- 
ers should discuss what the school should do and what it 
can do in athletics. This discussion should be so guided 
that pupils may develop definite ideas of their own as to 



the big purposes of athletics. This discussion should be 
carried over into the assembly, into the school newspaper, 
and into the locker-rooms and on th® playing fields. If 
some of the energy pu,t into “pep** meetings were guided 
into pupil education of what the school as a whole is trying 
to do in athletics, there might not be such a need for “pep** 

Athletics and education. Athletics can take a rightful 
place in the school when there is developed a real program 
of physical education including athletics. To go forward 
the school must guide athletics rather than be guided by 
athletics. When the public comes to understand the real 
aims of physical education, there will be adequate support 
for it. By that time there will be a greater number of 
leaders developed who can do justice to the opportunities. 
There ought to be at least as many teachers of physical 
education in every high school as there are teachers of 

Intra-mural athletics. Whatever favorable opportuni- 
ties athletics affords for the education of the individual, 
the desired benefits manifestly are not realized if the in- 
dividual does not participate in athletics. Skills or lasting 
satisfactions in play cannot be developed from the side- 
lines. There seems to he a high positive correlation be- 
tween skillful participation and a permanent interest in 
play. Certainly a keen appreciation of play is dependent 
largely on the knowledge that can come as a result par- 
ticipation in play. 

Intra-mural athletics is a natural form of expression to 
boys, and, to a lesser extent, to girls, of junior and senior 
high school age. In streets and alleys, in the play-yard of 
a city 01 a country “district school,** pupils tend to or- 
ganize themselves into play contests on an individual or a 
team basis. For most normal children there is the healthy 

4i6 extra-curricular ACTIVITIES 

desire for play, and, as the individual comes to belong to a 
gang or a club or a team, there is the powerful urge of 
loyalty to his group. 

Hindrances. As pointed out in the Carnegie Report on 
American College Athletics,* there are such certain de- 
finite hindrances to the development of intra-mural ath- 
letics as the following: 

1. There is a readiness on the part of schools to set on paper am- 
bitious programs which are not put into practice. 

2. The intimate connection of intra-mural with intercollegiate 
athletics under a personnel that is interested primarily or cx- 
clusi\ely in intercollegiate athletics. 

3. The time of an athletic stafT may he coniparati\ely unoccupied 
except during the seasons of the brancht‘s in which they are 
particularly interested. 

4. The segregation of freshmen into squads which become mere 
nurseries of varsity grout)s. 

5. The pcrfunctorin(‘ss in administration or in play. 

6. The bewildered attempt in some cases to keep large numbers of 
men and women (K cupied. 

7. Such beneficial results as are now being achie\cd are allowed 
to depend uni\ers.illy upon the financial pros[)erity of football. 

School athletics may be much more nearly an integral 
part of education than is college athletics, yet in develop- 
ing a real program of intra-mural athletit's the school has 
many of the same hindrances as the college. 

Needs. If intra-mural athletics is considered as it 
should be, a definite part of physical education for every 
pupil, the financial support should be on the same basis as 
it is for Latin, algebra, mathematics, or the school labora- 
tories. With either the college or the high school, a chief 
need is intelligent guidance. Teachers with a working 
conception of the pos.sibiIities of intra-mural athletics and 
with the leadership ability, the resourcefulness, the imagi- 

* The Carnc,{ic Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, American College 
Athletics, Bulletin no 2j. pp 84 86 



nation, the skill, and the enthusiasm to realize these possi- 
bilities, do exist, but as yet there are not enough of them. 
To develop an intra-mural program a? conditions exist in 
most schools at the present time, the capable leader must 
multiply himself many times by training and using pupil 
leaders in order to teach games and furnish the guidance 
necessary. If the school desires an intra -mural program, 
it must furnish the necessary teachers and material facili- 
ties. However, the resourceful leader in many cases can 
carry on some activities while waiting for the necessary 
facilities to be provided. 

Grouping. There is a further need of a basis of grouping 
pupils so that teams of about the same ability will play 
each other. In attempting to find an acceptable and a con- 
venient basis for such grouping, gymnasium classes and 
home-room groups have been most often used. The eight- 
een junior high schools in Los Angeles have used the gym- 
nasium classes. The general plan of intra-mural athletics 
in Des Moines for junior and for senior athletics is based on 
competition between hom^ rooms. As was shown in 
Chapter VII, the Speyer Junior High School used suc- 
cessfully a combination of gymnasium classes and home- 
rooms. Whatever basis is used, there is a need of teach- 
ing and promoting sports as well as controlling them. In 
order to provide a favorable opportunity for every pupil to 
participate in supervised sports there is need for a com- 
prehensive, well-administered plan supported by c..pable 
teachers and reasonable facilities. 

Intra-mural sports and gymnasium classes. As re- 
ported by Hermle ' in 1922, sixteen of the eighteen junior 
high schools in Los Angeles had competitive intra-mural 
sports. The basis of the work as described by Hermle was 

* Hermle, Otto B The Present Slat* ^ rj Intra-Mural Sports tn the Los Angeles Junior 
High Schools With Special Reference to Boys' Activities Master’s Thesis, School of 
Education, University of Southern California. 


in gymnasium classes. The teaching involved knowledge 
of the games and, in accordance with the idea that “the 
improvement of one function will benefit a second to the 
extent that both possess identical ‘elements,” there was 
training in rhythmical exercises peculiar to various sports. 
These exercises, including such activities as basket-ball 
free throw, sprinter’s start, baseball pitch, and football 
forward pass, involved only the movement of the body and 
not the use of equipment. 

In a majority of these eighteen schools there was inter- 
squad competition by periods. Likewise, in a majority of 
the schools teams or clubs were organized into leagues for 
competition. Since the round-robin method of organiza- 
tion pro\ided for continuous play for all teams, it was far 
more popular than the elimination tournament. These 
contests in round-robin tournaments were played before 
school, or at noon, or after school. 

The minor sports included handball in all i8 schools, 
horseshoes in i6, tennis in 6, wrestling and golf in 2 each. 
The major sports included indoor ball, basket-ball and 
volley-ball in all 18 schools, soccer in 12 schools, touch-ball 
in 12, speed-ball in 7. In track and field events, 18 schools 
had the high jump; 17 the dash, the relay, and the broad 
jump; 1 1 the shot-put; 2 the hop-step-jump; i the hurdles, 
and I the tug-o’-war. 

Likewise, there were the self-testing activities that can 
be measured by time, distance, or the number of times a 
thing is done. These self-testing activities were chosen 
from such a list as the following: football — pass for dis- 
tance, punt for distance, drop kick for goal, place kick for 
goal; baseball pitch for accuracy; basket-ball throw for 
goal; soccer field goal, soccer kick for distance; volley-ball 
serve; tennis serve; bar vault for height; rope climb for 
speed; pull up, push up, sit up, and all track and other 



events that lend themselves to measurable individual 

Inter-scholastic athletics. Inter-sclfolastic athletics is 
full of difficulties and dangers. There is no occasion, how- 
ever, to shy at difficulties. That there are real dangers 
every one admits. The school has allowed or furnished 
specialized training for the few best athletes. It has often 
been said that these few ablest performers are least in need 
of training. This cry may be a part of the general leveling- 
down idea. The school has the obligation of enabling its 
brightest pupils, in athletics or in any other worth-while 
activity, to do better,** as Professor Briggs puts it, those 
desirable activities that they will perform anyway.** In 
many respects the schoors brightest, ablest pupils are the 
most neglected and comparatively the most retarded. 
The point, however, is to consider the desirability of the 
activity. The most common danger here is that in devel- 
oping the ablest pupils in athletics the ordinary or inferior 
performer has been neglected almost entirely. Among the 
difficulties and dangers from an educational point of view, 
there has been : 

1. Too little real school guidance and control. 

2. Too little adeejuate leadership. 

3. A lack of satisfactory physical examination. 

4. A loose determination and administration of eligibility rules. 

5. Not enough equalizing of teams. 

6. Unwise playing scliedules. 

7. Too much control by the championship idea. 

8. Poor liiiancing. 

9. Exploitation of pupils and commercialization, 

10. A vicious idea of loyalty. 

11. A removal of the contest from the control of the players. 

That these and other difficulties and dangers do exist, as 
noted partly in the 49 questions at the end of this chapter, 
is no occasion for lamentations and despair. The school 


desires safety for its pupils, but not a “safety first” that re- 
moves all adventure from the educative process. 

School guidance knd control. The school needs to rec- 
ognize that physical education is education and that ath- 
letics should be a part of and grow in and out of physical 
education. With the recognition of the basis of athletics, 
the school must develop a positive, constructive program 
of leadership. The state itself, through the state depart- 
ment of education, in cooperation with the schools of the 
state, needs to develop a constructive program. More 
than one third of the states have already assumed this re- 

A cross-section of current opinion. The North Central 
Association of Colleges and Secondary vSchools has often 
furnished the constructive leadership for advances in 
Secondary P^ducation. The Report of the North Cen- 
tral Association Committee * on Athletics in Secondary 
Schools of March 19, 1731, gives such a clear statement of 
the opinion of 1751 high schools in this Association that 
direct quotation is included here of a statement of the ob- 
jectives of the committee, the method of securing the data, 
an analysis of the replies of the member .schools, and the 
recommendations of the Committee, followed by the official 
action of the Association. 

The Committee on Athletics was authorized at the 1730 meeting 
of the North Central Ass<jciation to study more thoroughly the 
status of athletics in secondary schools of the North Central Asso- 
ciation and to bring to the 1731 meeting sj)ecilic recommendations. 
The objectives of the year’s investigation as slated in the 1730 re- 
port are as follows: 

I. To formulate a set of guiding principles for the administration 
and control of athletics in secondary schools. 

■ The memt^ers of this Committee were, E. E Morlcy, chairman; Milo E. Stuart, 
O. G. Sanford, J. T. Giles, and 11. M. Thrasher. 



2. To consider and report on the advisability of extending the 
policies, regulations and standards of this Association to in- 
clude the field of interscholastic contests among its member 

3. In the event of such e??tension of policy, to formulate proposals 
covering the following phases of administration, so as to reduce 
o\ eremphasis on athletics in the Association high schools. 

a. Limiting the number of scheduled contests in each sport 
participated in by member schools. 
h. Limiting participation in all athletic tournaments or with- 
drawing from participation in state, regional, and sectional 
tournaments seeking to determine championships. 

4. To study such factors of administration and supervision of ath- 
letics as the regulation of coaching, financial regulation and ac- 
counting of funds, encouragement of sportsmanship and charac- 
ter education, eligibility of players, outside influences affecting 
intcrscholastic athletics, amateurism, proselyting, publicity, 

Method of Securing Data 

To obtain information upon which to base its recommendations, 
tie committee sent out 2329 inquiry forms to all the North Central 
High Schools from which 1751 replies were received in time to be 
included in the study. Tabulat' ns of these replies given at the 
end of this report reveal the following facts regarding the attitudes 
of member schools: 

1. Regarding the advisability of extending North Central Asso- 
ciation policies, regulations and standards to include the field 
of intcrscholastic athletics, 1278 schools fav'or this extension 
and 384 are opposed to it. Approximately three times as many 
schools in each enrollment class favor the proposal as oppose it. 

2. On the question of limiting the number of contests in a ;iven 
sport, 1 1 82 schools fav or one contest per week during the play- 
ing season. Three hundred and eighty-five schools oppose this 
limitation and 1H4 schools did not answer the question. 

3. The expressions concerning athletic tournaments may be sum- 
marized as follows: 

a. Eleven hundred and twenty-three schools favor the with- 
drawal of member institutivins from participating in Na- 
tional tournaments while 522 favor them. One hundred and 
six schools did not vote on this question. 


h. All athletic tournaments leading to State championships in 
football are opposed by 1070 schools and favored by 549. 
In basket-ball,. 580 oppose and 1029 favor State champion- 
ship tournaments; in baseball, 75H oppose and 672 favor; in 
swimming, 547 oppose and 779 favor; in tennis, 493 oppose 
and 788 favor; in golf, 494 oppose and 876 favor; in track, 
535 oppose and 980 favor. Thus State championship tour- 
naments are strongly opposed in football, are mildly opposed 
in baseball, but are favored in basket-ball, swimming, tennis, 
golf, and track. 

c. Thirteen hundred and four schools favor the withdrawal of 
member institutions from participating in invitational 
tournaments except those authorized by the State athletic 
association, while 375 favor these tournaments. 

d. The vote on interscholastic athletics for girls shows that 1063 
schools oppose sponsoring interscholastic teams for girls and 
577 favor them while 1262 schools oppose girls’ athletic 
tournaments leading to State championships and 399 favor 
these tournaments. 

4. The schools voted as follow^s on the question of limiting the 
extent of participation by individual pupils in athletic sports: 

a. Sixty-two schools voted to limit the participation of any one 
pupil to one sport each year and 1350 opposed this limitation. 

b. Three hundred and fifty-eight schools favor limitation to 
two sports each year and 1032 oppose it. 

c. Eight hundred and fifteen schools favor limitation to three 
sports each year and 561 oppose it. 

d. Three hundred and ninety-five schools fa /or one sport each 
semester and 832 oppose. The pre\. filing opinion seems, 
therefore, to favor permitting individual boys to participate 
in three sports each year. 

5. Scholarship eligibility to participate in intcrscholastic athletics 
was emphatically expressed as “ passing to date in three regular 
subjects” and “having pa.sscd the preceding term in three.” 
The propcjsal of passing to date in four subjects was favored by 
only 419 schools and o[)posed by 787. Having passed the pre- 
ceding term in four subjects was favored by only 175 schools 
and opposed by 808. 

6. Limiting the number of contests played by any school team to 
one game or meet per week during the playing season was 
favored by iioi schools and opposed by 450. 



An Analysis of Replies of Member Schools 

I. More than 1500 schools report that they are attempting to ad- 
minister their interscholastic athletic pfograms so as to con- 
tribute to the health, leisure time, citizenship and character ob- 
jectives of secondary education. Other objectives named in 
the reports include in the order of their frequency: 


.. . 82 

School spirit 

... 20 


... 36 





School morale. . . . 

. . . 10 



Values mentioned less than ten times were adaptability, ag- 
gressiveness, alertness, ambition, “bread and butter,” com- 
munity boosting, courage, courtesy, dependability, develop- 
ment of reflexes and skills, discipline, enjoyment, friendship, 
happiness, initiative, interest, keeping boys in high school, 
personality, physical development, pleasure, proper conduct, 
resourcefulness, respect, responsibility, self-confidence, self- 
sacrifice, service, solidarity, social life, stability, unselfishness, 
vocational opportunity and wholesome rivalry. 

2. “All athletic competition should grow out of and form an in- 
tegral part of the physical education program of the high 
school.” Thirteen hundred and forty-six schools are attempt- 
ing to observe this principle . d 213 consider it invalid or im- 

3. “ Individual athletes should not be exploited for the glory of the 
town, the school, or the coach.” 

1598 scho<jls try to observe. 

105 regard it impracticable. 

4. “A well-balanced program of athletics should provide oppor- 
tunities for participation in sports which may carry over into 
later life.” 

1 535 schools try to observe. 

1 19 schools regard it impracticable. 

5. “Emphasis should be placed upon extending opportunities for 
participating in sports and games to all pupils rather than upon 
the intensive coaching of a few.” 

1604 schools try to observe. 

88 regard h impracticable. 

6. “The administration of all athletic contests in the high school 


program should be entirely controlled by the properly con- 
stituted school officials.” 

1658 .schools try to observe. 

48 schools regard it impracticable. 

7. “The promotion of pupil-initiative and self-confidence among 
athletes is favored by transferring the responsibility for manag- 
ing and directing the team during contests from the coach to 
the student manager or captain.” 

853 schools try to observe. 

756 regard it impracticable. 

8. “Fair play, courtesy, generosity, self-control and friendly feel- 
ings for the opposing school should not be sacrificed in the 
desire to win.” 

1661 schools try to observe. 

50 regard it impracticable. 

9. ‘‘Six)rtsmanship ideals apply equally to player and spectator, 
to winners and to losers.” 

1663 schools try to observe. 

50 regard it impracticable. 

10. “The school should aim to de\elop sufficient .skill in one or 
more sports among all pupils to create abiding interest and 
provide an enjoyable form of recreation in later life.” 

1403 schools try to observe. 

147 schools regard it impracticable. 

11. “A liberal program of intramural conqH'tition in sports and 
games should be provided in schools sponsoring inter-scholastic 

1528 schools favor. 

61 schools oppose. 

12. “The daily coaching practice should not be so long or so 
strenuous as to endanger the health of contestants or to detract 
unduly from evening study.” 

1 592 scluKils favor. 

1 8 sch(K)ls oppose. 

13. “No greater proportion of school time should be devoted to 
promoting student support of athletics than is given to pro- 
moting dramatics, concerts, debates, or other non-athletic 

1327 schools favor. 

249 schools op|X>se. 



14 - 

15 - 

“Contests played at night should be scheduled on Friday or 

1420 schools favor. 

15^8 schools oppose. 

“No pupil should be permitted to take part in a contest in any 
sport without first receiving a thorough physical examination 
from a competent physician.” 

1 549 schools favor. 

51 schools oppose. 

The committee on athletics respectfully submits to the secondary 
commission the following proposals with the recommendation that 
they be incorporated into their standards, policies, and regulations 
for accrediting secondary schools. 

1. Th«it the North Central Association extend its policies, stand- 
ards and regulations to include the field of interscholastic 
athletics in ac( rediting secondary schools. 

2. Tliat the following policies he adopted as fundamental require- 
ments for accrediting schools in this Association: 

a. After Sejitemher 1, 1731, member schools of the North 
C'entral Association shall discontinue participation in all 
in\ athletic touri nents not sponsored by their 
state tithlelic associations. 

b. No meml)cr school shall participate in any national or inter- 
state athlc'tic tournament or meet after September i, 1731* 

c. Heginning September 1 , 1 732, member schools shall limit the 
numlier ol scheduled contests in which their teams may en- 
gage to one game or meet per week during the playing season 
of the sport. 

d. After .September i, 1732, member schools shah discoi inue 
sponsoring intcrscholastic athletic teams for girls. 

e. No pupil shall be permitted to take part in a contest in any 
sport without lirst undergoing a thorough physical examina- 
tion by a competent physician. 

/. The daily period of training athletic teams shall be limited 
to a ma.ximum of two hours and shall always be held after 
school has closed for the day. 

3. That the following principles of administering intersch()lastic 
athletics in secondary schools be accepted by the Association 


and recommended to its members in the organization of their 

programs of interscholastic competition: 

a. The program of interscholastic athletics in high schools 
should be so organized and administered as to contribute to 
the health, leisure time, citizenship and character objectives 
of secondary education. 

b. All athletic competition should grow out of and form an in- 
tegral part of the physical education program of the high 

c. Individual athletes of superior ability should not be exploited 
for the glory of the town, the school or the coach. 

d. A well-balanced program of athletics should i)ro\ide oppor- 
tunities for participation in sports which may carry o\ or into 
later life. Efforts should be made, therefore, to encourage 
such sports as tennis, golf, swimming, handball, bowling, 
horseshoes, archery, baseball, fencing, etc. 

e. Emphasis should be placed upon extending oi>porttinitics for 
participating in sfK)rts and games to all pupils rather than 
upon the intensi\e coaching of a few. 

/. The administration of all athletic contests in the high school 
program should be entirely controlled by properly consti- 
tuted school officials. 

g. Fair play, courtesy, generosity, self-control and friendly 
feelings for the opposing school should not be sacrificed in 
the desire to win. 

h. Sportsmanship ideals apply equally to player and to spec- 
tator, to winners and to losers. 

i. The school should aim to de\elop sufficient skill in one or 
more sports among ail its pupils to create an abiding interest 
and provide an enjoyable form of recreation in later life. To 
accomplish this aim, a liberal program of intra-mural sports 
and games should be established and maintained wherever 

j. So greater proportion of school time and no more emphasis 
should be given to promoting student support of athletics 
than are given to promoting dramatics, concerts, debates and 
other forms of non-athletic activities. 

k. Contests played at night should l)e scheduled for Friday and 

The values which will result from the adoption of these policies 
and principles may be stated as follows: 



1. Individual schools will be helped in solving their problems of 
outside interference. 

2. Greater emphasis will be laid upon maintjiining better balanced 
programs of extra-curricular activities by encouraging intra- 
mural athletics and non-athletic interests in the schools. 

3. The influence of the North Central Association of Secondary 
Schools will thus be set definitely against the prevailing over- 
emphasis of interscholastic athletics and other questionable 
practices associated with commercialism, exploiting and 
proselyting athletes. 

In view of the fact that all the proposals listed above in the com- 
mittee’s recommendations are strongly favored by the majority 
of member schools, the approval of the commission will merely 
confirm judgments which have been expressed already. 


Under the heading of “Regulations, Standards and Re- 
commendations Governing Athletics in North Central 
High Schools passed by the Secondary Commission March 
19, 1731,” there is the following official action: 

Regulation 5. Athletics. 

No new school will be accrediteo whose program of interscholastic 
athletics is not in accord with the standards and regulations of the 
North Central Association, or is under discipline for violating any 
regulations of the state athletic association. 

Standard 10. Athletics. 

No accredited school shall participate in any national or inter- 
state athletic meet or tournament or in any invitational athletic 
tournament or meet not approv ed by the state athletic assoc ition. 
Accredited schools not eligible to membership in the ‘'tate athletic 
association are excepted. 

Recommendation 6. Athletics. 

a. The program of interscholastic athletics in high schools should 
be so organized and administered as to contribute to the 
health, leisure time, citizenship and character objectives of 
secondary education. The aim should be to develop sufficient 
skill in one or more sports among all its pupils to provide ap 
enjoyable form of recreation in later life. 


b. All athletic competition should grow out of and form an 
integral part of the physical and health education program of 
the high school, f' 

c. The administration of all athletic l ontests in the high school 
program should be entirely controlled by properly constituted 
school officials and teachers. 

d. Fair play, courtesy, generosity, self-control and friendly feel- 
ings for the opposing school should not be sacrificed in the de- 
sire to win. 

e. The Commission recommends that girls do not participate in 
interscholastic basket-ball games or tournaments. 

/. The Commission further recommends that no intcrscholastic 
athletic contest played at night be scheduled on a night pre- 
ceding a school day. 

Capable leaders. The schools can get rid of the part- 
time coach, and the payment of coeiches by “private ar- 
rangements,” by having all teachers, including physical 
education teacher-coaches, employed for full time .and paid 
by the board of education. However, such obviously 
necessary action does not ensure a sufficient supply of 
capable physical education teachers. If one considers the 
possibilities and the vital influence on boys and girls of 
physical education teacher-coaches, it is at once apparent 
that these teachers should have sound education and pro- 
fessional training as a minimum equal to that of any other 
teachers in the school. Many such teachers do exist. If 
there is a clear-cut insistent demand, others will be de- 

Tests and examinations. At present the school uses 
intelligence tests as one means of classifying pupils for 
academic instruction. Likewise, any school that really 
is a modern school has a careful physical examination ol 
each pupil. Since the school exists to serve the pupil, there 
is need for the physical educator in dealing with the indi- 
vidual to take into account the results of the intelligence 



tests and for the academic teacher to have in mind the re- 
sults of the pupil’s physical examination. At best intelli- 
gence tests and the careful physical examination show only 
a fraction of the real •pupil. There is need for a type of 
test that gets more nearly at the mainspring of the 
thought, action, behavior, of the pupil. The tests and ex- 
aminations at present are good, but they are not good 

The results of the complete examination should be ex- 
plained to the pupil, and definite recommendations based 
on the examination should be set down for the pupil and 
his or her parents, to the end that the pupil is guided into 
the right branch of athletics. Such guidance requires that 
the school provide a differentiated program of physical ac- 
tivities suited to individual needs and that the school see 
to it that the pupil is aided in making an intelligent choice 
of what is offered. 

Eligibility. In inter-scholastic contests of every kind it 
is the opinion of the writer that the school should be repre- 
sented by pupils who are pas-’ng in a full program of work. 
Pupils in school should be properly classified. If pupils 
are properly classified, if real teaching exists, and the classi- 
fied and taught pupil applies himself to his work, he should 
meet a reasonable standard set by the school. It is the re- 
sponsibility of the school to see to it that the school is rep- 
resented in athletics and every other inter-scholastic con- 
test by pupils who represent intelligent classificatioi. and 
teaching and earnest, successful effort on the part of both 
the school and the pupil. This effort on the part of ihe 
school and the pupil should be a sustained effort. Success 
in one semester should be a requirement for participation 
in any inter-echolastic contest in the next semester, and 
this successful effort should, of course, be continued during 
the semester of the contest. The standard here proposed 


demands real classification, teaching, and supervision of 
instruction in high schools. 

Further, only thtise schools which have the same quality 
of scholastic achievement should meet in athletic contests. 
Mutual respect demands it: real sportsmanship is almost 
impossible without it. 

Schedules and breakdowns. In an earlier section of this 
chapter it was emphasized that the individual should de- 
velop the power, speed, and endurance and the nerve con- 
trol to work consistently on a high level of accuracy and 
efficiency. There is a need for stamina, for the ability to 
give the last full measure of energy and devotion to the 
specific responsibility assumed. Play the game and enjoy 
it, but play the game — no alibis, no yellow streaks, no 
quitting. Play hard, clean, fast; play to win, and win 
without boasting or lose without loss of self-control. 
“Play up! Play up! And play the game.” These are 
some of the qualities of the real sportsman; they are his, if 
he is fortunate, by original nature and likewise as a result 
of his learning. 

Unfortunately, however, there have been some coaches 
who have exploited young athletes. The spirit and the 
idealism of youth sometimes have been sacrificed because 
the coach did not know any better or even for some more 
reprehensible reason. As a result, the young athlete has 
been “burned out,” broken down in body, and, if he is of 
the finest metal, to some extent in spirit. If he has the in- 
telligence of a real sportsman, he comes to understand the 
mean and contemptible thing that has been done to him. 

It is the business of the school to train but not overtrain 
the young athlete. The school is to develop and preserve 
the physical well-being of youth, and not to impair it by 
too frequent or too hard games, by too long a season or too 
hard trips. In the excitement of games, youth may be 



eager, and an unthinking mob may demand that a victim 
be sacrificed, but what is a school for if not to guide and, if 
need be, to protect its pupils? Fortunately, there is much 
unfavorable criticism df long schedules, long trips, and of 
cumulative tournament exhaustion. It is time to act in 
cutting down these twenty-game schedules. 

Championships. Some people and likewise some insti- 
tutions seem to feel the necessity of going out and licking 
some one in order to get a reputation. There may be some 
relation between this feeling and an “inferiority complex.” 
Out of a healthy spirit of competition between compara- 
tively equally matched teams, this “licking idea” can grow 
into state and inter-state championships At present 
there seems to be an increasing attempt to evaluate these 
state championship contests on a basis of physical well- 
being of players and of educational values to all concerned. 
The following statements of Frederick Rand Rogers * are 
worthy of serious consideration: 

There are many \alid reasons why state championships should 
not he held. Some of them are: 

1. State championships lead to extreme specialization, which 
often harms the individual physically and socially. 

2. The nervous strain of the prolonged schedule detracts from 
valuable school \v\)rk, both of players and student body. 

3. Preparation of championship teams tends to put the emphasis 
in loyalty upon cheering a fevv*^ gladiators, rather than upon 
partici|)ation by every student in some activity which brings 
development and honor to him and his school. 

4. Financial support of championship teams leads to commercial- 
ization in wdiich social groups in the community become very 
much interested. 

5. Adolescent boys are often placed in games and kept in games 
against the advice of physicians, because of the pressure on 
coaches and principals to w’in games. 

6. In California, because of di‘?tanccs and large number of schools. 


the season is prolonged to such an extent that the winning 
teams play as many as fourteen football games in one season. 
Even college coathes admit six or seven should be the maxi- 
mum number. 

7. The newspaper notoriety showered upon individual players 
and the school creates an ego in main' cases which is undesir- 
able, and causes warj'ied socvdl development. 

8. An extreme interscholastic program definitely interferes with 
the natural program of the whole school. 

9. Educationally it is wrong to shower most attention upon a 
few people and neglect the rest. If this were done in English 
and mathematics, we would soon hear from the parents, and 
justly so. 

Seventeen states, as previously noted, have directors of 
physical education. More than two thirds of these direc- 
tors are opposed to state championships in most team- 
game sports. The study of athletics now being made by 
the North Central Association has already been cited. 
The National Council of the National h'ederation of State 
High School Athletic Associations, representing 2() state 
high school athletic associations, in their 1929 convention, 
indicted some phases of athletics in the following terms: 

Whereas, Our high-school athletics are constantly being ex- 
ploited by agencies and for purposes generally de\oid of any educa- 
tional aims and ideals, si)ecifically : for purposes of ad\ertising, pub- 
licity, community, institutional, and personal prestige; financial 
gain; entertainment and amusement; th(‘ recruiting of athletic 
teams and other purposes, none of which has much in common with 
the objectives of high .school education; and. 

Whereas, 'Fhis exploitation tends to promote a tremendouslv 
exaggerated program of inter-scholastic contests, detrimental to 
the academic objectives of the high schools through a wholly in- 
defensible distortion of values, and, in general, subversive of any 
sane program of physical education; and. 

Whereas, Basket-ljall lends itself in a f)eculiar way to this sort of 
exploitation so that in many high schools the same players partici- 
pate in two or more games per week throughout the season and 



teams participate in three or more basket-ball tournaments in a 
season; therefore be it 

ResoKcd, I hat we hereby instruct the ejcecutive committee of 
the National Federation to refuse to sanction any inter-state 
basket-ball tournaments Tor high-school teams. 

If one did not recognize that the rule just cited was a be- 
ginning of what seems to be a sturdy, growing movement, 
one might be struck with the strength of the “Whereas” 
and the comparative mildness of the “Resolved.” While 
all opinion is not against state championships, there seems 
to be an increasing agreement with the opinion of Pro- 
fessor Jesse F'eiring Williams ^ that “state athletic cham- 
pionships are unsound educationally because they provide 
nothing as containing worth-while experience” and that 
they “are unsound because they are not physically whole- 

School men, if they so desire, need not be at the mercy 
of regional or state championships or of invitation tourna- 
ments. Leagues can be formed, and in some cases have 
been formed, whereby school of about the same size and of 
about the same scholastic standing have played each other 
in round-robin tournaments. Such a plan does not ensure 
a perfect situation, but it does provide for vigorous com- 
petition among schools with many abuses eliminated. 

Finances and budgeting. In high schools those activi- 
ties that have special gate-receipt possibilities have been 
rather consistently exploited. Among these a ^tiviti s the 
two outstanding ones seem to be athletics and dramatics. 
There is no valid objection to a reasonable charge to see a 
school play or a football game. The primary aim, how- 
ever, of the school play or the game should not be to make 
money. The school Is an educational institution and as 


such it attempts through dramatic or athletic activities to 
provide educative experiences for its pupils. If these or 
other activities eari'i'a surplus, that is no particular reason 
for unfavorable criticism, but the school in the various ex- 
pressions of its life does not exist to make money. 

If athletics within the province of the school furnishes 
desirable experiences for pupils, athletics should be 
financed by the board of education. If athletics does not 
furnish desirable experience for pupils, athletics should be 
eliminated. It is recognized that in the experimental stage 
an activity may have to finance itself or be financed from 
without the school. Athletics is by no means new, but the 
assumption by the school of the responsibility of develop- 
ing and guiding a constructive program for whole school 
participation is comparativ'ely new. It is so new in fact 
that some schools as yet seemingly have not heard of it. 
Wide and v^aried as the financial abuses of athletics are — 
and a long list could be cited by almost any one -- schools 
are moving in the direction of financing a school-controlled 
program of athletics. 

Whether or not gate receipts and pupil activity tickets 
furnish none, or a part, or all, of the support of athletics, 
all finances should be handled on a budget basis. Not only 
athletics, but all extra-curricular activities should .be on a 
budget basis. The money available or reasonably ex- 
pected to be available should be allocated to each activity, 
and no activity should be allowed to spend money it does 
not have. While there will be a more complete discussion 
of financing and budgeting extra-curricular activities in the 
chapter devoted to that topic, the point should be stressed 
here that the giving of “entertainments” to finance activi- 
ties is open to serious questioning. Such a procedure 
seems not to pay educational dividends or to be in keeping 
with the dignity of a free system of public education. 



Commercialization. The smaller communities do not 
have their professional athletics, their big or minor league 
baseball teams and other sports, and a result there is a 
centering of the sporting interests of the community on the 
high-school teams. Partly as a result of this situation, the 
high school of the community has special difficulties. Fre- 
quently misguided townsmen and the sporting fraternity 
seem to consider that they are doing the school a favor in 
offering to pay the coach’s salary and in furnishing a vari- 
ety of personal trophies for individual achievement. The 
aim in such cases probably is to furnish entertainment for 
the community and to “lick” the team of some rival town. 
The community that through its board of education per- 
mits such conditions to exist would probably be shocked if 
it could come to understand the extent to which it is sacri- 
ficing pupils for the sake of adult entertainment and finan- 
cial profit. What the crowd wants and even is eager to 
pay for may be entirely hostile to any sound aims of edu- 

Athletics, in common with ’‘^ery other legitimate activ- 
ity of the school, exists for the good of the individual. It 
is the business of the school wherever necessary to educate 
the community. To do this the school must develop a 
positive, active, and if necessary an aggressive program of 
physical education and health, including athletics for all. 
This program must be explained to individual parents, to 
groups of parents, to the social, business, and profess anal 
groups of the community, to the press, and through the 
press of the community as a whole. There are and there 
can be many more sane townspeople who have a real in- 
terest in the school as an educational institution and a 
sense of the appropriate place and function of athletics and 
sportsmanship in the educati'.e process. Truth is mighty, 
and it will prevail ultimately if those who stand for it have 


the gumption to plan constructively and have the patience, 
the tact, and the stamina to stand, aggressively if neces- 
sary, for what the^ know to be right. 

Loyalty. Athletic loyalty usually means cheering while 
the team is winning. There is no desire here for a com- 
pensatory philosophy of defeat. Oliver Wendell Holmes 
seems to have understood people rather well when he said: 

To brag a little — to show up well, to cnnv gently if in luck — to 
pay up, to ow’n up, and to shut up if beaten, aie the \irlues of a 
sporting man. 

Based on an understanding and a practicing of the school’s 
ideals, there should he an intelligent and sincere school 
loyalty as opposed to a “loyalty” that sets \ictory above 
sportsmanship. Whole-school planning for \ ictory should 
also include planning for what the school will do in case of 
defeat. A school that has “spirit” only when it is vic- 
torious really has no spirit at all. 

The play and the players. There is a time for teaching, 
assignment, question, practice — much practice - and 
answer. Likewise, there is a time for testing and examina- 
tion. All pupils would give e\idence of good teaching by 
“passing” if the teacher could signal right answers from 
the side-lines. Curiously enough, the school floes not set 
up its examinations that way. During the examinations 
the teachers put themselves off the field. The worth of 
the teaching is determined by what the pupil docs. Teach- 
ers as well as athletic coaches want their pupils to win. 
Possibly when coaches become teachers and teach what to 
do as well as how to do, they will be willing to stand or fall 
by what they have done during their teaching periods. 
Many examining bodies have found it wise to shut out 
teachers while pupils are being examined. In athletics, 
when the school becomes more interested in the play and 



the development of players than in just winning and noth- 
ing else, the athletic coach will be eliminated from the 
contest while it is in progress in the saihe way that the de- 
bate coach has already been eliminated. There is a need 
for coaches who can teach and who have at the same time 
nerve enough to stand or fall by what they have taught. 
Perhaps there are few sights more amusing than to see a 
coach from the side-iines signaling to his players in an at- 
tempt in the contest to supplement the omissions of his 
teaching during practice. 

The test of the whole program of the school’s athletics, 
intra-mural or extra-mural, is the effect, now and later, in 
the life of the individual. In spite of the multiplicity of 
difficulties and some abuses, athletics can provide whole- 
some, vigorous sport and help the individual to test him- 
self. Athletics can, and in many cases does, help the in- 
dividual to develop ideals of living and of sportsmanship. 
There are many '‘identical elements” of the playing field 
and the field of zestful, wholesome, joyous, social, every- 
day living. Tn this game ot li 'ng, the self-directive player 
must call his own signals and be intelligently responsive to 
the signals of his fellow players. 

Tendencies in school athletics. On the secondary school 
level athletic's in practice, as well as in theory, is coming to 
be considered a fundamental part of education. Many 
schools, both public and private, are developing programs 
of physical education, including play activity-. Taese 
play acti\ ilies, especially in junior high schools, including 
games and sports suited to various stages of pupil develop- 
ment, arc for all pupils who can profit by them. To an in- 
creasing extent these activities are of such a nature that 
they may be carried on by the pupils in later life. The 
evils and abuset> resulting froai over-competitive, commer' 
cialized athletics are being eliminated as a result of the fact 


that schools are developing a constructive physical educa- 
tion program and assuming responsibility on an educational 
basis for the guidance of athletics The growth of intra- 
mural athletics is an important part of this constructive 
program. There is a definite tendency in many schools to 
reduce the amount of inter-school competition in athletics 
for boys and a still stronger tendency to eliminate entirely 
such competition for girls. There are increasing attempts 
to develop ideals of sportsmanship and to put these ideals 
into practice. The widespread unfavorable criticism of 
athletics is directed chiefly against the abuses resulting 
from an over-competitive, commercialized system. It 
should be repeated that, in developing a constructive pro- 
gram of physical education including athletics, many 
schools are coming to assume the responsibility of admin- 
istering athletics on an educational lutsis. 

Forty-nine questions. The forty-nine (jiiestions at the 
end of this chapter are only a few of the questions that 
could be raised in respect to the purposes, organization, 
and methods of athletics. The fact that there are so many 
questions is one of the healthy signs of growth. It is only 
when every one is satisfied that there is occasion for de- 
spair. For one who is attempting to think through the 
problems of athletics, the formulation of so many (juestions 
has a real possibility of danger: one may lose sight of the 
main issues in the multiplicity of details. wSometimes one 
cannot see the forerst for the trees. 

A listing of some of the problems of school athletics may 
aid somewhat in the thinking through necessary for one to 
find what he believes should be done in this field and to 
find, likewise, how the plan he comes to have in mind can 
be made effective. The following list of questions is not 
intended to be complete, but these questions are considered 
important. If they aid the student of this field to formu- 



late and think through the problems for himself, they will 
have served their purpose. 


1. How shall the school instruct its pupils in the purposes and 
problems of athletics? 

2. How shall the school arrange the situation so that athletics is a 
vital part of the educative process? 

3. How under the pressure of numbers shall the school pay ade- 
quate attention to the needs and the initiative of the indi- 

4. How shall the school secure an adequate examination of every 
pupil so as to help the pupil go in for the right branch or 
branches of athletics for him and to determine his or her fitness 
for athletic competition? 

5. How shall the school ditYerentiate the program of activities so 
as to provide for indiv idual needs as discovered by an adequate 

6. How sh«dl the school get the idea that the usual physical ex- 
amination, no matter how carefully made by the trained 
physical educator-physician, is inadeciuatc in that it leaves the 
whole behav ior pattern of th ^upil so largely out of considera- 
tion? What constitutes an adequate examination? 

7. How shall the school equalise the playing abilities of teams so 
that a pupil shall compete with other pupils of like abilities? 

8. How shall the school devei )p an actua\ working program of 
intra-mural athletics so a^ to provide the most favorable op- 
portunity for every pupil vvho can profit bv it, to participate 
in team games? 

9. How can the school provide for pupils to become increa'^higly 
self-directive in sharing responsibility for orgam/mg and di- 
recting school sports? 

10. How can the school provide the most favorable opportunity 
for a pupil to select his or her own activities and increasingly 
assume responsibility for his own action? 

11. How can the school arrange the situation so that pupils play 
such games, with such skills, and wath such emotional satis- 
factions that in later life tliey will continue to play rather than 
to rely on commercial amusements? 


12. How can the school develop athletics as a part of physical 
education so as to eliminate entirely, or at least to reduce, com- 
mercialization of athletics and the consetiucnt “impairment of 
ethical and moral standards of sclu ol hoys”? 

13. How can the school and the home supplement each other in 
attemptinj^ to aid the pupil in soKin^; his athletic problems, 
including his s[)irit and action in respect l(» sportsmanship? 

14. How can athletics be made an alfair of the school rather than 
an amusement for the community subject to spivtator control? 

15. How can the school educate the townsman so that he has a 
real interest in school athletics and a sense of the appropriate 
place and function of athletics, of sportsmanship, and of honor 
in the educati\e process? 

16. How shall the school get rid of the pn'^suri' ol the misguided 
townsman and the “sfKjrling fraternity” who di'sire to pay for 
coaches and e(|uipment, personal trophies, iin luding [prizes and 
sweaters, for the team, and who neither see nor understand the 
Siicrificing of pupils for the entert.iinment of adults? 

17. How can .M)me ('urrent practice be improved so that no school 
will retain <i i)ii[)il a \ear longer than it is nec(‘ssary for him to 
comj)lete hi-^ work in order to have him j)hiy on a team? 

iH. How can all schools, especiallv some })ri\,ite schools, be got to 
give up the practice of prosehting? 

ip. How cafi athletics be trec'd from tlu* commercialization in- 
volved in using athletics to provide materiid lacilities for the 

20. How ('an the school provide a program for the 
young athlete so as to prevent his entering college “broken 
down and sf)oiled from the athletic standpoint Ix'cMuse of over- 
training in school athletics”? 

Cl. How can the school preserve cir develop a pupil’s sense of 
values in school sports so as to avoid developing undesirable 
attitudes tow'ard athletics by the “unwarrantable assist. iuc*e 
often given to athletes”? 

22. How can the school f)rovide wide j)articij).ition in a v.iriety ol 
contests within and without the sc'hool so as to free the school 
athlete from the “s>cophantic ion of his fellow pupils, 
boys or girls”? 

23. How' shall the school develop standards of (‘ guidance 
and control in athletics and how shall it make these standards 



24. How shall the school develop athletics as one means of creating 
or maintaining a satisfactory school tone? 

25. How shall the school guide and supervise^thletics as one means 
of developing sincere and intelligent school loyalty as opposed 
to a “loyalty” that sets victory above sportsmanship? 

26. How shall the school develop and preserve physical well-being 
on the part of athletes and prevent its impairment by too fre- 
quent and too hard games, by too long a season and by too 
long and too hard trips? 

27. How can there be de\ eloped in all schools a healthy attitude 
in respect to the pre-season training camp and to post-season 

28. How shall the schools care for or not care for pupils injured in 
athletics? Shall the school pay for professional medical serv- 
ices in cases of injury? 

29. How shall the school develop still further the recognition on 
the part of school boards and administrative officers that play- 
ing fields, swimming pools, and gymnasiums, important as 
they are, arc ineffective without capable, trained leaders in 
])liysical education? 

30. How shall the school find or develop these capable adult 

31. How shall the school proceed so as to have all coaches regularly 
em|ilo\’ed for full time and p* ’ by the board of education and 
get rid of the payment of coaches by any and all “private ar- 

32. How shall the school provide for capable officials both for its 
inter-scholastic and for its intra-mural athletics? 

33. How shall the school fiiKince athletics? — by the board of 
education? - by gate receipts? — by pupil activity tickets? — 
by “entertainments”? 

34. How shall the best current practice of budgeting athlet' s so 
that money a\ailable, or expected to be available, is allocated 
to each sport or team, be made common practice in all schools? 

35* How shall the schools provide sulficient playing fields and 
gymnasiums for physical education on the basis of “large 
muscle activities” and at the same time avoid having ‘‘high 
schools built around basket-b.all courts”? 

36. How shall the school procei'd in respect to personal athletic 
equipment? As athletics, including intra-mural athletics for 
all, becomes a vital part of the program of physical education, 


shall the school provide equipment in the same way that it 
does in the laboratory sciences? 

37. How shall the scj^pol determine eligibility of players? Shall 
it be by “conferences”? — by individual institutions? — by 
mutual agreement between opjxjsin^ schools? To whom shall 
the power of determining eligibility within the school be dele- 
gated? — To the faculty? — to the school council composed of 
teachers and pupils? — to the coach? — to an athletic commit- 
tee? On what shall eligibility be based? — On age, time spent 
in the scliool, time spent in participating in the sport, amount 
and character of school work done in the present semester, or 
in the present and the preceding semester, on place of resi- 
dence, on sources of financial support? Shall a player failing 
in some school subject, or subjects, be “warned” two weeks in 
advance and declared ineligible if he does not "get up” in his 
work? If put on “probation,” shall he remain ineligible for a 
week, a month, the remainder of the season, or shall he Ixecome 
eligible as soon as he makes up his work? Shall the same 
eligibility standards be in actual operation for all extra-curric- 
ular acti\'ities? How, if at all, can the cpiality of scholastic 
achie\ement be made comparable in two or more institutions? 

38. How can the school be educated vso that without becoming 
flabbily sentimental it can take siitisfaction, not only in vic- 
tor^', but in a well-played game? 

39. How can schools develop more inter-class and neighborhood 
contests among friendly rivals? 

40. How can schools organize leagues within a state so that schools 
of about the same size and of the same working ideals compete 
with each other? 

41. How can schools provide for well-balanced contests among 
schools and at the same time get rid of state championships? 

42. How shall schools organize inter-scholastic contests so that 
after the game begins they arc contests between the players? 

43. How shall the schools provide for intelligent action based on a 
healthy public opinion in resjiect to “invitation tournaments”? 

44. How shall the school cociperate with or help develop a state 
department of physical education so that there will be at least 
as much public recognition of physical education as of ath- 
letics? * 

* Bevenlecn states have a department of nbywical education in comparison with 

forty-seven states that have an inter-scholaAic athletic association. The Carnagi* 



45. How shall the school cooperate with the state inter-scholastic 
athletic association as it is, or modify it so as to avoid real or 
imaginary abuses^ 

46. How and in acc ordance with what ideals of amateur standing 
shall the school educate its pupils^ 

47. How shall the school develop sincere, courteous, practical 
inter-school hospitality on the part of hosts and guests when 
in contests there is a tendency for schools to strive to humiliate 
their ri\ als rather than to meet and understand them? 

48. How shall the school determine what is an adequate program 
of boys’ and of girls’ athletics, and how shall the school provide 

49 How shall actual faculty guidance and control of athletics be 
maintained or established 

Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching American College Athletics, Bulletin 

no 23 . p 54 

Chapter XVII 


An educational opportunity. Instead of heinjj annoyed by 
the difficulties of extra-curricular finances in high schools, 
principals and teachers should welcome the opportunities 
these difficulties present for the education of both teachers 
and pupils. It is the business of the school to organize 
these extra-curricular finances so they may furnish 
favorable opportunities for the members of the school to 
practice with satisfaction now the earning, safe-keeping, 
and wise spending of money. All members of the school 
are of necessity concerned with extra-curricular linaiices, 
but the leadership in directing these finances can, and 
should be, a part of, and grow' out of, the department of 
business education in the school. 1 )epartments of business 
education have been constantly wanting actual business 
opportunities for practice. Here they arc: budgets to 
make, accounts to keep, banks to establish and operate, 
money to earn always and sometimes a surplus to invest, 
audits to make and financial statements, tickets to print 
and to sell, change to make and gate receipts that must 
check up, secretarial .service that can be supiilied. Here is 
W'aiting a real laboratory of business experience. .Some 
pupils wisely guided can learn real business by assuming 
definite responsibilities and putting their training to the 
test. The members of the whole school, by their jicrsonal 
interests in the financial [iroblcms of one or more activities, 
can get some actual training, and in all cases they have an 
opportunity to appreciate ideals of business procedure in 
operation. Fortunately, an increasing number of schools 


are welcoming eagerly these opportunities for the school 
citizen to live intelligently financially here and now. 

Sources of grief. The earning, sat^-keeping, and wise 
spending of money is ffer many people a source of irritation. 
This private grief is carried over into public affairs, with 
the result that many discussions of extra-curricular finances 
in times not wholly gone by have been a chorus of lamenta- 
tions. The causes of these jeremiads are recounted in the 
opening paragraphs of a majority of the articles listed in 
the bibliography at the end of this book. Perhaps some 
glutton for grief will make a list of these causes. Such a 
list would furnish occasion for deep humiliation of all adult 
school leaders. .Schools somehow in just muddling through 
have been slow in developing a constructive policy for 
guiding extra-curricular finances. Perhaps two examples 
are sufficient to illustrate this point. The first true and 
painful tale is quoted from Starr: 

Scene: Office of (he principal’s secretary. 

nraniatir. |)erson,i : principal’s secretary and basketball manager. 

Manager: “ Here’s 52.50 from e b isket-ball game last night.” 

Sciretary: '‘$2.50! Is that all we texjk in? I thought we had a 
pretlv good crowd out. ” 

Manager: “Well, this is all that’s left of what was taken in. I 
had to jxiy a lot of bills to different people. There’s alway'=; a lot 
of expense >011 know.” 

Secretary: “^'es; 1 know.” 

The secretar>’ took the $2.50, placed it in an envelope on which 
she .scribbled .some notation, and carried it to the safe. Th boy 
on lea\ ing called back from the door: “There will be a bill for some 
advertising yet.” It was not until after school the day following 
the game that thi*^ enterprising manager could find time to deposit 
the money. I le submitted no statement of what the bills were that 
he had paid or what the total income from the game was. 

The second example is reported by a teacher in writing 
an account of a self-survey in the high school of which she 
was a faculty member: 


On investigating the financial methods employed by various 
activities, it was found that a few of them did not possess a treas- 
urer’s book. Se\ eral ibooks did not balance. Only a few of the 
treasurers banked their funds, and these seldom called for their 
monthly statements. One treasurer kept his money in a baking- 
powder can. None of the treasurers could state even approx- 
imately the resources of the acti\ ity which he represented. 

Who was primarily to blame, the $2.50 manager or the 
school? Why did all these treasurers keep such poor 
records? Ask the principal: he knows. 

Crime. The school that provides a favorable situation 
for loose practices in handling money is little short of 
criminal. The crime is not so much that some pupils, 
teachers, or board members have an easy chance to be 
dishonest. It is rather that, as a result of the school’s 
muddling along, pupils come to think that public business 
should be handled in that way. The absence of a con- 
structive policy wastes the school’s and the pupils’ time 
in a multitude of “drives.” Cafeterias and “Sweet 
Shoppes” run for profit can ruin the pupil’s digestion, while 
“tag days” exhaust his temper, and fairs, circuses, carni- 
vals, and bazaars appropriate his purse and too frequently 
leave him nothing but trash. The pupil going from house 
to house trying to sell school tickets is at once a hold-up 
man and a beggar. The practice of sending the pupil to 
sell advertising that he knows to be worthless is education 
in deceit. None of these failures is the main difiiculty. 
The school has a situation wherein it can guide so that 
teachers and pupils working together can develop and put 
into practice a constructive policy for handling extra- 
curricular finances both in and out of the curriculum. To 
fail to use the opportunity for real practice in living is the 

Signs of progress. In spite of the fact that, as Starr 


remarks, “the extra-curricular program offers some excep- 
tional opportunities for business training which are as yet 
infrequently utilized,” there are definite signs that progress 
is being made both in 4 ;heory and in practice. As early as 
1811, Stamper was pointing out the dangers of permitting 
pupil organizations to go unsupervised in the handling of 
their finances and presented a plan of auditing accounts 
with instructions and forms to be used. Bacon in 1822 
and Meredith in 1823 showed how closely business educa- 
tion and the handling of extra-curricular finances could 
work together. Moehlman in 1821 presented a detailed 
account of a plan by which Detroit had handled for three 
years internal accounts of intermediate and senior high 
schools in accordance with the regulations of the board of 
education. In 1825, the board of education of Los Angeles 
in Bulletin 140 set forth a plan of conducting all student- 
body finances, wherein “No individual shall obligate the 
student body in any way without first having obtained the 
proper written authority from the student body board of 
finance.” Surveys have contributed some definite knowl- 
edge of current practice and in some cases have pointed 
the way to constructive educational procedures. Among 
these surveys are Belting’s study in 1823 of 258 Illinois 
high schools; McKown’s study, made for the National 
Society for the Study of Education in 1826, of nearly 
400 high schools; Starr’s study in 1827 of 243 California 
high schools; Bullock’s study of 35 high schools; Duck- 
worth’s study in 1326 of city and exempted village senior 
and junior high schools of Ohio. The studies of individual 
schools have been helpful; for example, Prunty’s report on 
the Central High School of Tulsa in 1908 and Green’s re- 
port on the same school in 1910 and Jones’s study of the 
senior high school of Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1915. Many 
high school handbooks have definite information concern- 


ing the handling of extra-curricular finances in the high 
schools they represent. Among the few noted in the bibli- 
ography the account given in The Life of Manual Arts, 
Manual Arts High School, Los Angeles, is of special 

In getting away from the loose methods, or no methods, 
that have prevailed in some schools, there is a tendency on 
the part of some students of these problems involved in 
extra-curricular finances to stress complete centralized effi- 
ciency to the extent that the educational values inherent 
in these problems are comparatively lost sight of. Not all 
writers see as clearly as do Meredith, Bacon, Starr, and 
Cox that, while efficiency is necessary, the education of the 
pupil is of first importance. Cox * stresses a point, often 
omitted, in this fashion: 

Some individual or committee must he a resourceful agency on 
ways and means — and the pupils should be permitted the oppor- 
tunity to exercise their ingenuity in this matter. Here is the op- 
portunity for the student council or for an athletic council to 
wrestle with a difficulty that is similar to social complications to he 
met in the family, in business, in goxernment, in clubs and so- 
cieties throughout acti\e life. Captain, manager, and coach are 
agreed on the needs of the team for equipment, and mainten.ince, 
money for it all is not a\ailable — here is a common obstacle that 
calls for renecti\e thinking to be followed by an acti\e program. 
There is a tem[)tation alw'ays for principal or other ofliccrs to take 
charge at this point, to decide wdiat money may be allotted and 
how it shall be raised. Hut this treatment of the problem robs the 
pupils of the opportunity to deal with a practical situation that 
may under faculty guidance provide a sound legislative and ex- 
ecutive experience for the pupils involved. 

Experience in dealing with social problems is just as essential, if 
one is to learn to deal adequately with them, as experience in 
pitching baseball is necessary if one is to learn to “control the ball.” 
The preparation of a budget and the raising of money to carry it 
through is a sufficiently general and desirable life experience to 

• Cox, P W L r reatv'e Srhool ('ontrol. pp. 12^-26. J. B. Lippinrott C'ompany. 
Used by pt*rrni^sio.T 



warrant the school in providing whatever genuine experiences of 
this sort are feasible. 

Starr’s study of 24^ high schools. As yet some of the 
best fact-finding studies, Starr’s, for example, are unpub- 
lished. By permission of Mr. Starr,' his questionnaire and 
the bare tabulation of responses are set down here as one 
aid to the student of extra-curricular finances in getting a 
view of 243 California high schools: 

Our enrollment is ; 

Underscore the answer that fits your situation. 

1. Do you have a student body treasurer? Yes 243 No o 

2. Is this person a student or faculty member? Student 169 

Faculty 64 
Employed Finance Secretary 4 
School Secretary 5 

3. If a student, do you have a faculty supervisor? 

Yes 170 No 5 

4. Docs the student body treasurer have the custody of the funds 
of all student activities and organizations? Yes 132 No iii 

5. Does each organization have its own treasurer? 

Yes 192 No 39 

6. Do organization treasurers bank with the student body treasurer? 

Yes 132 No III 

7. Are there organizations which keep their bank accounts independ- 

ent of the student body treasurer? 

Yes III No 


Please check any such 
a. Athletic Association 


/. Class Organizations 


b. Block Letter Club 


g. Girls’ Club 


c. Boys’ Club 


h. Literary societies 


d. Debate Club 


e. Dramatic Club 


j. Miscellaneous 


8. Does the treasurer of each organization list with the principal a 

financial statement at stated periods? Yes 176 No 59 

9. Are these periods monthly? 59 Semi-annually? 49 An- 
nually? 49 When called for? 9 Known at all times? 14. 

10. Is each organiz^ition required to keep an accurate account record 
of its expenditures so that the principal may have a full knowledge 
of the activities of the organization if he require it? 

Yes 201 No 19 

» Starr. A. G. A Study of the Methods of Handling Student Finances in the Public 
Secondary Schools of California. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Leland Stanfor'* 
Junior University. 



11. Must each organization expenditure be approved by the faculty 

adviser? Yes 220 No 15 

12. Must all checks rtrawn against the Student Body account be 
initialed by the principal or a person designated by him? 

Yes 220 No 36 

13. Is consent of a designated student committee required for each 

expenditure? Yes 139 No 75 

14. Is consent of such a committee required for expenditures over a 

certain amount? Yes 99 No 63 

What is the amount? 

15. Is a properly signed requisition necessary before merchandise or 

other bills can be contracted against the funds of the student body 
or any student organization? Yes 162 No 81 

16. If answer to 15 is yes, is the rule strictly observed? 

Yes 93 No 69 

Are faculty members or students the worse violators? 

17. Who audits the accounts of the student body and other organiza- 


a. Student committee 


d. School clerk 


b. Faculty committee 




c. Principal 


/. No audits 


18. Does the general student fund subsidize activities or organizations 

which are not self-supporting? Yes 195 No 42 

19. Are such activities or organizations budgeted? 

Yes 129 No 112 

20. Check any of the following who assist in making out the budget: 

a. Student Body President g. Organization Presidents 

b. Student Body Treasurer h. Girls’ Adviser 

c. Student Managers i. Student Council 

d. Football Coach j. Principal 

e. Faculty Advisers k 

/. Class Presidents I 

21. Is the budget approved by the principal? Yes no No 19 

22. Is each activity held strictly to the amount allotted to it by the 


Yes 78 

No 51 

Check those which have 

a tendency to run over: 

a. Debate 


/. Basket-ball 


b. Declamation 


g. Baseball 


c. Dramatics 


h. Track 


d. Musical productions 


i. Annual 


e. Football 



24. Are activities or organizations which are self-supporting prohibited 
from spending over a certain amount for parties, dances, etc.? 

Yes 100 No 87 



25. What are the amounts allowed for: 

a. Dances d. Musical productions 

b. Parties e ^ 

c. Plays /. 

26. Do organizations which put on entertainments or dances for the 

purpose of making money have to give a certain per cent of their 
earnings to the general student fund? Yes 79 No 125 

27. What is the per cent? 

28. Who takes charge of the sale of tickets for games, entertainments, 
or other functions? 

a. Student manager d. Faculty member 

b. Student treasurer e. Principal 

c. Selected students / 

29. Are ticket sellers the same for all occasions? 

Yes 72 No 171 

30. Are they accustomed to making change in rush situations? 

Yes 154 No 60 

31. Do you have students canvass the community to sell tickets? 

Yes 150 No 88 

32. Do you have a definite system of checking on gate receipts to see 
if the cash taken in corresponds with the number of tickets sold? 

Yes 188 No 47 

33. Must all gate receipts first pass into the hands of the student body 
treasurer before any expenses charged against the activity can be 


34. Are officials for football gamer etc., paid 



No 45 

a. by student body check? 




b. by cash? 




35. Do you have a student body card or ticket? Yes 164 

36. What is the cost of this card or ticket to the student? 

No 73 

50^ to $7.50 

37. Check the activities to which the card entitles the holder: 

a. Athletic contests e. School dances 

b. Debates /. School paper 

c. Plays g. Vote in student affairs 

d. Mursical programs h 

38. Do you allow for the expenses of faculty members or students 
making trips on student body business? Yes 176 No 51 

39. In case of an accident to an athlete, who stands the expense? 

a. The athlete 133 e 

b. The athletic association /. 

c. The student body 89 g 

d. The school district 23 

40. Do you have an understanding with a local physician? 

Yes no No 103 



41. Is his service 

a. free? 41 d. half price? 23 

b. for cost of mate;j:ials? 27 e. contracted by year? 

c. third price? 5 / 

42. Do you have an accident fund? Yes 30 No 197 

43. How is it financed? 

a. Special play or program 13 c. By a dance or dances 

b. Public contributions 4 d 

44. Do students ever solicit from the community for any purpose? 

Yes 75 No 155 

45. Describe briefly the system of bookkeeping used by the student 
body treasurer. Use other side of this sheet if necessary. 

If the study of Starr’s data has been as helpful as the 
present writer believes it can be, the student of extra- 
curricular finances probably has more unanswered ques- 
tions now than before studying this material. Growing 
pains are healthy, yet it is a misfortune that Starr’s study 
is not in print: all students could profit by studying his 
analysis and recommendations. 

Belting’s study. In 1923, Belting reported a (luestion- 
naire study of the financial organization of 258 high schools 
in Illinois. This study is of special interest at this point 
for the additional data it presents and for comparison 
with Starr’s study. Among other questions Belting asked 
the following seven: 

24. Do yim ha\e a high-school treasurer who has charge of class 
and organization funds.*' 

25. Are treasurer’s accounts audited by an accijuntant ap- 
pointed by the board of education? 

26. Are finances controlled by princiiial or faculty? 

26b. Arc finances controlled by student treasurer.'' 

27. Are from merchants permitted by pupils without 
an order from principal or teacher.’' 

28. Are regular financial reports made to the principal? 

29. Arc pupils granted credit toward graduation for extra- 
curricular activities? 

The tabulation of the replies to these seven questions made 
possible the following table: 




N o 24 

N o 25 

No 26 

N o 26b 

N o 27 

N o 28 

N o 29 













Yes No 














32 27 





25 \ 









25 30 




1 1 










8 24 




2 1 










25 27 














19 35 

t ommunity 



1 1 

1 ? 









11 19 













120 162 

I’er cent 











40 60 

In Starr’s study of 243 California high schools, all of the 
schools had a treasurer, while in Belting’s study of 258 
Illinois high schools, 92 schools did not have such an officer. 
In Starr’s study, 127 schools had accounts audited, while 
75 did not. The comparable figures in Belting’s study are 
104 and 108. In Starr’s study, 220 schools say all checks 
drawn against the student-body account must be initialed 
by the principal or a person designated by him, while 36 
schools do not recjuirc such action. In Belting’s study, all 
the schools that replied on this question, 194, say that all 
finances are controlled by the principal or faculty. There 
is a wide dilTerence in the data of the two studies in respect 
to requisitions and purchasing. In reply to Starr’s ques- 
tion - “Is a properly signed requisition necessary before 
merchandise or other bills can be contracted against the 
funds of the student body or any student organization?” — 
162 replied “Yes,” and 81 schools, “No.” Belting’s replies 
to essentially the same question are, “Yes” 44, “No” 234. 
There is more agreement, however, in the matter of the 
treasurer’s making financial reports to the principal. Starr 
finds financial reports are made to the principal by 176 
schools, while 59 schools do not make such reports: their 


corresponding figures from Belting’s report are 198 and 
70. While a particular improvement usually begins in a 
single school, whole groups of schools in a county, city, 
or state may go forward or be laggards together. The 
deciding factor is education on the specific issue plus 

Volume of business. In this chapter, while the neces- 
sity of honest, efficient handling of extra-curricular finances 
is constantly kept in mind, emphasis is placed on the 
fa\orable opportunity that the handling of these finances 
afford for the actual education of pupils and teachers. The 
volume of business handled has, of course, something to 
do with these opportunities. Bullock, in his study of 
35 schools, has some helpful data on this point which he 
presents in a table showing “cash receipts.” 






\N>.t \L 
( Kvn 

\\ I- K (VC 1 * 
Dam V 
\rrFND 1 
A\( I j 








Daii y 


JS ' 

$3 922 l6 

3 H > ' 

^ .0 


$30 289 16 




4 0 lo oo 




34 307 00 







57 000 00 

1 . 503 


6 0(;o oo 

222 1 

1 22 


37 473 22 




294 , 



37 92 s 92 




If) o )f) f)0 

61 s 


38 120 12 




12 ) ) ) oo 


' 2S 


42.179 94 




1 U 0^0 4 3 



42 087 81 




' 1 J St 



' 27 


44 82s 00 




I4 0f)0 oo 




45 829 SI 

2 016 



IS tiS 9 -’ 




S7 000 00 




1 -> SHa 13 

S ^>9 



Os 8so 00 




21 3 SO 40 


! 'J* 


6s 984 28 




2 1 5 -) 2 




103 9C)0 S 7 




23 140 00 


1 33 


122 366 86 








I25.0f)0 00 




1 j" 

1 1 


2- S 13 20 
28,254 26 

I 200 


144 ^>93 37 

2 788 

1 Tot ils 

1 $i 344.059 12 


Total enrollmMU f ivf r.iK»* d iil> ilUmlanci ) 45iio8 

Total rash rrcnpis $i.344<059 la 

Average rash receipts per pupil $29 8 o 

Bullock, in discussing these data, points out that: “The 



figures embrace all money deposited with the student-body 
treasurer including lunch-room receipts and those deposits 
that are returnable to the students, dlich as deposits on 
locker keys, deposits on R.O.T.C. uniforms, and laboratory 
breakage deposits. These latter cannot, of course, be 
regarded as pupil-cost of extra-curricular activities. The 
purpose in presenting these figures is to show that large 
sums are handled and that it is therefore important to 
employ businesslike methods.’* The inclusion of “lunch- 
room receipts” in Bullock’s figures makes the total cash 
receipts too large to be representative of the majority of 
schools. Whether sums are large or small, sound business 
methods can and should be used in a way educative to 
pupils. In the smallest schools there are ample funds for 
efficient practice. 

Financial resources. The board of education bears a 
larger percentage of the cost of extra-curricular activities 
than is frequently recognized. The board provides spon- 
sors and coaches, gymnasiums, playing fields, places of 
meeting, light, heat, and set' *ce, and supervision general 
and specific. 

There is an increasing tendency for the board to bear a 
larger percentage of the cost. Activities, such as the 
school newspaper, dramatics, music activities — bands, or- 
chestras, glee clubs, chorut^es — are coming into the cur- 
riculum. Athletics in some schools is taking its rightful 
place as a part of the jiliysical education program. As a 
result of this trend the board of education is providing 
more teaching and more equipment. This action on the 
part of school boards is a justifiable procedure. If activ- 
ities, whether curricular or extra-curricular, produce 
worthy educational achievements, they should be sup- 
ported. If the ends attained are not worthy from an edu- 
cational point of view, the activities should be improved 
or eliminated. 


The point made by Cox, as cited earlier in this chapter, 
should be kept in mind. The pupil should have an oppor- 
tunity for education throup:h hii- own effort, aided and 
guided, of course, but not to the ‘extent that the pupil 
becomes passive. 

The activity ticket. Schools have often produced funds 
for extra-curricular activities by some kind of pupil-ticket 
that admits the pupil to \arious performances, l^rivate 
schools especially have used a Hat activities fee paid along 
with regular tuition. Some piil)lic scIkjoIs ha\e used this 
per capita tax plan. Other schools have iLscd a weekly tax 
of five cents or more. The most common plan, however, 
is the buying by the pupil of an “acti\ity ticket." Fre- 
quently this ticket may be paid for on the installment plan. 
When preceded by an educational campaign, the activity 
ticket plan usually works well. W'hen the principal, 
Mr. William L. M(K)re, inaugurated the activities-ticket 
plan in the Longwood ('ommerce High School in ('levc- 
land, there were 11S3 pupils and a faculty and office force 
of 53. By the end of the second month after the plan was 
started in the school, the 1236 pui)ils, faculty, and office 
force had bought 1211 acti\ity tickets. 

An account of the wa}' an acti\ity ticket works oul in a 
particular situation might be helf)ful. h'ortunately, Mr. 
Ward H. Green, \ ice-priiuipal of Central High School, 
Tulsa, has such an account in the Junior-Senior lli^h 
School Clearing House for January, kjoo. Here is a part 
of his story: 

The activities-huflget plan is now in its third successful year in 
Central High School at Tulsa, Oklahoni.i. In launching the enter- 
prise, an cxtensi\e canif)aign was necess.iry in the spring of 1907. 
I'he campaign was reopened with all forces at work in Septemhei 
and was completed with fair success. Th(‘ second year was mor^? 
successful with less effort. In Sc‘pteml)cr of the current year, with- 



out a campaign 2500 students out of an enrollment of 3174 were 
subscribers to the budget. 

A copy of the activities-budget subscripticti contract follows. 

Activities Budget 

Pass No 

Siihbcription Contract 

I. On or before the first day of December, 1909, I promise to pay 
to the order of the Activities Budget fund in the Tulsa Juve- 
nile Thrift Bank the sum of four dollars. 

H. In consideration of this amount paid, the Central High- 
School Administration in charge of Acti\ities, the Budget 
C'ominittee, and the Principal, grant to the undersigned the 
following named benefits and pri\ ileges during the school 
year 1909 1913: 

1. Subscription to Tulsa School Life, one year $0-35 

2. One admission ticket to all boys or girls athletic events 

held under the auspices of Tulsa High School i.oo 

3. One reserved seat ticket to each rlramatics department 

play, music-department [production, ojpera, Hizh School 
Dazi\ or other all-school production; free admission to 
all dramatic reading, orat.^ and debate contests, and 
to all lectures ancl other entertainments provided by the 
Activities Fund 1. 00 

4. One reserved seat ticket to each of four class plays (one 
sophomore, two junior, and the first semester senior 

pliiy) 65 

5. One copy of the Tom 7 'om i.oo 

Total $4.00 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 T9 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4o‘4i 

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 

III. When stamped “Paid” by the Tulsa Juvenile Thrift Bank 

this contract becomes a receipt for the amount [Paid, and en- 
titles the subscriber to an Activities-Budget pass. 

IV. An Acti\’ities-Budgct pass may be presented at the bank or to 
the ticket sellers at the door for a rescr\'ed seat ticket. 

V. Students promoted from the junior high schools at the mid- 


year and all others entering at the midyear may subscribe for 

$ 2 . 00 . 

VI In consideratioFr of the alx)ve named benefits and privileges, 
the undersigned subscriber agrees ^to conduct himself at the 
public functions he attends in such a manner as to reflect 
credit ui)on the name of Tulsa Higli School, and thus to ensure 
comfort, enjoyment, and appreciation of the occasion to all 
who may attend. Failing in this, the undersigned will expect 
to forfeit all privileges herein named. 

Date . Class of ... Signed 

1. Fifty cents paid 

2. Fifty cents paid Home Room Number 

3. Fifty cents paid 

4. Fifty cents paid Seventh Period Room Number. . . 

5. Fifty cents paid i. Paid $1.00 

6. Fifty cents paid 2. Paid $r. 00 

7. Fifty cents paid 3. Paid $1.00 

k Fifty cents paid 4. Paid $1.00 

N B — A sub«!cnbcr not payins m full is expected to p.iy one dollar down by 
September 13 and one dollar on the first of October, November, and December, 

If a subscriber cannot do this, he may pay fifty cents at the bank each time he applies 
for a ticket until he has paid four dollars 

A study of this contract at once reveals to the thoughtful reader 
that the budgeting of activities comprehends the budgeting of time 
and money and centralizes the keeping of school accounts. 

Consider the budgeting f)f time. Time is, from all points of 
view, the most important item in arranging the program of extra- 
curricular activities. Hefore the advent of the activities budget in 
Central High ScIkkiI, Tulsa, fifteen distinct and intensive cam- 
paigns were necessarily conducteil with indifferent success to make 
possible the existence of the Tulsa School Life, the foot ball sched- 
ule, the basket-ball schedule, the music-department minstrel show, 
the music-department oj)era, six dramatics-department plays, 
the*annual all-school priKiuction known as High School DazCy four 
class plays, and the publication of the school annual, the Tom 
Tom. Each of these campaigns occui)icd from two to three weeks 
of intensive work. In the major campaigns a longer time was 
necessary. Furthermore, several campaigns necessarily had to be 
in progress at the same time. Contrast in effect the conservation 
of time which the activities budget brings about. In one brief, 
quiet campaign in the home-room, the major and minor extra-cur- 
ricular activities are sold to the student body for the year. 


Quite as important as the time-saving element for the school, is 
the time-budgeting element for the individual student. With the 
schedule of football games, dramatic productions, music produc- 
tions, basket-ball games, swimming meets, and track meets before 
him for the year, each student knows in advance just where he is 
going to be each Friday evening or Saturday afternoon or Saturday 
night. His school activities are necessarily foremost in his mind. 
He has something definite to look forward to each week; for that 
reason he is more settled and habituated to a routine 

It is not logical to lose sight of the fact that school loyalty fol- 
lowed rather than preceded this participation in school life. 
Twenty-five hundred students were mo\ed to the support of school 
enterprises not from a sense of loyalty but because they were 
offered a great deal for their money. Before the days of the budget, 
participation in only the major activ ities would have cost a student 
twelve dollars and fifty cents, as a brief glance at the followirtg 

statement reveals. 

Tulsa School Life at 25c a semester $0 50 

Five football games at 50c each 2 50 

One basket-ball season ticket i 00 

Ten school plays at 50c each 5 00 

One school annual Tom Tom 2 50 

Two music-department productions i 00 

Total $12 50 

Obviously, school loyalty, high-pressure salesmanship, and ready 
money were prerequisites for the success of such a program. It 
failed. The budget plan offered to the student these events and all 
others mentioned in the contract for a total of $4. School loyalty 
was not a necessary factor in the outlay . The offering was a finan- 
cial bargain. It succeeded. The administration offered generous 
value for a sum within student means. This value was quickly 
purchased. The students liked what they got and school loyalty 
followed. Question item four on the contract. An analy^sis shows 
that the senior class is called upon to give a play in return for one 
fourth of sixty-five cents for each activities-budget subscriber. 
Even with twenty-five hundred budget subscribers, this gives a re- 
turn of but $406.25. In October, 1906, under the old plan, the 
gross income from the senior-class play of Captain Applejack was 
$614.25. Inevitably there was grumbling over the prospect, but 
what happened? As the budget plan developed, it became ad vis- 


able to care for the large audiences at the regular Friday and Sat- 
urday night presentations of a play by giNing a Thursday night 
performance for patrons only at the usual admission price of lifty 
cents lor non -budget subscribers. lu October, 1909, the gross cash 
income from |)atron cash sales alone for the senior class pla> , If I 
irere Kuig, \\as >1028 50 Add to this the budget alkmance of 
$40625. The total is $143475 The liguies are startling, but 

Pursuing this anaUsis of the contract, but with only the manner 
of budgeting the funcK in Mew, one ohser\es that for e\ery four- 
dollar subscription tlie I iilui School Lift rccci\es35 cents, all ath- 
letic interests $1, platform entertainment interests $1, the ‘sopho- 
more class 12*1 cents, the junior cl.iss 25 ‘ j cents, the senior cl.iss 
cents, and tlie I ooi lorn publication $i If this distribution 
of the funds needs an\ defense, n ma\ be sullicient to say thateveiy 
interest ser\td is thoroughK satished with it Olniously, another 
school might tnul a diltcrcnt distribution more desirable The dis- 
triliution that works is the one to .idopt 

The indiMcinal shkImu in.i\ ha\e his own opinion al)out budget- 
ing his tour dol' ir c oniribiiiion One student may consider that 
the footlj.ill g.iincs art worth $4, another nia\ consider the Tom 
Tow worth what he pa\s, but the student w ho looks o\ er the w hole 
range of olfc'rings ligurcs iliat each of the till\ e\ents costs him just 
eight cents and 1-, worth the mone\ ’ There are re.illy^ more than 
fifty e\cnls, tor without nu hiding the four or ti\e general assembly 
lectures, theor,itif)n contists, the dram. itic readings, and including 
only fi\e tjf the b.iseball g lines and track meets, the remaining 
e\ents total fifty, as here gi\en. 

ACTiviTiLs HI ik;i:t schedule 

IbbuecI May 14, IC90C9 

No OF 

Name ot I vent Date of Event 

1 Tidsa School Life 1909 

2 In the Next Room (dramatus) September 20, 21 

3 Sapulpa at Tulsi (football) September 28 

4 If I were King (junior class play) October 4, 5 

5 The Admirable Cru hton (dramatics) October 18, 19 

6 Little Rock at Tulsa (football) October 19 


No. OF 

Event Name of Event Date of Event 

7 Dallas at Tulsa (football) October 26 

8 Enid at Tulsa (football) N<?vember 2 

9 The Dummy (senior-class play) .... November 8, 9 

10 Prunella (sophomore-class play) .... November 22, 23 

11 Muskogee at Tulsa (football) November 28 

12 Vera at Tulsa (basket-ball) December 3 

13 Music department (minstrel) December 6, 7 

14 Muskogee at Tulsa (basket-ball). . . . December 7 

15 Claremore (basket-ball) December 10 

16 Skiatook (basket-ball) . December 17 

17 Sapulpa (basket-ball) January 3, 1930 

18 Alumni (swimming) January 4 

19 Sp)erry (basket-ball) January 7 

20 Bartlesville (basket-ball) January 10 

21 Drumright (basket-ball) January 14 

22 Dramatics-department play January 17, 18 

23 Sandsprings (basket-ball) January 21 

24 Dallas (basket-ball) January 24 

25 Yale (wrestling) January 25 

26 Muskogee (sw imming) January 25 

27 Haskell (basket-ball) January 28 

28 Dramatics-department play January 21, February i 

29 Stillwater (wrestling) February i 

30 Glenpool (basket-ball) February 4 

31 Bartlesville (swimming) February 7 

32 Turley (basket-ball) February ii 

33 Junior-class play February 14, 15 

34 Osage (basket-ball) February 18 

35 Ponca City (basket-ball) February 21 

36 Wichita (basket-ball) February 22 

37 Wichita (swimming) February 22 

38 Broken Arrow' (basket-ball) February 28 

39 Dramatics-department play February i, March i 

40 jenks (basket-ball) March 4 

41 Owasso (basket-ball) March ii 

42 Music department (opera) March 14, 15 

43 School Daze April 4, 5 

44 Girls physical-education pageant . . . April 25, 26 or May 2, 3 

45 Tom Tom 

May 15 

16-50 Baseball and track events 

A Study of this activities-ticket plan as presented by 
Mr. Green can make clear, not only the economy in time 


and in money, but the value of the constructive long-term 
planning involved in the development of this whole school 

Gate receipts. As pointed out by Green in discussing 
the activities ticket, there are additional sources of income. 
The activities ticket may admit pupils to athletic games, 
dramatic performances, and provide the holder with copies 
of the school newspaper, but the general public buys single 
admission tickets. The athletic gate receipts and admis- 
sion to dramatic and other performances still furnish a 
large part of the resources of extra-curricular finances. 
Athletics, dramatics, and concerts or operas exist as means 
of pupil education and likewise as a means of recreation to 
active participants or observers. These activities have no 
legitimate existence if the primary aim is making money. 
However, if education especially of the direct participants 
is the dominating aim, there seems to be no reasonable 
objection to a charge for attending the performance if the 
performance is worth the charge. The school newspaper 
can honestly carry selected advertising if this “class adver- 
tising” helps the merchant sell his goods. Whether it is 
the “Fiv^e Cent Conceits” with the thousands in attend- 
ance at the Denfield High School in Duluth, Flotow’s 
Martha, at the Lake \'iew High School in Chicago, given 
for three performances to packed houses, or the final foot- 
ball classic played in the local Rose Bowl, there are very 
real reasons why those who wish to attend should pay for 
the privilege. More people should play and consequently 
leave fewer people to be spectators. Out of the grandstand 
and into the game, is a real idea. However, educationally 
there is still a need for pupil performance in an audience 
situation. Pupils need the incentive of making their per- 
formance so good that people will want to see it, not 
simply as a friendly gesture to the pupils or to the school, 


but because the performance itself is worth while — and 
worth the price of admission. To make all performances 
as free as a boat-race may be a good idea, but boat-races 
have a way of being in such inconvenient places that it 
costs more to attend them than it does to be present at a 
football game. 

Extra-curricular finances and business education. Busi- 
ness educators desire for their pupils the opportunity to 
buy and sell real things involving real money, to keep real 
accounts in books or banks, and to write real letters to real 
people. The school’s extra-curricular finances furnish an 
opportunity. The account of the '‘Student-Body Finan- 
cial System,” presented in The Life of Manual Arts High 
School, Los Angeles, gives a clear cross-section of the rela- 
tion of extra-curricular finances and business education: 

The finances of the Student Body of Manual Arts High School 
arc taken care of under the direction of a Board of Finance. 

The Board of Finance is made up of the representative of the 
principal of the school, a teacher the president of the student body 
organization, the general manager of the student body organiza- 
ti<^n, a representative of the program committee, and a represen ta- 
ti\c of the committee of inter-school relations. The treasurer is 
appointed by the principal, is a teacher and under $10,000 bond. 

The representative of the principal is called the financial adviser, 
who has general supcr\ ision of the financial affairs of the student 
body organization. This officer is under bond. No money is ex- 
pended without his approval. 

Records of all moneys received and paid out aie kept by the 
student body office force, which is made up of the advanced stu- 
dents in the Commerical Department. The force consists of a 
chief accountant, assistant chief accountant, chief cashier, four 
cashiers, two ledger clerks, two cash book clerks, two journal clerks, 
and two auditors. All money is handled and all records kept by 
the students under supervision. 

The daily sources of income in the school are the cafeteria, the 
candy counter, and the student body store. Other sources are the 


shops, athletic events, operas, plays, entertainments, weekly and 
semiannual publications, collections of all kinds, etc. 

The cafeteria student force consists of a manager, assistant 
manager, and eight cashiers, four monoy counters and two clerks. 
This force takes care of the finances of the cafeteria. 

The candy counter force consists of manager and four salesmen. 

In the shot)s a cost accounting s\stem is maintained of all work 
done and this is carried on by the members of the commercial 
course. Fi\e bo\s do this work. 

The student bod\ store is an institution which furnishes the sta- 
tioner>' supiilies of the students. The force is made up of a mana- 
ger and se\en s*ilesmcn. 

The ad\ertising for the weekly and artisan publication is solic- 
ited by the respecti\c adxertising managers and collections are 
made by them. 

The student body manager and his ticket sellers carry on the 
sales of tickets for entertainments and events in connection with 
the financial olfice. 

The office practice classes take care of all typewriting, mimeo- 
graphing, tiling, and work of the school. All the admin- 
istrati\e oflicers and practically all the heads of departments have 
secretaries who report to them for tw'o periods each school day. 

The a\er,ig( claih r(*ceipts ninge from S300 to S400. As much 
as S3000 to S4(K)<) \\,\> lu‘en taken in in a single d.iy. The total re- 
ceipts for a NCtir range troin Si io.oim) to sij5,(KK). 

It i.s frefiiiciuly inoie helpful in iinderstaiuling an idea 
or plan, if one can see it in dnrlopmcnt rather than in a 
full-grown LToss-se('t ion. Francis L. Bacon, in the School 
Revieu\ ha.s told, stej) by stej), the development of the 
working relations of extra-curricular finances and business 
education in the high .school of Meriden, Connecticut. 
The flavor of the account is lost in the summary, but some 
main ideas can be pointed out. 

The plan started with a conception of the necessity of 
handling extra-curricular finances in a businesslike way 
and with a recognition that the department of business 
education could serve and be served by the situation that 


existed in respect to extra-curricular finances. There were 
two basic difficulties: to develop principles and apprecia- 
tions of business relations in the maifegement of extra- 
curricular activities aixi to set up a workable plan that 
was satisfying and appealing to various existing organiza- 
tions and to the department of business education. 

The plan began with the School Store. In the store 
members of the fourth-year class in business, together with 
some third-year pupils, gained experience, and the school 
came to realize some of the advantages and possibilities of 
pupil activity in business management. A student council 
already existed, and it was from the council that there 
emerged a plan for a single all-inclusive general financial 
association of which all activities would become units or 
affiliated parts. The council set up a board of financial 
control made up of faculty supervisors and pupil repre- 
sentatives. All financial activities of the pupil body were 
centralized in this financial board of control. There was a 
central treasury for every organization of the school and a 
general treasurer responsible for all money deposited in 
this central treasury. A school bank was organized for 
receiving, holding, and paying out, on properly signed 
requisitions, all money. Advanced pupils in business edu- 
cation under educative supervision served as clerks, 
cashiers, and bookkeepers 

A ticket department was a part of the plan. A general 
ticket manager had a desk in the Central Activities Office. 
This office conducted the distribution, sale, and check-up 
of all tickets. The ticket manager was only one of the 
officers who had a desk in the Central Activities Office. 
A large room was necessary with flat-topped desks and 
cages with windows for banking, ticket office, publications, 
cafeteria, and any current activity. Managers and all 
pupil officers who held positions involving business trans- 


actions had desks in this Activities Office. The general 
office manager was a faculty representative of the Depart- 
ment of Business Education. There was a pupil assistant 
who carried full responsibility dudng the regular office 
hours. In addition, there was a public stenographer. 
Business pupils, sufficiently advanced to be qualified, were 
assigned in turn to various school offices, such as general 
school office, department offices, athletics office, publica- 
tions, and store, for the various kinds of business activities 
being carried on. Since the business affairs of the cafeteria 
were placed under the superv ision of the Business Depart- 
ment, pupils, under the supervision of a faculty member, 
took care of ticket sales, accounting, bookkeeping, filing, 
correspondence, and banking. Likewise, pupils under fac- 
ulty supervision ran the book depository, receiving, 
checking-out, and keeping a record of books. 

Such items as have l)een given are but the bare details 
of some of the activities carried on. Budgeting, auditing, 
and other activities could receive attention. Enough 
probably has been given to show how a unified plan got 

In evaluating the success of the plan, Mr. Bacon points 
out that : activ ities that had been struggling with debts and 
lack of funds became prosperous; every organization that 
used funds had an acceptable balance to its credit in the 
bank; concerts, plays, athletic contests, dues, subscriptions, 
and all other affairs invoking business relationships were 
managed according to business methods; all returns were 
accurately accounted for; business education pupils secured 
valuable training and some real business experience; many 
pupil leaders of extra-curricular activities who were not 
members of the Business Department of the school, but 
working under the supervision of that Department, re- 
ceived valuable training; business education was correlated 
with actual business material. 


In addition, it is pointed out that the successful admin- 
istration and conduct of such a correlation of business 
education and extra-curricular finances^depends on certain 
definite factors: first, there is the definite requirement of a 
certain number of applied office hours as a requisite for 
graduation from the business curriculum; second, it is ad- 
visable that the general business pupils receive assignments 
in rotation through all the correlated activities in accord- 
ance with a well-devised scheme; third, all the general busi- 
ness and financial relations of the school should be central- 
ized in the Activities Office; fourth, this centralization of 
the business affairs of the school is possible only through 
a corresponding centralization of the government and 
supervision of the extra-curricular activities in a student 
council; fifth, a fine spirit of cooperation on the part of 
the faculty and pupils is necessary for the development 
and successful operation of such a scheme of correlated 

Board of finance. The direction of extra-curricular 
finances should be centered ’n a board of control. This 
board should be made up of pupils elected to positions of 
chief responsibility in the scheme of pupil participation in 
government in the school and teachers appointed by the 
principal. The form and composition of this finance board 
will be determined to some extent by the degree of demo- 
cratic control that has developed in the school, the size of 
the school, the presence or absence of a department of busi- 
ness education, and the form of student council or student 
body organization. As has already been noted, in Manual 
Arts High School, Los Angeles, “The Board of Finance” in 
that school “ is made up of the representative of the princi- 
pal, a teacher, the president of the student-body organiza- 
tion, the general manager of the student-body organization, 
a representative of the program committee and a repre- 


sentative of the committee of inter-school relations. The 
treasurer is appointed by the principal, is a teacher, and 
under $10,000 bond. The representative of the principal 
is called the financial adviser, who has p:eneral supervision 
of the financial affairs of the student body organization. 
This officer is under l)ond. No money is expended without 
his approv'al.” 

It may be recalled that in ILicon’s account, previously 
cited, this financial adviser appointed by the principal is, 
in the school described, the head of the Department of 
Business h'ducation. In general i)ractice, esfieclally in 
smaller schools, this boaril of finance is composed of the 
principal, the treasurer — a teacher appointed by the prin- 
cipal — the president of the student council, the faculty 
adviser or advisers to the council, and the presidents of 
any other whole-school organizations besides the student 
council. This is usually a small committee of not more 
than ten members. A fundamental difficulty in this 
scheme of organization, as in all government, is to get the 
efficiency of strong, supervised, central control and at the 
same time preserve small group initiativeand responsibility. 

Budget. One of the responsibilities of this board of 
finance is to (organize the budget. This plan of budget 
control requires each extra-curricular activity of the 
school present its plans of activity and the estimates of the 
cost involved. The budget or finance committee, from the 
point of view of the worth of the activity and the money 
available or conservatively expected to be available, must 
co()rdinatc the estimates fire.sented and establish a budget 
in advance for the fiscal year. Su('h a procedure, it is 
recognized, is not as simple as it sounds, but in school 
affairs, as in private life or in any business, a carefully 
develof)cd budget is the best kind of preventive medicine 
and usually makes "first aid" unnecessary. 


Many claims have been made for budgetary control. 
Among these claims are : 

1. It requires all extra,-curricular activities to organize or re- 
organize on a business basis and to follow definite well-under- 
stood business methods. 

2. It reciuires activities to live within their income. 

3. It tends to develop a better balanced extra-curricular pro- 

4. It tends to encourage worthy but non-revenue-producing 
activities by pro\ iding for them. 

5. It conscT\es the time and energy of teachers and pupils by 
eliminating many drives, “entertainments” put on to raise 
money, and ”pep” meetings. 

6. It prevents the raiding of the financial resources of the school 
by those popular activities that come early in the financial 

Such claims as have just been made have to do with the 
efficient handling of the school’s finances. An aim of at 
least equal importance has to do with the education of the 
pupil. By direct education the pupil can be encouraged in 
practicing the budgeting of L time, energy, and personal 

The aim of the school is to arrange the situation so that 
the pupil, by living consciously in a scheme of budgeted 
finances, will form the habits and develop the skills neces- 
sary for such living, and do this with such satisfaction that 
he will be intelligent financially so far as budgets are con- 
cerned now and in later life. 

In any budget scheme many problems arise for which 
there are no all-inclusive answers. Since the principal is 
responsible, all budgets should be approved by him, and 
at least monthly reports should be made to him and, by 
way of the school newspaper, to the school. This is an 
educational as well as an efficiency process with which the 
school is concerned. Does all income from whatever 


source go direct to the central treasury? The writer thinks 
it should. Are self-supporting activities prohibited from 
spending over a cei^tain amount^ Should all activities pay 
a certain per cent of their income into a definite fund which 
may be allocated to non-revenue-producing activities? 
Shall an activity be partially budgeted and encouraged to 
earn all it can in addition? Is each activity to be held 
strictly to its budget? If so, how? Shall the budget be 
on a fixed or percentage basis? Is the answer to the pre- 
ceding question the same for a new and for an old and 
well-established school? These and scores of other over- 
lapping questions doubtless come to the mind of the stu- 
dent trying to think through the problem of budgeting the 
school’s extra-curricular finances. 

The treasurer. The treasurer is usually a teacher ap- 
pointed by the principal. There is frequently a student- 
treasurer who works with this teacher-treasurer and who 
keeps or supervises the accounting. Each activity has its 
own treasurer or business manager who reports direct to 
the central tieasurer. The teacher-treasurer directly or 
indirectly usually needs to train these various activity 
treasurers or business managers in how to keep their books 
and how to report to the central accountant. One school 
has all these activity treasurers organized into a “ Bankers’ 
Club.” The student council constitution can and should 
state the general financial procedures. Bullock cites the 
following example; 

Article V 

Sec. I 

Sec. 2. Treasurer 

a It shall he the duty of the trea.surer to supervise the financial 
department of the student body. 

b. He has power with the consent of the chief executive (prin- 
cipal) and president (of the student-lxxly) to make any financial 


arrangements that do not conflict with the provisions of this con- 
stitution and by-laws. 

c. He shall have power to appoint managJrs for the various stu- 
dent activities except those otherwise provided for by those by- 
laws or by standing rules of the Board of Commissioners. 

d. He shall be in charge of all managers and the ticket commis- 
sioner, and shall make arrangements for the financing and book- 
keeping of all student acti\ ities. 

e. In financial matters, he shall have power of veto in meetings of 
the Board of Commissioners. In case of \eto, the matter shall be 
laid before the chief execiilive (principal) for decision. The treas- 
urer’s signature is necessary on all “orders” upon student-body 

/.In May of each school year he shall prepare for the chief ex- 
eculi\e and the Board of Commissioners a report of the estimated 
worth of all properties owned by the student body. 

The purchase-order plan. There is a frequent tendency 
for pupils or teachers to buy without having a properly 
authorized requisition. Starr in his questionnaire asked 
this question: “Is a properly signed requisition necessary 
before merchandise or other bills can be contracted against 
the funds of the student bedy or any student organiza- 
tion?” He found that 162 schools answered “Yes,” and 
81 answered “ No.” The Los Angeles City School District 
(see Special Bulletin No. 4, September 2, I830, Section 14) 
provides that: “ A properly authorized purchase order must 
be issued in advance for any obligation incurred by a stu- 
dent l)ody. No student body shall be held responsible for 
the payment of any expenditure made by a student or 
teacher who has not first received a written purchase order 
from the person in authority.” By this purchase-order 
plan both the school and the merchant are properly pro- 
tected and those concerned practice a correct business 
method. Of course the consent of the proper pupil com- 
mittee should be required in the expenditure of any funds 
with which the committee is concerned. 


Checking methods. The treasurer should be under bond. 
Both pupils and teachers frequently resent proper checking 
methods. When pupils or teachers understand that, in 
handling other people’s property or' money, proper check- 
ing methods are necessary for their own protection and 
as a means of education in correct procedure, these 
methods are usually welcomed. 

Treasurer’s reports. The treasurer appointed by the 
principal and other treasurers, if any, not only should keep 
accurate records, but have them ready for inspection at 
any time. A financial statement covering all finances 
should be made to the principal at regular stated intervals 
and these reports should be published in the school paper. 
Pupils and teachers as well as the principal are interested 
in these reports. Such reports properly made are a means 
of education, not only for those who make them, but for 
the whole school. 

Auditing. Regardless of whether funds are kept in the 
principal’s office, by a faculty or a pupil treasurer, all ac- 
counts should be audited. Such a plan not only ensures 
veracity of records and, in an older school, shows trends of 
business, but at the same time ensures an adequate method 
of accounting. With such a method of accounting, ex- 
penditures at any time may be balanced against the budget. 
In fact, such a method of accounting is a great aid in mak- 
ing the budget. Accurate accounting makes easy the 
financial reports that should be made at regular intervals 
to the whole school. 

This audit can be made by an auditor from the superin- 
tendent’s office, by the principal, by a faculty or a pupil 
committee, by a well-trained bank clerk, or, much better 
still, by a certified public accountant. It seems unneces- 
sary to say that all money should pass through a central 
treasury, that all accounts should be audited, and that no 
officer should audit his own accounts. 



All Increasing number of states and of city school systems 
recognize the responsibility for supervising and auditing 
the finances of pupil activities. For dkample, the School 
Code of California, Section i, 50, provides that: “The 
governing board of every school district of whatsoever kind 
and class shall have power and it shall be its duty to pro- 
vide for the supervision and auditing of all funds raised by 
student bodies or student organizations using the name of 
the school. The cost of such supervising and auditing 
may constitute a proper charge against the funds of the 

In order to conform to the requirements of the state law, 
the Board of Education of the Los Angeles City School 
District has placed the responsibility for the supervision 
and auditing upon the superintendent (Division of Student- 
Body Finances) and auditor respectively. The scope of 
the supervision of the superintendent through the Division 
of Student-Body Finances expresses itself in three ways: 

1. To act as financial adviser to all schools. 

2. To outline and install, or '•prove, the accounting systems, 
forms, and supporting records to be used. 

3. To he responsible for the proper conduct, management, and 
procedures of all student-body finances. 

The auditor is authorizeci to audit student-body finances, 
the scope of this audit to be such as in the auditor’s judg- 
ment is necessary in each instance to determine the 

1. That the funds of the student body have been properly ac- 
counted for, including a verification, in so far as is practicable, 
of cash receipts, disbursements, and balances. 

2. That the student body is in a solvent or satisfactory financial 
condition, with especial reference to cash on hand and un- 
paid obligations. 

3. That efficient methods and procedures are used in accounting 
and controlling cash transactions, presenting recommenda- 


tions for such changes in methods and procedures as in his 
judgment may be necessary to produce the desired efficiency. 

4 Should the audi*^or find that any procedure or specific form 
is not being followed, which hus been agreed upon by the 
superiniendent’s and auditing departments, he may issue 
sucli instructions as arc necessary' to correct the conditions 

In the Bulletin of the Los Angeles City School District 
which fixes the responsibility for supervising and for audit- 
ing student-body finances and for carrying out these two 
responsibilities, the following positive statement should be 
noted: “It must be clearly understood that student-body 
activities shall not be carried on primarily for the purpose 
of making profit.” 

In developing the school citizen, it is necessary for the 
school to keep in mind that it should arrange the whole 
school situation so that there is a favorable opportunity 
for pupils, individually and collectively, to practice and to 
enjoy practicing sound business methods. 


1. What specific educational opportunities, if any, docs the prob- 
lem of extra-curricular finances furnish for pupils'' 

2. In w'hat specific wa> s ha\ e the schools that \ou know l^est used 
the opix)rtunitics, if any, provided by extra-turricular linances 
for the education of pupils? In what specific ways have 
schools failed to use the opportunities that may exist? 

3. In what way, or w'ays, do you agree or disagree vv ith Bacon and 
with Cox as to the educational o[)fK)rt unities provided by the 
problem of extra-curricular finance? 

4. As a result of studying through the data resulting from Starr’s 
questionnaire, what aid, if any, do you get to supplement your 
answers to questions i and 2 above? 

5. Keeping in mind that Belting’s study was made four years 
earlier than Starr’s what signs of progress do you note in com- 
paring the two studies? 

6. In the school that you know best what is the total volume of 



business, as expressed in extra-curricular finances, for one 
year? How do your findings compare with those of Bullock? 

7. In what respects do the schools that >i)u know best vary in 
their financial suppoi;t of pupil activities? 

8. VV’hat do you consider the strong and the weak points of the 
activity ticket plan? What other plans do you know that 
have worked well? 

9. What principle, if any, guides your thinking in respect to 
charging admission for public performances of acthities of 
pupils in a system of free public schools? 

10. In what specific ways can the providing, safe-keeping, and 
spending of pupil-activity money be correlated with the work 
of the Department of Business Education? In what specific 
ways should there be a correlation? On what educational 
principle that you accept do you base your answer to the pre- 
ceding question? 

11. Should there be a board of finance in your school? If so, who 
should conii)ose it? What should a board of finance in your 
school do? 

12. Do the pupil activities in your school operate on a budget? 
Why, or why not? 

13. On what should an activities budget be based? 

14. Should there be one treasurer for all extra-curricular finances? 
If so, how and by whom sho*. i he be appointed? What should 
he do? Why should he be bonded? 

15. VV’hat is the explanation, if any, of the failure of some schools 
to operate on the purchase-order plan? 

16. In what form and how often should the treasurer make a re- 
port to the principal? — to the whole school? Why? 

17. What state law, if any, should there be as to the power and 
duty of school boards in respect to funds raised by pupil activi- 

18. What pnnision, if any, should a school board make for super- 
vising and auditing extra-curricular finances? 

19. If there is neither state law nor school board regulation of ex- 
tra-curricular finances in respect to supervision and auditing, 
what should the school principal do? Why? 

20. How in handling extra-curricular finances is there to be pro- 
vision both for efficiency and for providing educative experi- 
ences for pupils? 

21. Work out a plan, or an improved plan, for extra-curricular 
finances in your school. 


Articles marked * should be read first 

Books that Present a General Discussion of the Home- 


*Cox, Philip VV. L. Creative School Control, pp. 37-76. J. B. Lip- 
pincott Company, 

Organi7ation and program with emphasis on seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. 

*Evans, E. E., and Hallman, M. C. Home-Rooms. A. S. Barnes 
and Company, 

Organization, administration, and activities, with emphasis on activities 

’^Foster, C. R. Extra-Curricular Activities in High School. John- 
son Publishing Company, 

Activities, place in the activities period, pp iS-18; relation to the council, 
pp. 86-87; plate in education and vocational guidance, p. 181. 

Foster, C. R., and Fickinger, hVank. “Langley Junior-Senior 
High School, Pittsburgh”; Twenty-Fifth Yearbook, National 
Society for the Study of Education, Part II, pp. 213-15. 

The home-room in activities period, organization, programs, and supervision 

*McKown, H. C. Extra-Curricular Activities, pp. 23-38. The 
Macmillan Company, 

Values, organization and suggested programs. 

Meyer, H. D. Handbook of Extra-Curricular Activities, pp. 105-12. 
A. S. Barnes and Company, 

Purpose, groupings, activities, possible failures. 

*Prunty, Merle. “Tulsa High School”; Twenty-Fifth Yearbook, 
National Societ\ for the Study of Education, Part II, pp. 188- 

The nature of home-rooms; sponsorship, the common elements in all home- 
room programs; core-content by years. 

*Rocmer, J., and Allen, C. F. Extra-Curricular Activities, pp. 57- 
65. D. C. Heath and Company. 

The plan, purpose, organization, and content of home-rooms. 



Terry, P. W. Extra-Curricular Activities in the Junior High 
School. \Var\vick and York, 

The home-room as at administrative unit, pp. 81-93. Significance of work 
of teacher adviser, pp 94-109 

Books that Present Some Phase of Home-Room Activity 

Deam, T. M., and Bear, O. M. Socializing the Pupil Through 
Extra-Curricular Activities, pp. 57-60. Benjamin H. Sanborn 
and Conipan> . 

Comment on some types of home-rooms 

P'retwcll, Elbert K. “(leneral Siir\cy of Practices; Six Year 
Elementary' School”; Ticenty-Fifth Yearbook, National Society 
for the Stiid> of Education, Part II, pp. 57 60. 

The committees existing in the first six grades can serve uith still greater 
success in the junior high school home-room. 

Green, C. H. Psychafialysis in the Class Room. G. P. Putnam's 

Such ijarts of psychoanalytic theory as are most likely to be of use to parents 
and home-room teachers 

Johnson, F. \V. Problems of Boyhood. Uni\crsity of ('hicago 

.\ part of the content of twenty-two discussions carried on by the author with 
the Discussion Club of a high school. 

Kelly, F. J. “Educational Guidance of Students”; ch.ifiter 4. 
pp. 62-81, in The American Arts College. The Macmillan Com- 

A study of college students, but is helpful for high-school teachers 

McGregor, A. Laura. “A Program of (guidance in the Junior 
High School”; Eighth Yearbook, National A'T.socialion of Sec- 
ondary School Principals, pp. 6a-6i. 

The guidance work of the home-room teacher. 

'Pechstein, L. A., and McGregor, A. Laura. Psychology of the 
Junior High- School Pupil. Houghton Mifflin Company, 

The duties of the home-room teacher; time allotments in the regulai schedule 

Proctor, W. M. Educational and Vocational Guidance. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company 

The guidance values of social-civic activities, pp 167 72, an analysis at 
avocations in relation to guidance, pp 205-15; moral guidance in subject-matter 
and in teacher personality, pp. 236-39. 



Robbins, C. L. The Socialized Recitation^ pp. 13-22. Allyn and 

The philosophy presented deals with the fundifnentais in home>room organ- 

Roberts, A. C., and Draper, E. M. Extra-Class and Intra-Mural 
Activities in High Schools^ pp. 92-95. D. C. Heath and Com- 

The purposes, with two programs 

Rohrbach, Q. A. W. Non- Athletic Student Activities in the Second- 
ary School, pp. 126-27. Westbrook Publishing Company. 

Relation of the home-room to other activities 

Sheehan, Mary A. Extra-Curricular Activities in the Junior High 
School, pp. 26, 93-94. Richard G. Badger. 

Spirit of home-room Home-room score sheet. 

^Simpson, J. H. An Adventure in Education. Sidgwick and Jack- 
son, Ltd., London, 

The story of one home-room in an English public school. 

Stocking, W. R., Jr. “The Detroit House Plan”; Tenth Year- 
book, National Association of Secondary School Principals, pp. 


An account of a hou'^e system of 200 to 450 boys in charge of one teacher 
for routine administration and personal supervision 

*Terry, Paul W. “General Survey of Practices; Junior High 
Schools”; Twenty-Fifth Yearbook, National Society for the Study 
of Education, Part II, pp. 34-35. 

Terry, Paul W. Supervising Extra-Curricular Activities, pp. 138- 
45. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 

Bnef, general discussion of home-rooms. 

Thomas-Tindal, Emma V., and Myers, Jessie. Junior High 
School Life. The Macmillan Company. 

The home-room counselor in pupil adjustment, pp 63-64, in personal guid- 
ance, pp 182-83; in avocational guidance, p 112 and p. 185 


Fretwell, Elbert K. A Survey of Extra-Curricular Adivities. 
Baltimore School Survey, vol. 3, pp. 108-09. Albrecht Com- 
pany, Baltimore, Maryland. 

The place of the home-room in developing a scheme of pupil participation in 
school government. 



*Fretwell, Elbert K. A Survey of Extra-Curricular Activities in 
Philadelphia High Schools. Report of the Sur\ey of the Public 
Schools of Philadelfahia, \ol. 4, pp 117 21. 

A theory of the home-room, conditions in riiiladelpliia senior high schools; 
SIX recommendations 

State Manuals 

*JExtra-Curricular Activities for huiiaua High Schools. State De- 
partment of Public Instruction, Bulletin no. loo-j. (50 pp.) 
Indianapcjlis, Indiana, 

Home-room organization and atlivities, pp ij 15 

*Glass, J. M., and Lewis, \V. D. Manual for II Schools of Penn- 

sylvania, pp i(K^ 05. Depart nient of Public Instruction, 
Harrisburjj;, Pa. 

Seven types of activilits and four specific suggestions for the work, of the 

General Bubetin on (luidance. Bulletin no 13, D(i)artmcnt of 
Public Instruction, Harrisburg. Pa 

Pages 36-37 deal spicifitally with honu room guulancc 


^Home-Room Procedure. Technic til High School, Omaha, Ne- 
braska. (63 PI) ) 

The report of a comrnittie of thirlttn tuirheTs, chu fly on the content of 
home-ro<nTi program^ by day, week, and mouth for tlic* four years of this senior 
high school 

*A Guidance Manual for Sophomore Home-Rooms Senior High 
School, Tulsa, Okhihorna, 

*A Guidance Manual for Junior Home-Rooms. Senior I ligh School, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, 

^Senior Home-Room Manual. Senior High School, Tulsa, Okla- 

^The Winfield Handbook. Public High School, Winfield, Kansas 
MAtiAZiNE Articles 

Clark, T. A. “Advisory Systems for Students"; School and 
Society, 17.H5-90. January 27, 

Methods employed in college arlvisory systems 

Cockrell, Emerson T. “The Home-Room Period"; Junior High 
School Clearing House, \ol. 2, no. 2, pp 11-15. October. 

Current practice m Cleveland junior high schools 


Cox, Philip W. L. ‘‘The Ben Blewett Junior High School”; 
School Review ^ 27 :345-59. 

The "advisory periods" as the "fundamental sfep" in socializing the school, 
PP. 349-52. 

^Cowing, Helen H . “ The Four- Year Home-Room Period ” ; School 
and Society, 15:627-29. 

Plans for the composition and sponsoring of the home-room. 

•Evans, E. E. “Home-Room Plan in Secondary Education”; 
American Educational Digest, 47:294-97, 316. 

The home-room as developed in the six-year high school, Winfield, Kansas. 

Hieronimous, N. C. “The Teacher- Adviser in the Junior High 
School”; Educational Administration and Supervision, 3:91-94. 

The advisory work as a part of the duty of every teacher. 

Johnson, F. W. “Social Organization of the High School”; 
School Review, 17:665-80. 

A discussion of the "house" systems in the English public schools, p. 669. 

•Kefauver, Cj. N., and Scott, R. E. “The Home Room in the Ad- 
ministration of the Secondary School”; Teachers College Record, 

A canvass of the programs of home-rooms in 130 schools. 

Lyman, R. L. “Ben Blewett junior High School of St. Louis.” 
School Review, 28:31-32. 

The organization of the school by home-room groups. 

•Lyman, R. L. “Washington Junior High School, Rochester, 
New York”; School Review, 28:197-204. 

The home-room as the "core of the democratic organization" (p. 197). 

Lyman, R. L. “Ciuidance Program of the Holmes Junior High 
School”; School Review, 32:94-95. 

The home-room period in the regular schedule for personal guidance. 

McKown, H. C. “ Home-Room Activities”; Pennsylvania School 
Journal, 73:21-22. 

Home-rooms for getting acquainted, for guidance, for administration; topics 
for home-room discussion and programs. 

Pressey, Benfield. “ He Asked the Dean ” ; Atlantic Monthly, 612- 

14 - 

The story of an imaginary conversation between a boy and the freshman dean 



Smith, H. P. “Socializing School Children"; American Educa- 
tional Digest, 44:147-49, 172. 

A dehnite plan of home-room organuat on. 

Terry, Paul \V. “Administration of Extra-Curricular Activities 
in the High School”; School Review, 33738. 

The time of meeting and the activities in various home-rooms. 

Winner, H. E. “The Place and Wilue of Extra-Curricular Activi- 
ties in High School”; Seventh Yearbook, National Association of 
Secondar> School Principals, 

The home-room period as a clearing-house 


Cox, P. W. L. Creative School Control, pp. 231-35. J. H. Lippin- 
cott Company. 

.\n account of ‘Grade Congresses" in the Ben Blcwctt Junior High School. 

Drc\\r\ , R. G. Pupil Participation in High School Control, p. 35. 
Harcourt, Brace and Compan>. 

The scheme f)f the student council chartering classes in the High School 
Summit, New jersey 

Freshman First Aid. South Philadelphia High School for Girls, 
Philadelphia, Pennsyh ania. 

V booklet of 20 pages prepared by sophomore pupils for the guidance of 

Fretwell, Elbert K. The Survey of the Public Sch wls of Philadel- 
phia, \ol. 4, pp. 

The theory of home-rooms, current practice in riiiladclphia, rnommcndations. 

Jones, Gertrude. “Abolishing Freak Events in High Schools”; 
School and Society, 12.638 41. 

An account of the establishing of “Color Day" in place of "Slouch Day’; 
and of the Junior-Senior Olympics Day" in place of a junior senior class fight 
in Lincoln High School, Lincoln, Nebraska 

Jones, Gertrude. “ High School Freshmen at Lincoln, Ne- 
braska”; School and Society, 22:527-30. 

A program worked out by a committee of high-school teai hers for enabling 
freshmen in the Lincoln High School to understand the life of the school 

MacDonald, M. A. 7 'he Class Organization and Activities. A. S, 
Barnes and Company. 

A four-year class program including class activities. 


Sleezer, Margaret M. “Student Citizenship at the Senn High 
School”; School Review, 32:508-20. 

A concrete account of pupil participation in thifgovernment and in the whole 
life of the school in relation to training in citizenship. 


Note: Many Annuals and Handbooks give accounts of class or- 
ganizations and class days. 

Note especially Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Manuals of 
Tulsa High School, in bibliography of Chapter II. 


Boors with One or More Chapters on Pupil Participation 
IN Government 

Baglcy, VV. C. Class-Room Management, pp. 290-98. The Mac- 
millan Company, 

The charter of a school city. 

Bennett, H. K. Constructive Government, pp. 281-91. Ginn and 

The "School City" as a type of pupil government. 

Blackburn, Lura. Our High School Clubs, chapter 4, “Have We 
Student (Government?” The Macmillan Company, 

How the student council fund s in Oak Park and River Forest, Illinois 
Township High School. 

Cubberley, E. P. The Principal and Ilis School, chapter 16, pp 
302-19. Houghton Mifflin Company. 

School spirit and various forms of pupil participation in government. 

Co\, Philip \V. L. Creative School Control, pp. 219-45. J- 
Lip|)incott Company. 

Theory and examples of successful student councils. 

Cronson, Bernard. Pupil Self-Government, Its Theory and Prac- 
tice, pp. 1 76. The Macmillan Company, 

An account of "self-government” in New York City public schools prior to 

Davis, C. O. Junior High School Education, pp. 356-57. World 
Book Company. 

In the chapter on Collateral Activities, the author states his position on 



Diemer, G. W., and Mullen, B. V. Pupil Citizenships pp. i- 99 - 
World Book Company. 

Training in citizenship.. hrough particij ation in school activities. 

Douglass, A. A. Secondary Education, ebapter 22, Extra-Curric- 
ular Acti\iiies, pp. 636-40. Houghton Mittlin Company. 

A means of coordinating other activities 

Foijter, C. R. Extra-Curricular Activitiei^ in the High School, pp. 
5() 107. Johnson Publi'^liing Company. 

Principles and illustrations 

Foster, H. H. High School Ad minutr ation, pp. 350-86. The 
Ccntiir\ Comparu, 

Place of the council in education 

(icorge. William R The Junior Republic, Its History and Ideals. 
I). Appleton and Company, 

The founder s story of the Junior Republic and the expi ru rices that led him 
to certain conclu*»ions reg.irdmg self-government in tins institution 

Hatch, R. W. Training in Citizenship. Cliarlcb St ribner’s Sons. 

A practical discussion of training in citizenship 

Johnson, F. W. The Administration and Supervision of the High 
School, pp. 150 97. (/inn and C'()mpan>, 

In chapter 9 I xtra-C 1 is'-rcKun Activities, pp r so 7 I two princiides having 
to do with pupil participation .ind faculty control In chaptc r 10, ‘ I raining in 
Ethical Character,' pp 171 97, the int< lUctual and emotional basis of character 

Johnston, C. H , \e\tlon, ] H., and Pitki*!!, I'. ('/ Junior-Senior 
High School Administration, pp. 239 71 ('harles Scribner’s 

Internal organisation and government A constructive s«»< 1 d program 

Jordan, R. H., Extra-Classroom Activities, 'rhornas (Vowcll 

Chapter 7 . PP some general theory, pp 2S7 91. five pupil council 


King, Irving. Social Aspects of Education, chapters 15 and 16. 
The Macmillan Company, 

A discussion of the soci il life of the school as expressed In Its government. 

Koos, L. V. The American Secondary School, pp. 614-16. Ginn 
and Company. 

Changes in concept of relation of pupils to school control. 



Lincoln School. The Student Councils, Published by the Lin- 
coln School of Teachers College, 425 West 123d Street, New 
\'ork City, 

A i) for student and teacher cooperative government; concrete material 
cooperatively worked out * 

McKown, H. C. Extra-Curricular Activities^ pp. 39-68. The 
Macmillan Company. 

V'alues, organization, external and internal — and activities. 

Meyer, H. D. Handbook of Extra-Curricular Activities^ pp. 115- 
30. A. S. Barnes and Company, 

Advantages and disadvantages, plan, activities, constitutions. 

Millard, C. V. The Organization and Administration of Extra- 
Curricular Activities, A. S. Barnes and Company, (145 

Miller, H. L., and Hargreaves, R. T. The Self -Directed School, 
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 

Chapter 7. “Semi-Curriciilar and Extra-Curricular Activities,” pp 337-42. 
Cites examples whereby pupils had opportunity to practice citizenship, in which 
there was a sharing of ideals, free plays of individual abilities and variations. 

Pechstein, L. A., and McGregor, A. Laura. Psychology of the 
Junior High School Pupil, pp. 2 15- 1 9. Houghton Mifflin 


An account of one type of student council. 

Ray, J. T. Democratic Government in Schools, Public School 
Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois, 1899. 

Pupil participation in government from the second grade up. 

Roemer, J., and .Mien, C. F. Extra-Curricular Activities, pp. 76- 
99. D. C. Heath and Company. 

A general discussion of the purpose and plan of student participation in school 

Roberts, C. R., and Draper, E. M. Extra-Class and Intra-Mural 
Activities in High Schools, D. C. Heath and Company, 

Chapter 3 presents ideas and plans of “student government” in various 

Scott, Colin A. Social Education, chapters 6 and 7. Ginn and 
Company, 1908. 

The relationship of self organized group work to the dictated work of the 


Sheehan, Mar>’ A. Extra-Curricular Activities^ chapter 2, “Stu- 
dent Participation in School Control.” The Gorham Press. 

Meaning and plan in a junior high school. 

Smith, William A. The Junior High School, chapter 7, pp. 269- 
322. The Macmillan Company. 

General discussion of status of extra-curricular activities in junior high 
schools, including student councils. 

Terry, P. W. Supervising Extra-Curricular Activities, pp. 83-157. 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 

Types, officers, activities and political units of student government. 

Thomas-Tindal, E. V., and Myers, J. I). Junior High School 
Life, chapter 9, “Student Participation in School Govern- 
ment.” The Macmillan Company. 

The plan in one junior high school 

Wilds, Elmer H. Extra-Curricular Activities. The Century 

A plan of student association, pp 104-06; sample school charters, pp. 171-76. 

Yearbooks with One or More Articles or Sections on 
Pupil Participation in Government 

Chewning, John O. “Student Self-Ciovernment”; Proceedings, 
National Education Association, 63:737-42. 

A summary of an experiment in pupil participation in government beginning 
in 1917. 

Foster, C. R., and Fickingcr, Frank. “Langley Junior-Senior 
High School, Pittsburgh.” (Its extra-curricular acti\itics.) 
Twenty-Fifth Yearbook, National Stjciety for the Study of 

A study of extra-curricular activities in one school. 

Kerr, Mina. “Student f itjvernment”; Proceedings, National 
Education Association. 

General arguments for and against student government. 

Lasher, W. R. “School Activities as an Educational Factor in 
Secondary Schools”; Proceedings, National Education Asso- 
ciation, 1910, pp. 445~50- 

The attitude of one pioneer school toward all kinds of student activities. 

Lewis, W. D. “ Student Participation in School Organization and 



Government as a Training in Democracy”; Third Yearbook^ 
National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1919, pp. 
1 - 9 - 

Schools as laboratories of^dcmocracy; learning to live democracy by living it; 
the place of formal organization. 

Liicey, Michael J. “The Application of Democracy to the Or- 
ganization and Administration of the High School”; Eighth 
Yearbook j National Association of Secondary School Principals, 

A discussion of a plan of the “(icncral Organization” and the emphasis on 
character and personality in one high school 

Myers, Jessie Du Val. “ Ethical Guidance as Interpreted by the 
Oliver Wendell Holmes Junior High School, Philadelphia”; 
Tenth Yearbook, National Association of Secondary School 

Ethical guidance including participation in government. 

Miller, Armond R. “Team Work in the Management of a Large 
High School”; Sixth Yearbook, National Association of Second- 
ary School Principals, 

The place of the student council in the administration of a public high school. 

Paul, Francis H. J. “The Growth of Character Through Partici- 
pation in Extra-Curricular ' 'tivities”; Fifth Yearbook, Na- 
tional Association of Secondary School Principals, 

Opportunity for character building and student codperation in the manage- 
ment of the school. 

Ryan, H. H. “The Government of the School”; Seventh Year- 
book, National Association of Secondary School Principals, 

Analysis of the junior high school pupil in respect to government; t: )es best 
suited to pupils of this age. 

Surveys and Analyses of Current Practice and Opinion 
Amos, Thyrsa W. “Student Government”; Proceedings, Na- 
tional Education Association, 63:440-49. 

An analysis of some fifty constitutions of student associations in college, 
with interpretive comment. 

Archer, C. P. “School Govcriiment as an Educative Agency”; 
School Review, 31 *.430-38. 

A survey of Iowa high schools having a student council. 



Benner, C. O. Extra-Curricular Activities in the Coatesville, Penn- 
sylvan ia, High School. 

A master's thesis on^-ile. Teachers College Library. Columbia University 

Black, Albert E. The Organization and Administration of Extra- 
Curricular Activities in City and Exempted Village High Schools 
of Ohio. 

A master's thesis on hie in the library of Ohio State l^niversity, A 
stud> of 79 high schools and 25 exempted village high schools of Ohio 

Briggs, Thomas H. The Junior High .School, pp 248-53. Hough- 
ton MiHlin Compdn>. 

Some data from loi schools as to form of pupil participation in government. 

Counts, George S. The .Senior High .School Curruulum, pp 117- 
20. Supplcmentar> Educational Monograplis, University of 
Chicago, February. 

Polic> of the school authorities toi^ard pupil activities in is schools 

Dee, M. Barbara. “ Extra Currit ular Attnitics in Massathu- 
setts High Schc^ols”; .School Reiteu, 36 43 51 

An anal>sis of the reoorts (»f \Iassat husuts high sihi>ols t«) tlicir state 
department sho^vlng the distribution of hjj different extra curricular activities. 

Dement, Alice E. "V^alues in Extra-Curricular Organizations in 
High School”, School Revieio, 32.40 48 

Types of general organization in zo C alifornia high schools 

^)rewr>', R. G. Pupil Participation in High School Ccmtrol. 

This study includes an analysis of the plans of pupil participation in govern- 
ment in twelve high schools 

Dustin, C. R. “An Investigation of the Scope, Working Prac- 
tices and Eimitations of Pupil Participation in (lovcrnment in 
Secondary Schools”, .School Review, 34:431 42. 

Questionnaire reports from S 7 Ohio schools and person il investigation of 
pupil partiapation in government in Cleveland high schools 

Evans, C. E. “Student vSelf-Government in Teacher Training 
Institutions”; Proceedings, National Education Association, 

A questionnaire study of student self government in normal schools 

Foster, C. R. “The High School System of Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania.” (In respect to Extra-Curricular Activities ) Twenty- 


Fifth Yearbook, National Society for the Study of Education, 
Part II, pp. 221-24. 

The plan of activities for the whole city 

Fretwell, Elbert K. For references to Baltimore and Philadelphia 
Surveys, see bibliography on Home-Rooms, chapter II. 

Gallagher, Oscar C., and others. Evaluation of Extra-Curricu- 
lar Activities”; Sixth Yearbook, Department of Superintend- 
ence, p. 240 IT. 

The report of a nitional committee attempting to evaluate extra-curricular 
activities, including pupil participation in government 

Grizzell, Emit D. Origin and Development of the High School in 
New England before 186^, chapter 15, pp. 331-57. The Mac- 
millan Companv , 

An account of activities m New England high schools before 1865, including 

Jackson, N. A. “Pupil Government in Secondary Schools”; 
Education, 42:197-210. 

An analysis of the attitude of loi principals and superintendents toward this 
form of government. 

Jones, Gertrude. “Survey of Extra-Curriculum Activities in the 
High School”; School Review 34 734“44- 

An evaluation of .ictivities, including the distribution of participation in the 
high school, Lincoln, Nebraska 

Koos, Leonard V. “ Analysis of the General Literature on Extra- 
Curricular Attivities”; Twenty-Fifth Yearbook, National So- 
ciety for the Study of Education, Part II, PP* 9“22. 

.An analysis of 40 articles on extra curricular activities showing (i) the values 
claimed, (2) obstacles to achievement, (3) the principles in organizing and 
admirastering, (4) types of activities, (5) plans of organization and of admin- 

Masters, J. G. “General Survey of Practices (in Extra-Curricu- 
lar Activities) Four Year and Senior High Schools”; Twenty- 
Fifth Yearbook, National Society for the Study of Education, 
Part II, PP* 39-54. 

An analysis of replies to 89 questionnaires 

Meola, L. K. Survey of the E.xtra- Curricular Activities of Long- 
wood Commerce High School, Cleveland, Ohio, 

A master’s thesis on file in Teachers College Library, Columbia University 


Ringdaht, N. R. “High School Student Councils.” School RB' 
view, 36:329-37. 

Questionnaire study of councils in 123 <ichools 

Rohrbach, Q. A. \V. Non-AOiletic Student Activities in the Second* 
ary School, pp. 116-41. \Ves*^brook Publishing Company. 

Includes summary of types of councils in 82 schools. 

Rugg, E«irlc. “Special Types of Acti\ities; Student Participa- 
tion in SchtKil (iovernment”; l\centy- Fifth Yearbook, National 
Society for the Study of Education, Part II, PP- 127-40. 

An analysis of 50 articles showing claims and theory, and an analysis of 
questionnaire returns from 191 “chools. 

Satchell, J. K. “Student Participation in School Administra- 
tion”; School Revieze, 30:733-41. 

Analysis of 150 questionnaire replies from Pennsylvania high schools 

Socuil Guidance in Cleveland High Sihools. Cleveland Teachers' 
P'edcration, 301 Leader Ne^^s Building, Cleveland, Ohio, 

(189 pp.) 

Chiefly types of councils in Cleveland high schools 

Terry, P. VV. Extra-Curricular Activities in Junior High Schools^ 
PP- 33 34 - Waruirk and ^V)^k, 

Frequency of student associations in junior high schcwls 

V'’(x?lker, K. \V. “The Organization and Functioning of Pupil 
Opinion in High School Control”; School Reinezv, 34:654-67. 

A questionnaire study of the degree of success of pupil participation in govern- 
ment in 200 high schools 

Wise, J. H,, and Koemer, Joseph. “A Study of the Fa tr.i -Curric- 
ular Activities in the Public High Schools of Florida”; Univer- 
sity Record, University of Florida, Teachers College, vo\. 20, 

Including an experiment carried on by Rocmer in Orlando City, Florida. 

Magazine Articles — Chiefly Accounts of Current 

Barton, J. W. “A Possible Saving in High School Control”; School 
and Society, 9:626-28. 

A diKUMion of the establishment of a form of student government and student 
•trikes, walk-outs, etc. 



Bowden, A. O. '‘Student Self-Government’*; School and Society, 

A theory ot cooperation and harmonious social iiltcr-action through student 

Bradley, J. H. “ Practicing Citizenship in Lindsay High School ’*3 
Educational Administration and Supervision^ 9:120-24. 

Organization based on A, B, and C citizenship groups. 

Briggs, Thomas H. “Extra-Curricular Activities in Junior High 
Schools”; Educational Administration and Supervision^ 8:1-9. 

Some underlying principles of extra-curricular activities and their admin- 

Brown, T. Malcolm, “Extra-Curricular Activities in a Junior 
High School”; The High School Teacher^ 1:322-24. 

An account of the Roosevelt Junior High School, San Diego, California. 

Carden, A. M. “Control of Student Activities”; Education, 

A six-year trial of student government with faculty supervision. 

Clapp, Henry L. “Pupil Self-Government”; Education^ 38:593- 

An argument for pupil development through participation in activities of the 

Collier, E. R. “Occupational Cooperation and Its Demands Upon 
the School”; School and Society, 18:481-87. 

A study of pupil participation in government in twenty-three schools iu 
eighteen states. 

Comstock, E. B. “ How I Control Student Organization”; Tenth 
Yearbook, National Association of Secondary School Principals. 

An account of the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas. 

Crissey, Forrest. “New Feet Under the Table”; Saturday Even- 
ing Post. 

An analysis of plans used in various factories, whereby the employees partici- 
pate in directing some of their own affairs. 

Cox, Philip W. L. “The Ben Blewett Junior High School**; 
School RevieWy 27 .-345 - 59 * 

A cooperative experiment in school administration. 



Dahl, E. J. “Individualized Plan of Activities”; American Edu- 
cational Digcit, 47 :247-49. 

Plan of organizing cxtra-curricular activities in Winona, Minnesota, High 

Foster, Charles R. “The Latimer Junior High School”; Elemen- 
tary School Journal, 24:279-89. 

The plan of activities m one junior high school 

Fowler, Burton P. “Social Organization of a High School” j 
School and Society, 12.396 99. 

The underlying philosophy motivating the development of social activities in 
Central High School. C leveland 

Fretwell, Elbert K. “Edutation for Leadership”; Teachers Col- 
lege Record, 20 324-52 

An account of the theory, development, and activities of a student council in 
Speyer Junior High ScIkhjI, New \ ork City 

Fretwell, Edbcrt K “The Ad\ iser of ( lirls and the Extra-Curric- 
ular Acti\ilies of the High Schools”; Educational Administra- 
tion and Supervision, 10 70-78. 

A proposed plan <jf activity of the adviser, including her part in developing 
pupil participation in governnunt 

Fret\^ell. Elbert K. “The Place of lAtra-('urricular Acti\ities in 
Education”; School and Society, 21 633 39, 

A paper read before the Harvard Teat hers \sst)ciation, includes home-rooms, 
class organi/ations, and student councils 

h'uller, France's (). “An Eighth-Grade I^xfjeriment in Social 
Pdrtici{)ation ” ; Journal of EAucational Method, 5:161-65. 

The development of the idea of pupil participation in government in one class. 

Grandfield, Jtdin M. “ Extra-Curricular Acti\ities at the High 
School of Commerce (Boston)”; Citizenship Through Character 
Development, i \\i 16. Published by the School Committee, 

The work of the students' assticiation is included 

Hobson, Clay S. “An Flxperiment in Organization and Admin- 
istration of High School F'lxtra-Curricular Activities”; School 
Review, 31 :i 16-24. 

Based on experiment in the high school, Karney, Nebraska 

Howe, Cecil. “Student Self-Government in the High Schcx)l of 


Brownsville, Oregon”; Journal of Education, 8i :4i7-i8. 


Description by a high-school pupil of a student orga iization for enforcing rules. 

Johnson, F. W. “Moral Education Through School Activities’*; 
Religious Education, 6:493-502. 

The organization and direction of the social activities of the University High 
School of Chicago, Illinois 

Johnston, Laura M. “Pupil Participation in Administering the 
Junior High School”; Elementary School Journal, 22:615-20. 

An account of the school city type in a junior high school. 

Jones, Gertrude. “Three Principles Underlying the Administra- 
tion of Extra-Curricular Activities”; School Review, 33:510-22. 

A detailed presentation of how extra-curricular activities, including the 
council, were organized in the high school, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

Jones, H. \V. “Student Cooperation in School Government”; 
School and Society, 13:251-57. 

A detailed study of the student council in one high school. 

Kittrell, C. A. “An Important Factor in Teaching Citizenship”; 
School Revie^v, 29:366-72. 

A plan for student participation as worked out in one school. 

Kirkman, Ina H. “A Rural Sc. .70I Experiment in Self-Govern- 
ment”; Journal of Rural Education, 2:25-29. 

This is a human, concrete story. 

Lewis, (irace T. “Centralizing Student Activities in the High 
School”; School Review, 31 :6 12-26. 

An account of the centralizing into “one closely associated, readjustable 
whole” all pupil activities in the high school. Mount Vernon, New York. 

Loving, Sallie. “Student Government in the High Senool”; 
Virginia Teacher, 5:246-51. 

An account of thr Inter-Collegiate Association of Student Govemii.ent’s 
attempt to put into high schools some form of “Student Government or Honor 

Lyman, R. L. ‘‘The Ben Blewett Junior High School of St. 
Louis”; School Revieu', 28:26-40, 97-1 ii. 

Includes pupil participation in school government and other plans for securing 
pupil cooperation. 



Lyman, R. L. “Washington Junior High School, Rochester, 
New York’’; School Review, 28:178-204. 

Includes a detailed -lescnpiion of pupil organization and pupil participation 
in the extra-curricular activities of the S4 hool 

Mciyberr> , B. A. “Training for Leadership by Means of Student 
Go\ eminent’*; Journal of the National Education Association^ 

A brief statement of pupil participation in government in one school 

McClure, \V. “Morals by Rote?'*; School Review, 27:458-64. 

A brief summary of the rise of public interest in pupil self-government. 

McFarland, Alfred J. “Citizenship Through Student Ciovern- 
ment”; Popular Educator, 42.84-85, 140-41. 

A discussion based chiefly on the uorkings of a student court. 

Mechanic Arts High School, Boston. “The Scliool Council’’; 
Citizenship Through Character, 1:30-39. PublishtKl 
b> the Schoo' C'onnnittce, Boston. 

The organization and work of the council 

Millard, C \’ '‘Organization and Administration of theActi\ity 
Program ’’ ; S